Season Extension with
High Tunnels

November 2013

Paul & Sandy Arnold
GETTING OLD??
NEED LESS MAINTENANCE!
HIGH TUNNELS
STONE & WITH A TRANSIT
PRECISIONDRAINAGE TILE
TUNNEL ONE 30’ X 144’
HAVE SITE WORK DONE EARLY
HIRE THE PROFESSIONALS!
POLYCARBONATE KNEE WALL
2” THICK
12” DEEP SET AT
GROUND LEVEL

INSULATION BOARD
RIMOL GREENHOUSES
BUILT FOR SNOW
2008

TUNNEL #2 34’X144’ NO WOOD!
POLYCARBONATE & SLIDER DOORS
POWER & PROPANE & 2 WATER SOURCES
TRICKS TO PUTTING 150’ OF
PLASTIC ON??
Single Layer
No Motors
VENTING IMPORTANT!
APRIL 2012
NRCS GRANT PAID LABOR

TUNNEL #3 34’X144’ ROTATION
SUN DRIVEN SYSTEM—NO HEAT
• Soil Tests
• A&L Labs
• Compost

SOIL PREPARATION
• Organic
Fertilizer
• Micros
• CNG

FERTILITY
• Chisel
Plow
• Rototill
• Plant

ROTOTILLING
SPRING PRODUCTION
LETTUCE
• GH SEEDED FEB 15+
• SPEEDLING VS
WINSTRIP
• TRANSPLANT IN
MARCH into TUNNEL
LETTUCE
• FULL SIZE HEADS
New Red Fire, Green
Star, Carmona, Nancy
and Romaine
• MINI HEADS-Many
from Johnnys
• HARVEST IN...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

SQUASH
BEANS
CUCUMBERS
TOMATOES
BASIL
ONIONS
BROCCOLI

CROPS FOR SUMMER
EARLY IS THE
KEY FOR
HIGHEST
RETURN

BE FIRST TO
MARKET
LOW
MAINTENANCE
COVER CROP -ROTATION
PLASTIC OFF
WINTER PRODUCTION

IN HIGH TUNNELS
CROPS WE GROW
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Kale
CROPS
Swiss chard
VARIETIES
Spinach
SEEDING
DATES
Asian Greens
SPACING
Lettuce Mix...
VARIETIES

• Kale: Red Russian, White Russian, Winterbor
• Swiss chard: Bright Lights
• Spinach: TRIALS

• Lettuce Mix: Fi...
GREENHOUSE
SEEDING DATES
SEED STRIPS, SPEEDLING, WINSTRIPS

Must be on special list to
get imported Winstrips
from Korea-ask!

SEEDING TRAYS
KALE & SWISS CHARD

SEEDED JULY 15TH
• Asian Greens- Sept 1st
to Oct 15th

• Spinach- Sept
20th to Oct 1st

GREENHOUSE
SEEDING DATES
TRANSPLANT UP
• TRANSPLANTS ALLOW
SUMMER PRODUCE
TO CONTINUE
PRODUCING IN
TUNNELS
• CAN POT UP IF
NECESSARY
DEPENDING ON
V...
PREPARE TUNNEL MID-LATE OCTOBER
• 6 BEDS IN 30’ WIDE
TUNNEL
• 7 BEDS IN 34’ WIDE
TUNNEL
• ROTOTILL AND FORM
BEDS BY HAND W...
PLANT TRANSPLANTS
• 5 Rows per bed

• 3 Rows of Kale or
Swiss Chard with 2
rows of Asian
Greens inbetween

TEAGLE TOMAHAWK...
FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD
Asian Greens
for Braising Mix
• Tokyo
Bekana
• Yukina
Savoy
• Vitamin
Green

Swiss Chard and Asian...
FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD
• Asian Greens
also named
“Large leaf
mesclun mix”!
• Start harvesting
December/Jan
uary…love
cold...
8 x 12 for
• Kale
• Swiss chard
• Asian Greens
• Happy Rich
Broccoli
4 X14 for
• Broccoli
Raab

SPACING
• SpinachFrom
Transplants
with 3-4 seeds
per cell: 5”x8”
• SpinachDirect
Seeded 8”
between
rows

SPACING
DIRECT SEEDING DATES
OCTOBER 1st
OPTIMUM FOR US
(some years!)
• FIVE STAR LETTUCE
• MUSTARDS-Reds,
Greens
• SPINACH
• ASIA...
FIND YOUR
DATE!
THE WINTER HARVEST
HANDBOOK BY ELIOT
COLEMAN
Time of seedings are
critical…Successive
seedings gives
consi...
SPACING
 Lettuce, Asian
Greens & Mustards
for Salad Mix
 Arugula
• 2 ½ inches
• Separate varieties
• Earthway Seeder
or ...
ARUGULA
• Successive
seedings
• Oct 1st to
Nov 15th
Astro &
•
Regular
JANUARY SEEDINGS

• Broccoli Raab
• Happy Rich
• Beira Kale
• Asian Greens
• Salad Mix
Greens

IN THE GREENHOUSE
Seeded in
January,
transplanted
into the tunnel
in February, will
produce in
spring/summer

BROCCOLI RAAB
• GH Seeded
in early
January,
transplanted
to tunnel in
March
• Produces all
year till
October+

HAPPY RICH BROCCOLI
• GH Seeded
in early
January,
transplanted
to tunnel in
March
• Produces all
year till
October+

BEIRA KALE
GH Seeded
in early
January,
transplanted
to tunnel in
March
Produces for
April & May

ASIAN GREENS
GH Seeded in early
January,
transplanted to
tunnel in March
Produces for April &
May
Includes lettuce,
mustards & green...
GO PLAY TILL HARVEST! Well..
• Rowcovers left off
as much as
possible to get
sunlight
• Keep humidity
down
• Scout often f...
PERCENT USE & VALUE
Map for
efficiency
Value per
square foot
high:
Usually about
$4-$5
Winter Weeding

WINTER MAINTENANCE
WEEDING
Our Favorite: Dutch
Push Hoe
Walking pace
Incorporate fertilizer

WINTER MAINTENANCE
WATERING OVERHEAD
• Good for seed starting
• Use nozzles that empty water out so
don’t freeze
• Out of way

WINTER MAINTEN...
DRIP TAPE
WATERING
• Great for BioTelo
beds
• Can use on all
beds year-round
• Don’t get row
covers wet

WINTER MAINTENANC...
HAND WATERING
•
•
•
•

In winter—only about once per month
Even watering
Seed starting & Transplant watering in
Row covers...
Fusarium &
Mildews
• Root Shield
• RSSI
• Actinovate

DISEASES
• Venting most
important!
• Temperature
fluctuations
• +/- 20
degrees
• HAF fans
helpful-6 per
tunnel

Cladosporium leaf s...
LETTUCE ALL WINTER
 DISEASE
RESISTANCE
 NOW SEED
SEPARATELY
 HAPPY CUSTOMERS
GREW IN 2012
LEFT TO RIGHT:
• ANNAPOLIS
• DEFENDER
• BLACKHAWK
• SULU
• GARRISON
OTHERS:
• ANTAGO
• FIRECRACKER
•
•
•
•
•

FIRECRACKER-1R-6GR-5D
BLACKHAWK-2R-7GR-5D
ANNAPOLIS-3R-5GR-4D
ANTAGO-4R-3GR-3D
GARRISON-5R-4GR-7D

• DEFENDER-1...
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Blade
Spock
Bolsachica
Refugio
Gaviota
Sulu
Trials :
Bixby
Dane
Aerostar
Gem

NEW TRIALS ALWAYS!
• New 2012
• Trialed Winter
2012-13
• Seeded 9/30
• Not ready until
March
• Very cold
tolerant
• No disease issues

SALANO...
• Fantastic
efficiency for
harvest
• Cut 8 pounds
in 5 minutes

SALANOVA LETTUCE
• Makes a great
quality mix
• Same length
leaves

• Can recut
• Slower to grow

SALANOVA LETTUCE
• Trials for 20132014
• Weekly seedings
starting Aug 15
• 8 Varieties
• First seeding
almost ready
• Record dates for
cuts...
• Venting criticalno moisture!
• Fans help
• Keep row cover
dry
• Actinovate
• Regalia
• Cease
• Double Nickel
• LOTS OF T...
Aphids
Ladybugs:
• Buy Early
• Spread weekly

WINTER INSECTS
Aphids
Aphidoletes
• Predaceous
midge

Safer Soap

WINTER INSECTS
Mites
• Ragged edges on
leaves/ Irregular
leaves
• Microscopic

• Predatory MitesIPM Labs
• Aza-direct

WINTER INSECTS
Monitor to
catch early!

SPINACH CROWN MITE
VENTS OPEN 24/7 TO KEEP HUMIDITY DOWN
WEATHER STATION

SOLAR TEMP HUMIDITY WIND RAIN
WEATHER STATION

Wireless 3 Stations Computer
Davis Vantage Pro II
WEATHER STATION

Scientific Sales, Inc.– Repeater—Harvest time
DATA LOGGERS

44 temperature data loggers with multiple
parameters: Soil temp 1” down, outside temp,
rafter temp, plant he...
44 DATA
LOGGERS
JANUARY TO
APRIL 2009
HOURLY TEMP
RECORDINGS
3 DIFFERENT
FARMS
•2 Unheated High Tunnels
•2 Ground-Heated High
Tunnels
•1 Heated Low Tunnel & 1
Unheated Low Tunnel
LOTS OF DATA!!
Rowcovers varied; Tent heights varied (0, 18”, 2’ to 3’)
80
70
60
50
40
30

20
10
0
2/1/2009 0:00
-10

2/2/2009 0:00

2/3/2009 0:00

2/4/2009 0:00

2/5/2009 0:00

2/6/2009 0:00

2...
Down right cold night
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2/1/2009 0:00
-10

2/2/2009 0:00

2/3/2009 0:00

2/4/2009 0:00

2/5/2009 0...
Chilly nights
80
70
60

50
40
30
20

10
0
3/6/2009 0:00
-10

3/7/2009 0:00

3/8/2009 0:00

3/9/2009 0:00

3/10/2009 0:00

...
Down right cold night

80
70
60
50
40
30
20

10
0
2/1/2009 0:00
-10

2/2/2009 0:00

2/3/2009 0:00

2/4/2009 0:00

2/5/2009...
• Tools
• Specialty
Knives

WINTER HARVESTING
• Buckhorn
crates
• Window of
opportunity
for harvest

WINTER HARVESTING
• Keep area
clean and
neat—no
debris
• Clean up
bed after
cutting
• Many re-cuts

WINTER HARVESTING
WINTER HARVESTING
ONE OF OUR FAVORITE THINGS!
GOLF CARTS
• We now have 3
• Easy to drive
• Inexpensive

• Great for kids
PROTECTION
ROWCOVER
• 1, 2, 3
• Height
• Hoops
Winter Washing
Station for Energy
Savings & Efficiency

•STAINLESS STEEL
•FLOOR MATS
•WARM WATER
YIELD DATA
DECEMBER
TO APRIL
•Kale
•Swiss chard
•Spinach
•Asian Greens
•Lettuce Mix
•Arugula
•Turnips
•Herbs
Increased weekly
sales b...
SPINACH

FIRST WINTER 2007
Plastic on in January
11 Rows of Spinach
Gross over $10,000
Just one crop!

2009-10 Gross
$16,0...
SPINACH 2011-12
ANOTHER
VARIETY TRIAL
WITH 24+
VARIETIES
• PRODUCTION
BY WEIGHT
PER FOOT
• COLOR
• HARVEST TIME
• VT Veg &...
AMERICA
BAHAMAS
CORVAIR
CROCODILE
DONKEY
EMILIA
EMU
ERSTE ERNTE
GIANT WINTER
LAZIO
LOMBARDIA
MENORCA

TYEE
QUEEN
RACCOON
R...
NOT A SIMPLE
LIST!!
• SOME EARLY
• SOME LATE
• UPRIGHT
• FLAT
• SPACING
• DIRECT SEED
• TRANSPLANT

SUMMARY
AMERICA
BAHAMAS
CORVAIR
CROCODILE
DONKEY
EMILIA
EMU
ERSTE ERNTE
GIANT WINTER
LAZIO
LOMBARDIA
MENORCA

7
5
9
9
7-8
7
5
2
3
...
FEB 16
1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10

SPACE
LOMBARDIA
LOMBARDIA
REGIMENT
ST HELENS
REFLECT
LOMBARDIA
GIA...
Winter Tunnels
increased Sales
W
$1200 per week
‘09-10
SWISS CHARD: 800 square feet yielded
$4998 for one winter season
•Perfecting the
systems
•More per
square foot
•Yielded $1630
per week
•Markets
building every
year

2010-11
•Every year different
•Weather variables
•Diversity Important

2011-12
•Asian Greens 11/12 to 5/19 $4,116
•Arugula 11/19 to 4/28 $4,039
•Spinach 11/25 to 4/3 $12,858
•Swiss Chard 12/17 to 6/20 ...
Averaged approximately 120 pounds of
greens weekly out of the three tunnels

TOTALS 2012-13
ALWAYS NEW THINGS TO TRIAL!

TURNIPS

ONIONS-FORUM & BRIDGER
SEASON EXTENSION INCREASES PROFITS IN
THE SPRING…..
AS WELL AS
IN THE
WINTER!!
SUMMARY

• LARGE INVESTMENT
• FAST PAYBACK

• COST $20,000 to $30,000
• LESS THAN TWO YEAR PAYBACK
FOR EACH
• PRODUCTION H...
HOW WE GET OUR
ELECTRICITY….

SOLAR, SOLAR & MORE
SOLAR!
2007-10kW
2012-19kW
NETMETERED
Zion
National
Park

EXCITING FAMILY
ADVENTURES ARE
IMPORTANT TO US!
TAKE TIME TO
ENJOY LIFE, FAMILY
& FRIENDS!
Bryce Canyo...
THANKS AND HAVE A GREAT
2014 SEASON!
Hawaii 2006

Alaska, Glacier 2011
Part 2: Season Extension with High Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
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Part 2: Season Extension with High Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold

  1. 1. Season Extension with High Tunnels November 2013 Paul & Sandy Arnold
  2. 2. GETTING OLD?? NEED LESS MAINTENANCE!
  3. 3. HIGH TUNNELS
  4. 4. STONE & WITH A TRANSIT PRECISIONDRAINAGE TILE
  5. 5. TUNNEL ONE 30’ X 144’
  6. 6. HAVE SITE WORK DONE EARLY HIRE THE PROFESSIONALS!
  7. 7. POLYCARBONATE KNEE WALL
  8. 8. 2” THICK 12” DEEP SET AT GROUND LEVEL INSULATION BOARD
  9. 9. RIMOL GREENHOUSES BUILT FOR SNOW 2008 TUNNEL #2 34’X144’ NO WOOD!
  10. 10. POLYCARBONATE & SLIDER DOORS
  11. 11. POWER & PROPANE & 2 WATER SOURCES
  12. 12. TRICKS TO PUTTING 150’ OF PLASTIC ON?? Single Layer No Motors
  13. 13. VENTING IMPORTANT!
  14. 14. APRIL 2012 NRCS GRANT PAID LABOR TUNNEL #3 34’X144’ ROTATION
  15. 15. SUN DRIVEN SYSTEM—NO HEAT
  16. 16. • Soil Tests • A&L Labs • Compost SOIL PREPARATION
  17. 17. • Organic Fertilizer • Micros • CNG FERTILITY
  18. 18. • Chisel Plow • Rototill • Plant ROTOTILLING
  19. 19. SPRING PRODUCTION
  20. 20. LETTUCE • GH SEEDED FEB 15+ • SPEEDLING VS WINSTRIP • TRANSPLANT IN MARCH into TUNNEL
  21. 21. LETTUCE • FULL SIZE HEADS New Red Fire, Green Star, Carmona, Nancy and Romaine • MINI HEADS-Many from Johnnys • HARVEST IN MAY • Mini Heads make the salad mix or are $1
  22. 22. • • • • • • • SQUASH BEANS CUCUMBERS TOMATOES BASIL ONIONS BROCCOLI CROPS FOR SUMMER
  23. 23. EARLY IS THE KEY FOR HIGHEST RETURN BE FIRST TO MARKET LOW MAINTENANCE
  24. 24. COVER CROP -ROTATION
  25. 25. PLASTIC OFF
  26. 26. WINTER PRODUCTION IN HIGH TUNNELS
  27. 27. CROPS WE GROW • • • • • • • • • • Kale CROPS Swiss chard VARIETIES Spinach SEEDING DATES Asian Greens SPACING Lettuce Mix PERCENT Arugula USE • Broccoli DECEMBER TO MAY DECEMBER TO MAY
  28. 28. VARIETIES • Kale: Red Russian, White Russian, Winterbor • Swiss chard: Bright Lights • Spinach: TRIALS • Lettuce Mix: Five Star, Mustards • Arugula: Astro, Regular Asian Greens: Tokyo Bekana, Yukina Savoy, Vitamin Green, Tatsoi, Red Choi, Black Summer, DECEMBER TOJoi Choi Mei Qing Choi, MAY
  29. 29. GREENHOUSE SEEDING DATES
  30. 30. SEED STRIPS, SPEEDLING, WINSTRIPS Must be on special list to get imported Winstrips from Korea-ask! SEEDING TRAYS
  31. 31. KALE & SWISS CHARD SEEDED JULY 15TH
  32. 32. • Asian Greens- Sept 1st to Oct 15th • Spinach- Sept 20th to Oct 1st GREENHOUSE SEEDING DATES
  33. 33. TRANSPLANT UP • TRANSPLANTS ALLOW SUMMER PRODUCE TO CONTINUE PRODUCING IN TUNNELS • CAN POT UP IF NECESSARY DEPENDING ON VALUE OF TUNNEL CROPS LIKE TOMATOES HAVE READY TO PLANT IN TUNNEL ABOUT OCTOBER 15TH
  34. 34. PREPARE TUNNEL MID-LATE OCTOBER • 6 BEDS IN 30’ WIDE TUNNEL • 7 BEDS IN 34’ WIDE TUNNEL • ROTOTILL AND FORM BEDS BY HAND WITH A SHOVEL…TAKES APPROX 5 HOURS • BEDS ABOUT 3.5 FT WIDE • LAY BIOTELLO BY HAND TO SAVE SPACE ROCK DOWN BIOTELLO---ADD STRAW TO PATHS
  35. 35. PLANT TRANSPLANTS • 5 Rows per bed • 3 Rows of Kale or Swiss Chard with 2 rows of Asian Greens inbetween TEAGLE TOMAHAWK FOR MULCH MUST PLANT BY NOVEMBER 1ST
  36. 36. FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD Asian Greens for Braising Mix • Tokyo Bekana • Yukina Savoy • Vitamin Green Swiss Chard and Asian Greens
  37. 37. FRENCH INTENSIVE METHOD • Asian Greens also named “Large leaf mesclun mix”! • Start harvesting December/Jan uary…love cold • Kale & Swiss Chard dormant till late Feb unless warm! Kale and Asian Greens
  38. 38. 8 x 12 for • Kale • Swiss chard • Asian Greens • Happy Rich Broccoli 4 X14 for • Broccoli Raab SPACING
  39. 39. • SpinachFrom Transplants with 3-4 seeds per cell: 5”x8” • SpinachDirect Seeded 8” between rows SPACING
  40. 40. DIRECT SEEDING DATES OCTOBER 1st OPTIMUM FOR US (some years!) • FIVE STAR LETTUCE • MUSTARDS-Reds, Greens • SPINACH • ASIAN GREENSMizuna, Tatsoi, etc WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY SEPTEMBER 20TH TO OCT 10TH
  41. 41. FIND YOUR DATE! THE WINTER HARVEST HANDBOOK BY ELIOT COLEMAN Time of seedings are critical…Successive seedings gives consistency Weather is a changing factor
  42. 42. SPACING  Lettuce, Asian Greens & Mustards for Salad Mix  Arugula • 2 ½ inches • Separate varieties • Earthway Seeder or Jang
  43. 43. ARUGULA • Successive seedings • Oct 1st to Nov 15th Astro & • Regular
  44. 44. JANUARY SEEDINGS • Broccoli Raab • Happy Rich • Beira Kale • Asian Greens • Salad Mix Greens IN THE GREENHOUSE
  45. 45. Seeded in January, transplanted into the tunnel in February, will produce in spring/summer BROCCOLI RAAB
  46. 46. • GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March • Produces all year till October+ HAPPY RICH BROCCOLI
  47. 47. • GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March • Produces all year till October+ BEIRA KALE
  48. 48. GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March Produces for April & May ASIAN GREENS
  49. 49. GH Seeded in early January, transplanted to tunnel in March Produces for April & May Includes lettuce, mustards & greens SALAD MIX GREENS
  50. 50. GO PLAY TILL HARVEST! Well.. • Rowcovers left off as much as possible to get sunlight • Keep humidity down • Scout often for diseases • Monitor and set traps for rodents • Sluggo for slugs • Water
  51. 51. PERCENT USE & VALUE Map for efficiency Value per square foot high: Usually about $4-$5
  52. 52. Winter Weeding WINTER MAINTENANCE
  53. 53. WEEDING Our Favorite: Dutch Push Hoe Walking pace Incorporate fertilizer WINTER MAINTENANCE
  54. 54. WATERING OVERHEAD • Good for seed starting • Use nozzles that empty water out so don’t freeze • Out of way WINTER MAINTENANCE
  55. 55. DRIP TAPE WATERING • Great for BioTelo beds • Can use on all beds year-round • Don’t get row covers wet WINTER MAINTENANCE
  56. 56. HAND WATERING • • • • In winter—only about once per month Even watering Seed starting & Transplant watering in Row covers can be left in place WINTER MAINTENANCE
  57. 57. Fusarium & Mildews • Root Shield • RSSI • Actinovate DISEASES
  58. 58. • Venting most important! • Temperature fluctuations • +/- 20 degrees • HAF fans helpful-6 per tunnel Cladosporium leaf spot WINTER DISEASES
  59. 59. LETTUCE ALL WINTER  DISEASE RESISTANCE  NOW SEED SEPARATELY  HAPPY CUSTOMERS
  60. 60. GREW IN 2012 LEFT TO RIGHT: • ANNAPOLIS • DEFENDER • BLACKHAWK • SULU • GARRISON OTHERS: • ANTAGO • FIRECRACKER
  61. 61. • • • • • FIRECRACKER-1R-6GR-5D BLACKHAWK-2R-7GR-5D ANNAPOLIS-3R-5GR-4D ANTAGO-4R-3GR-3D GARRISON-5R-4GR-7D • DEFENDER-1G-2GR-2D • SULU-2G-1GR-1D R=RED COLOR GR=GROWTH 1=BEST G=GREEN COLOR D=DISEASE 7=WORST RATINGS OF LETTUCE FOR SALAD MIX
  62. 62. • • • • • • • • • • • Blade Spock Bolsachica Refugio Gaviota Sulu Trials : Bixby Dane Aerostar Gem NEW TRIALS ALWAYS!
  63. 63. • New 2012 • Trialed Winter 2012-13 • Seeded 9/30 • Not ready until March • Very cold tolerant • No disease issues SALANOVA LETTUCE
  64. 64. • Fantastic efficiency for harvest • Cut 8 pounds in 5 minutes SALANOVA LETTUCE
  65. 65. • Makes a great quality mix • Same length leaves • Can recut • Slower to grow SALANOVA LETTUCE
  66. 66. • Trials for 20132014 • Weekly seedings starting Aug 15 • 8 Varieties • First seeding almost ready • Record dates for cuts and recuts SALANOVA LETTUCE
  67. 67. • Venting criticalno moisture! • Fans help • Keep row cover dry • Actinovate • Regalia • Cease • Double Nickel • LOTS OF TRIALS! Downy Mildew in Lettuce and Greens WINTER DISEASES
  68. 68. Aphids Ladybugs: • Buy Early • Spread weekly WINTER INSECTS
  69. 69. Aphids Aphidoletes • Predaceous midge Safer Soap WINTER INSECTS
  70. 70. Mites • Ragged edges on leaves/ Irregular leaves • Microscopic • Predatory MitesIPM Labs • Aza-direct WINTER INSECTS
  71. 71. Monitor to catch early! SPINACH CROWN MITE
  72. 72. VENTS OPEN 24/7 TO KEEP HUMIDITY DOWN
  73. 73. WEATHER STATION SOLAR TEMP HUMIDITY WIND RAIN
  74. 74. WEATHER STATION Wireless 3 Stations Computer Davis Vantage Pro II
  75. 75. WEATHER STATION Scientific Sales, Inc.– Repeater—Harvest time
  76. 76. DATA LOGGERS 44 temperature data loggers with multiple parameters: Soil temp 1” down, outside temp, rafter temp, plant height, 1’ up, 6’ up
  77. 77. 44 DATA LOGGERS JANUARY TO APRIL 2009 HOURLY TEMP RECORDINGS 3 DIFFERENT FARMS
  78. 78. •2 Unheated High Tunnels •2 Ground-Heated High Tunnels •1 Heated Low Tunnel & 1 Unheated Low Tunnel
  79. 79. LOTS OF DATA!! Rowcovers varied; Tent heights varied (0, 18”, 2’ to 3’)
  80. 80. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2/1/2009 0:00 -10 2/2/2009 0:00 2/3/2009 0:00 2/4/2009 0:00 2/5/2009 0:00 2/6/2009 0:00 2/7/2009 0:00 2/8/2009 0:00 2/9/2009 0:00 -20 H1_no BP_18"hoop_ground (7) Outside (13) H1_BP_18"hoop_ground (20) 32ºF Soil temps: Biotello plastic and No Biotello plastic under 18” hooped Swiss Chard; Outside temp Not much difference at night, but daytime advantage to warm the soil…more growth
  81. 81. Down right cold night 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2/1/2009 0:00 -10 2/2/2009 0:00 2/3/2009 0:00 2/4/2009 0:00 2/5/2009 0:00 2/6/2009 0:00 2/7/2009 0:00 2/8/2009 0:00 2/9/2009 0:00 -20 H2_2rc__no hoop_plant height_spinach (18) H2_18" hoop_plant height (19) H2_3' tent_plant height (16) 32ºF 45ºF Outside (13) COLD NIGHT: Plant Height (2”): No hoops; 18” Hoops; 2-3’ Hooped area; Outside 5-10 degree increase in temp the closer rowcover is to the ground; laying right on crop best for night; Daytime peak temp all about the same
  82. 82. Chilly nights 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3/6/2009 0:00 -10 3/7/2009 0:00 3/8/2009 0:00 3/9/2009 0:00 3/10/2009 0:00 -20 H2_2rc__no hoop_plant height_spinach (18) H2_18" hoop_plant height (19) H2_3' tent_plant height (16) 32ºF 45ºF Outside (13) 3/11/2009 0:00 3/12/2009 0:00
  83. 83. Down right cold night 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2/1/2009 0:00 -10 2/2/2009 0:00 2/3/2009 0:00 2/4/2009 0:00 2/5/2009 0:00 2/6/2009 0:00 2/7/2009 0:00 2/8/2009 0:00 2/9/2009 0:00 -20 HeatHa_plant height (33) H2_18" hoop_plant height (19) H2_3' tent_plant height (16) 32ºF Plant Height (2”) and outside temp Heated tunnel; 18” hoops; 2-3’ tent COLD NIGHT: 5 to 7 degree benefit from heat at night and 2 to 5 degrees in the daytime. WORTH THE COST OF PROPANE or OIL? Stockpile? Production yields???? 45ºF Outside (13)
  84. 84. • Tools • Specialty Knives WINTER HARVESTING
  85. 85. • Buckhorn crates • Window of opportunity for harvest WINTER HARVESTING
  86. 86. • Keep area clean and neat—no debris • Clean up bed after cutting • Many re-cuts WINTER HARVESTING
  87. 87. WINTER HARVESTING
  88. 88. ONE OF OUR FAVORITE THINGS! GOLF CARTS • We now have 3 • Easy to drive • Inexpensive • Great for kids
  89. 89. PROTECTION ROWCOVER • 1, 2, 3 • Height • Hoops
  90. 90. Winter Washing Station for Energy Savings & Efficiency •STAINLESS STEEL •FLOOR MATS •WARM WATER
  91. 91. YIELD DATA
  92. 92. DECEMBER TO APRIL •Kale •Swiss chard •Spinach •Asian Greens •Lettuce Mix •Arugula •Turnips •Herbs Increased weekly sales by $450 in 08-09
  93. 93. SPINACH FIRST WINTER 2007 Plastic on in January 11 Rows of Spinach Gross over $10,000 Just one crop! 2009-10 Gross $16,000 and $150,000 per acre 2010-11 Winter 9 Variety Trial
  94. 94. SPINACH 2011-12 ANOTHER VARIETY TRIAL WITH 24+ VARIETIES • PRODUCTION BY WEIGHT PER FOOT • COLOR • HARVEST TIME • VT Veg & Berry Website Results
  95. 95. AMERICA BAHAMAS CORVAIR CROCODILE DONKEY EMILIA EMU ERSTE ERNTE GIANT WINTER LAZIO LOMBARDIA MENORCA TYEE QUEEN RACCOON RED KITTEN REFLECT REGIMENT SAMISH SEVEN GRN SPACE SPARGO ST HELENS TARPY 24 VARIETIES FOR 2011-12 WINTER TRIALS
  96. 96. NOT A SIMPLE LIST!! • SOME EARLY • SOME LATE • UPRIGHT • FLAT • SPACING • DIRECT SEED • TRANSPLANT SUMMARY
  97. 97. AMERICA BAHAMAS CORVAIR CROCODILE DONKEY EMILIA EMU ERSTE ERNTE GIANT WINTER LAZIO LOMBARDIA MENORCA 7 5 9 9 7-8 7 5 2 3 8 5-7 8 QUEEN 7 RACCOON 6-8 RED KITTEN 8 REFLECT 4-5 REGIMENT 7-8 SAMISH 8 SEVEN GREEN 7 SPACE 5-8 SPARGO 8 ST HELENS 7 TARPY 6 TYEE 7 COLOR RATED JAN 1ST 1 TO 10 (10 BEST)
  98. 98. FEB 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 SPACE LOMBARDIA LOMBARDIA REGIMENT ST HELENS REFLECT LOMBARDIA GIANT WINTER SAMISH DONKEY EMU ST HELENS GIANT WINTER LOMBARDIA EMILIA ERSTE ERNTE REGIMENT CORVAIR 7 GRN RACCOON GIANT WINTER TYEE MAR 8 11 SPACE 11 LOMBARDIA 11 REGIMENT 11 LOMBARDIA 11 ST HELENS 11 SAMISH 11 DONKEY 12 EMU 12 GIANT WINTER 12 REFLECT 12 SPACE 12 BAHAMAS 12 TARPY 13 ST HELENS 13 7 GRN 13 LOMBARDIA 13 14 15 16 16 OPERATING FRM MAR 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 YIELDS CAN VARY!! EMILIA SAMISH LOMBARDIA LOMBARDIA RACCOON QUEEN SPARGO RED KITTEN TYEE LOMBARDIA GIANT WINTER CORVAIR ERSTE ERNTE REGIMENT ST HELENS GIANT WINTER CORVAIR SPACE CORVAIR EMU TYEE
  99. 99. Winter Tunnels increased Sales W $1200 per week ‘09-10
  100. 100. SWISS CHARD: 800 square feet yielded $4998 for one winter season
  101. 101. •Perfecting the systems •More per square foot •Yielded $1630 per week •Markets building every year 2010-11
  102. 102. •Every year different •Weather variables •Diversity Important 2011-12
  103. 103. •Asian Greens 11/12 to 5/19 $4,116 •Arugula 11/19 to 4/28 $4,039 •Spinach 11/25 to 4/3 $12,858 •Swiss Chard 12/17 to 6/20 $7,440 •Salad Mix 1/1 to 6/1 $18,484 •Kale 1/28 to 5/12 $3,291 TOTAL: $50,228 Gross 2 Tunnels-6 Crops! TOTALS 2011-12
  104. 104. Averaged approximately 120 pounds of greens weekly out of the three tunnels TOTALS 2012-13
  105. 105. ALWAYS NEW THINGS TO TRIAL! TURNIPS ONIONS-FORUM & BRIDGER
  106. 106. SEASON EXTENSION INCREASES PROFITS IN THE SPRING…..
  107. 107. AS WELL AS IN THE WINTER!!
  108. 108. SUMMARY • LARGE INVESTMENT • FAST PAYBACK • COST $20,000 to $30,000 • LESS THAN TWO YEAR PAYBACK FOR EACH • PRODUCTION HIGH—LABOR LOW • MUST BE GOOD MARKETER • IMPROVING EVERY YEAR
  109. 109. HOW WE GET OUR ELECTRICITY…. SOLAR, SOLAR & MORE SOLAR! 2007-10kW 2012-19kW NETMETERED
  110. 110. Zion National Park EXCITING FAMILY ADVENTURES ARE IMPORTANT TO US! TAKE TIME TO ENJOY LIFE, FAMILY & FRIENDS! Bryce Canyon National Park WE LOVE FARMING FOR THE LIFESTYLE IT GIVES & THE GREAT QUALITY OF LIFE!
  111. 111. THANKS AND HAVE A GREAT 2014 SEASON! Hawaii 2006 Alaska, Glacier 2011

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