Season Extension with
Storage, Root Cellaring &
Low Tunnels

NOVEMBER 2013

Paul & Sandy Arnold
Pleasant Valley Farm
Argyle, New York
OUR 10 KEY FACTORS TO
REACHING OUR GOAL OF
PROFITABLE FARMING

• INEXPENSIVE START-UP WITH SMART EXPENDITURES

• GOOD BUSI...
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

A healthy, challenging, financially successful, family
centered lifestyle.
Consistent, high quality, orga...
• 5 Acres Mixed Diverse Vegetables
• ½ Acre Large Fruits
• ¼ Acre Small Fruits
• Perennials & Herbs From Seed
• 3-4 Acres ...
PLEASANT VALLEY FARM
1988-1998
Storage for
Year-Round Sales
GROW QUALITY CROPS TO
HAVE QUALITY PRODUCTS
IN STORAGE

….AND QUALITY COMING OUT OF STORAGE
HARVEST AT PROPER TIME
•Netting for Insects
•3 types
•Great investment
•Biothrips netting for
thrips, flea beetle
HIGH QUALITY AT
HARVEST MEANS
F...
KEEP WEEDS OUT!

CLEAN CROPS MEAN
FASTER HARVEST
AND HIGHER QUALITY
OF PRODUCE…
WALK-IN
COOLER FOR
SHORT TERM
COOLING &
LOW HUMIDITY
STORAGE
• Winter Squash
• Sweet Potatoes
• Onions
• Garlic
• Brussels Sprouts
• Leeks
• Potatoes

• Brassicas
• Greens

CROPS FOR ...
CLIP STEMS
STACK GENTLY
CLOSE TO
WATCH STEMS
SQUASH

• WINNOW IN
CURE IN FIELD
THE IN STORAGE
OR FIELD FOR
• EASE OF
SUN S...
WASH
BEFORE OR
AFTER??

SORT FOR
1ST & 2ND
WASHING
• SOIL TYPE
• UNDER-CUTTER
BAR

TUNNEL VS
OUTSIDE

SWEET POTATOES
BINS
20 BUSHEL

TYPAR ROWCOVER
• HEAT
• DEER
• PLANT SKYDD

SWEET POTATOES
Pay attention to
details for
maximum profits

BETTER
QUALITY
MEANS A
HIGHER PRICE

CURING SITE #1
JUNE 2010
Optimum Curing for
Sweet Potatoes:
• 85-90 degrees for 4-7
days at 80-90%
humidity
• Longer if cooler
• Taste better with ...
Optimum Curing for
Winter Squash:
• INDOOR: 80-90
degrees for 7
days with
ventilation
• OUTDOOR: Field
cure in sun for 5-7...
• Vent-less
Propane
Heater—Or
Electric
• Dehumidifier
• Plastic BinsDecade $130
• TEW
Vegetable
Washer

CURING SITE #2
• Winnowed
• Field Cured
• Necks must be
dried down well
(at least 1 week in
sun)
• Beware of sun
scald
• Sorted as crated...
ALTERNATIVE
CURED IN
GREENHOUSE
ON RACKS

ONIONS
STORAGE

• TEMP 32
• HUMIDITY
60-70%
• SAME FOR
SHALLOTS

ONIONS
HARVEST
• FORK
CAREFULLY
• CLIP OFF
ROOTS
• STACK GENTLY

GARLIC
WASH
• POWER
WASH VS
NO-WASH
• EASY TO ID
SECONDS
• REDUCES
PREP TIME

GARLIC
RACKING
• BUILD AS
GARLIC
COMES IN
• AMPLE
SPACE
• FAN

GARLIC
RACKING
• Alternative
is in the High
Tunnel
• Dries faster
• Shade cloth
if needed

GARLIC
DRYING
• EASY
ACCESS
• READY FOR
SELLING!

GARLIC
“THE SHOP” ALSO
GREAT AREA FOR
GARLIC
STORAGE
WITH ONIONS
32 DEGREES
60-70% HUMIDITY
VERNALIZE??

WINTER STORAGE
•
•
•

Homemade Box
Reduce heating costs
Thermostat controlled

WINTER STORAGE
• GREAT USE OF SECONDS
• PEEL AND PUT THROUGH
FOOD PROCESSOR
• DEHYDRATE ABOUT 12 HRS
• GRIND MEDIUM COARSE
• BAG IN MINI-...
STRIP LEAVES
CUT WITH
LOPPERS
DISEASE FREE?

BRUSSELS SPROUTS
• GRAIN BAGS
• OPEN FOR
VENTILATION
• STORE TILL
MID-FEB
• 32 DEGREES
• 95-100%
HUMIDITY

BRUSSELS SPROUTS
• Sell on the
stalk or strip
off sprouts
• Lose color in
storage
• Can put
light on
them (15w)

BRUSSELS SPROUTS
• Dig with Fork
• Sickle or cut
off some of
roots & very
top

LEEKS
•
•
•
•

•

LEEKS

PACK IN
GRAIN BAGS
STORE FEB+
32 DEGREES
95-100%
HUMIDITY
WINTER LEEKS
STILL IN FIELD
Invest in the
equipment that
makes
harvesting fast,
fun and efficient
Under Cutter/
Carrot lifter
Borrowed from
local farm...
Find the right
model of
equipment for
your needs
Roeters in Michigan

http://www.roetersfarmequipment.com

CARROT HARVEST
•
•
•
•
•
•

BREAK OFF TOPS
SORT INTO
GRAIN BAGS
WINNOW BAGS
LOAD BY
VARIETY
STORE 32
DEGREES
95-100%
HUMIDITY

CARROT HAR...
•
•
•
•
•

Carrot Harvester
FMC
Single row
Bought Used
Pros and Cons

CARROT HARVEST
•
•

•
•
•

1 ROW
POTATO
DIGGER
CHECCI
MAGGLI
1 BUCKET PER
GRAIN BAG
LOAD BY
VARIETY
GENTLE!

POTATO HARVEST
•
•
•

CELERIAC
KOHLRABI
RUTABAGA

•

TRIM TOPS &
ROOTS
PACK IN GRAIN
BAGS

•

LONG TERM STORAGE
6-8 MONTHS+

OTHER ROOT C...
•
•
•

MEDIUM TO LONG
TERM STORAGE

TURNIPS
BEETS
RADISHES—
Small round
red & winter

• TRIM TOPS
• PUT IN 5 GAL
BUCKETS
•...
•
•
•
•

LONG TERM STORAGE
4-5 MONTHS

CABBAGE—
RED & GREEN
Storage #4
Reaction
Super Red 80

• CUT AT BASE
• PEEL EXCESS
...
•
•
•
•

SHORT TERM STORAGE
6-8 WEEKS

CELERY
SWISS CHARD
ESCAROLE
SPINACH

• CUT AT BASE
• PEEL EXCESS
LEAVES
• PUT IN ST...
•
•
•
•

SHORT TERM STORAGE
6-8 WEEKS

LETTUCE
KALE
CAULIFLOWER
BROCCOLI

• CUT
• PEEL OFF BAD
LEAVES
• PUT IN OLDER
STORA...
VEGETABLE

TEMP F.

RELATIVE
HUMIDITY

STORAGE LIFE

HIGHEST
FREEZING TEMP.

Beet, topped
32
98-100
4-6 mon.
30.3
Brussel ...
ROOT CELLAR 20 FEET BY 30 FEET UNDER BARN
• 7 foot Ceilings
• Insulated
• Into bank on 2 ½ sides
Loaded via
assembly
line into the
root cellar

ROOT CELLAR
All crops loaded
by variety on
separate pallet
or section of
pallets
Stored
Unwashed

ROOT CELLAR
Root cellar is
used all winter for
crates ready for
market
Enables us to shut
off the small
cooler & use it for
other type...
•

•
• Crates sizes and colors vary for
different types of produce, rejects, etc
• Can be labeled with EXPO pen

Water tan...
Original cooling
system:
• Double
thermostats with
fan exchanging
cooler outside
air with warmer
inside air
• Window open
...
Window for cold
air system okay
for late fall and
winter, not early
fall and late
spring when
temp outside not
cold enough...
• Capacity is about
24 pallets with 18”
walkway
• Approximately 1
ton per pallet
when stacked to
ceiling
• Total = 24 tons...
Need to spray water
over bags
periodically all
winter to keep
humidity 95%+

The more the
compressor runs, the
more water ...
WEATHER STATION

SOLAR TEMP HUMIDITY WIND RAIN
REMOTE
SENSORS
• TRANSMIT
BACK TO
THE HOUSE
• ALARMS
WEATHER STATION
Wireless
4 Stations
Computer
Davis Vantage
Pro II
• Repeater
•
•
•
•

Scientific Sales, Inc.
Store fruits in different
facility
Ethylene gas causes
maturity and bitterness
Keep Root Cellar
Clean and Tidy
Rotting pro...
WHAT WE STORE
WHAT WE STORE
WHAT WE STORE
• ROOT CELLARING & STORAGE OF
PRODUCE IS AN INEXPENSIVE WAY
TO INCREASE SALES
• BENEFITS YEAR-ROUND
MARKETING/INCOME
• SEP...
Season Extension with Rowcovers and
Fieldhouses (Low Tunnels)
Paul & Sandy Arnold
• STAY ON THE FARM
• LEVEL OUT THE INCOME
• CUSTOMER IMPACTS
• YEAR-ROUND WORKERS
SEASON EXTENSION
• Row Covers

• Field Houses
Makes crops
available yearround, more
valuable, easy to
grow & economic

APR...
ROWCOVERS

• Brands

• Types

• Size
ROWCOVER TO GIVE VALUE AT
BOTH ENDS OF THE SEASON

COVER RHUBARB IN EARLY MARCH
Rhubarb will then start yielding
May 1st
30ftx27ft …about $125,000/acre
POTATOES PLANTED & COVERED IN
APRIL PRODUCE IN MID-JUNE
Heritage Raspberries
Mow in March
Hoop and Rowcover

Ready in
August
Fully harvest
by hard freeze

FALL RASPBERRIES
Hooped Rowcover in November

Multiple Layers
Protects from the wind and snow
In dormancy for winter markets
EXTEND THE SEASON!
EXTREME PROTECTION!
STORAGE FOR LONGEVITY

• Rescued!

• Dried Out on Radiant heated
benches
• Rolled up in balls
• Labeled A, B or C
• Stored in Attic
1992—THE START OF FIELDHOUSES
=Low Tunnel, Hoop House, Caterpillar
FIELDHOUSES

• Low Tech
• Inexpensive
• Temporary
• Built on Field

• Quick Set-Up
• Profit Centers

• Good for
Rotations
...
CONSTRUCTION OF FIELD HOUSES
• Scrap fencing posts 1 ¼ “ galv steel 18-24”
• Pounded in 4’ apart with board &
Sledgehammer– Alternative is rebar
• Slip...
Duct tape ridge pipe down center
Duct tape support
braces on both ends
Dig trench one or both
sides—keep shallow
Pound in 4 pointed wooden stakes
Attach Pre-made end with 3” screws
Pull plastic tight
Lathe & secure with screws
Pull plastic tight
and fill in trenches
Rig venting with
ropes if necessary
Plastic PVC Piped Fieldhouse
Finished! 2 men 4 hours
Cost in 1993 was $600
Metal Hooped Fieldhouse
for Snow Load
PIPE BENDING ON HOMEMADE JIG
MAKING GOTHIC PEAK WITH PIPE BENDER
20’ tunnel used for chickens
also but same design
Side Rail makes them sturdy
but time consuming to build
Cost in 1993 was $800!

www.newfarm.org/features/0503/arnoldsbuild.shtml
• Lettuce

• Tomatoes

• Spinach

• Peppers

• Beets

• Swiss Chard

• Radishes

• Basil
• **ONIONS

GROWING IN FIELDHOUSE...
TOMATOES— 4” SOIL BLOCKS
INTERCROPPING
INTERCROPPING SPINACH & RADISHES
MAKE THE MOST PER SQUARE FOOT
Home-made popper
GROWING LETTUCE IN FIELDHOUSES
MAKING SPEEDLING TRAYS LAST
•Seeded in greenhouse late February
•Planted into field-houses
starting in late March
•8” apart in row
•12” between rows
LETTUCE
•Plant 600 heads
each week for 3
consecutive weeks
•1800 Heads of
Lettuce

•Value of about
$4500 at $2.50 per
head...
SPINACH #1 IN FIELDHOUSES
Spinach planted 6” apart, Rows 12” apart
Yields about 1150 row feet in one fieldhouse
Updated Irrigation:
•Simple to install
•Inexpensive &
Timesaver
•Quick Disconnects
VALUE IS OVER
$150,000 gross per
acre with more than
$4700 worth picked
in a 4-5 week period
in May-June

Spinach
• We pic...
SOYBEAN MEAL OR
PEANUT MEAL IS
SPREAD AND PUSHHOED IN 2 WEEKS
AFTER PLANTING FOR
A NITROGEN SOURCE
FOR LETTUCE AND
SPINACH...
Do plantings
weekly outside
when warmer
to have
continual supply
PEPPERS
Transplanted
From 1 ½”
Soil blocks
Or 4” Soil
blocks
MISTAKES MADE!

•Jingle Bell Variety
•Started in Greenhouse
about March 1st
•Potted up to 4”
soil blocks
•Planted out into...
•Not being in a
fieldhouseValue=$48,000 per
acre gross

•Season extended in a
fieldhouseValue=$64,000 per
acre
WINTER PRODUCTION
Seed in Greenhouse Sept 1
Transplant out Oct 1
Fieldhouse Built over it Nov 1
We Pick Only Leaves All Wi...
Great for
startup
Great for
spring &
fall
Stockpile
for Winter

ROWCOVER & HARVEST
FIRST TRIAL WINTER-WHAT NOT TO GROW!
BRIDGER ONIONS-SEEDED AUGUST 15TH
DEC 6TH-PLANTING

DEC 10TH-HOOPS OVER
LOTS OF SNOW!
FORUM BOLTING IN LATE MAY BUT…
FORUM IN HIGH TUNNEL-LARGEST
2011-12: FORUM & BRIDGER IN 14X100’ FIELD
HOUSE FOR TRIALS-PLANTED IN DEC
MAY: TAKE OFF PLASTIC—START HARVEST
JUNE 1—STORED TILL DEC+
2012-13 PLANTED UNDER ROWCOVER ONLY
Caterpillar
design
Semi-permanent
Screw Anchors
Landscape
Fabric

ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS
1 ¼” PVC punched into
ground
Tie and Stake ends
Tension of Strings allows
Venting
SUMMARY

• CUSTOMER DRIVEN

• HELPS BOTTOM LINE

• ROWCOVERS INVALUABLE
• FIELDHOUSE - INEXPENSIVE STARTUP
• FAST PAYBACK
...
NO BETTER WAY OF LIFE: RAISING FOOD YEAR-ROUND
WITH SEASON EXTENSION WHILE RAISING CHILDREN ON
THE GREATEST PLACE ON GOD’S...
THANKS AND HAVE A GREAT
2014 SEASON!
Hawaii 2006

Alaska, Glacier 2011
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold
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Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold

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  • Fantastic slideshow! Thank you - so many good ideas! I like your garlic racking method. I appreciate your including a 'Mistakes made' slide. Pictures of constructing a field house very helpful. Pam
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Part 1: Season Extension with Storage, Cellaring & Low Tunnels with Paul & Sandy Arnold

  1. 1. Season Extension with Storage, Root Cellaring & Low Tunnels NOVEMBER 2013 Paul & Sandy Arnold
  2. 2. Pleasant Valley Farm Argyle, New York
  3. 3. OUR 10 KEY FACTORS TO REACHING OUR GOAL OF PROFITABLE FARMING • INEXPENSIVE START-UP WITH SMART EXPENDITURES • GOOD BUSINESS MANAGEMENT & RECORD KEEPING • LABOR EFFICIENCIES TO MAXIMIZE PROFITS • EFFICIENT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS & SOIL MANAGEMENT • MULCHING AND WEED CONTROL • PEST AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT • SEASON EXTENSION-ROWCOVERS & FIELDHOUSES • YEAR-ROUND HIGH TUNNEL PRODUCTION • POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND CROP STORAGE • CREATIVE MARKETING
  4. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A healthy, challenging, financially successful, family centered lifestyle. Consistent, high quality, organic fruits and vegetables that make us proud. A way of life that is an example to those around us. Time to be an educator of environmentally sound agriculture to our employees, customers, and the community. A rural environment that teaches good moral values and work ethics to our children, while providing time for fun and interesting opportunities. MISSION STATEMENT 12/94
  5. 5. • 5 Acres Mixed Diverse Vegetables • ½ Acre Large Fruits • ¼ Acre Small Fruits • Perennials & Herbs From Seed • 3-4 Acres Cover Crops • Sell at 3 local weekly farmers’ markets in summer & two Saturday winter markets • Hay fields used by local Beefalo farmer
  6. 6. PLEASANT VALLEY FARM 1988-1998
  7. 7. Storage for Year-Round Sales
  8. 8. GROW QUALITY CROPS TO HAVE QUALITY PRODUCTS IN STORAGE ….AND QUALITY COMING OUT OF STORAGE
  9. 9. HARVEST AT PROPER TIME
  10. 10. •Netting for Insects •3 types •Great investment •Biothrips netting for thrips, flea beetle HIGH QUALITY AT HARVEST MEANS FASTER PROCESSING AND HIGHER POSTHARVEST QUALITY
  11. 11. KEEP WEEDS OUT! CLEAN CROPS MEAN FASTER HARVEST AND HIGHER QUALITY OF PRODUCE…
  12. 12. WALK-IN COOLER FOR SHORT TERM COOLING & LOW HUMIDITY STORAGE
  13. 13. • Winter Squash • Sweet Potatoes • Onions • Garlic • Brussels Sprouts • Leeks • Potatoes • Brassicas • Greens CROPS FOR STORAGE
  14. 14. CLIP STEMS STACK GENTLY CLOSE TO WATCH STEMS SQUASH • WINNOW IN CURE IN FIELD THE IN STORAGE OR FIELD FOR • EASE OF SUN SCALD LOADING WINTER SQUASH
  15. 15. WASH BEFORE OR AFTER?? SORT FOR 1ST & 2ND WASHING
  16. 16. • SOIL TYPE • UNDER-CUTTER BAR TUNNEL VS OUTSIDE SWEET POTATOES
  17. 17. BINS 20 BUSHEL TYPAR ROWCOVER • HEAT • DEER • PLANT SKYDD SWEET POTATOES
  18. 18. Pay attention to details for maximum profits BETTER QUALITY MEANS A HIGHER PRICE CURING SITE #1
  19. 19. JUNE 2010
  20. 20. Optimum Curing for Sweet Potatoes: • 85-90 degrees for 4-7 days at 80-90% humidity • Longer if cooler • Taste better with age STORAGE AREA #3: When supply down, move to heated cooler CURING SITE #2
  21. 21. Optimum Curing for Winter Squash: • INDOOR: 80-90 degrees for 7 days with ventilation • OUTDOOR: Field cure in sun for 5-7 days-CAUTION • Longer if cooler • Taste better with age Varieties vary for curing times CURING SITE #2
  22. 22. • Vent-less Propane Heater—Or Electric • Dehumidifier • Plastic BinsDecade $130 • TEW Vegetable Washer CURING SITE #2
  23. 23. • Winnowed • Field Cured • Necks must be dried down well (at least 1 week in sun) • Beware of sun scald • Sorted as crated ONIONS
  24. 24. ALTERNATIVE CURED IN GREENHOUSE ON RACKS ONIONS
  25. 25. STORAGE • TEMP 32 • HUMIDITY 60-70% • SAME FOR SHALLOTS ONIONS
  26. 26. HARVEST • FORK CAREFULLY • CLIP OFF ROOTS • STACK GENTLY GARLIC
  27. 27. WASH • POWER WASH VS NO-WASH • EASY TO ID SECONDS • REDUCES PREP TIME GARLIC
  28. 28. RACKING • BUILD AS GARLIC COMES IN • AMPLE SPACE • FAN GARLIC
  29. 29. RACKING • Alternative is in the High Tunnel • Dries faster • Shade cloth if needed GARLIC
  30. 30. DRYING • EASY ACCESS • READY FOR SELLING! GARLIC
  31. 31. “THE SHOP” ALSO GREAT AREA FOR GARLIC STORAGE WITH ONIONS 32 DEGREES 60-70% HUMIDITY VERNALIZE?? WINTER STORAGE
  32. 32. • • • Homemade Box Reduce heating costs Thermostat controlled WINTER STORAGE
  33. 33. • GREAT USE OF SECONDS • PEEL AND PUT THROUGH FOOD PROCESSOR • DEHYDRATE ABOUT 12 HRS • GRIND MEDIUM COARSE • BAG IN MINI-ZIPLOCK • SELL AT $1.50 FOR .03# (Heaping Tablespoon) • VALUE ABOUT $30 PER POUND • STORE IN SEALED GLASS JARS IN COLD ROOM (35 DEGREES) GROUND GARLIC
  34. 34. STRIP LEAVES CUT WITH LOPPERS DISEASE FREE? BRUSSELS SPROUTS
  35. 35. • GRAIN BAGS • OPEN FOR VENTILATION • STORE TILL MID-FEB • 32 DEGREES • 95-100% HUMIDITY BRUSSELS SPROUTS
  36. 36. • Sell on the stalk or strip off sprouts • Lose color in storage • Can put light on them (15w) BRUSSELS SPROUTS
  37. 37. • Dig with Fork • Sickle or cut off some of roots & very top LEEKS
  38. 38. • • • • • LEEKS PACK IN GRAIN BAGS STORE FEB+ 32 DEGREES 95-100% HUMIDITY WINTER LEEKS STILL IN FIELD
  39. 39. Invest in the equipment that makes harvesting fast, fun and efficient Under Cutter/ Carrot lifter Borrowed from local farmer CARROT HARVEST
  40. 40. Find the right model of equipment for your needs Roeters in Michigan http://www.roetersfarmequipment.com CARROT HARVEST
  41. 41. • • • • • • BREAK OFF TOPS SORT INTO GRAIN BAGS WINNOW BAGS LOAD BY VARIETY STORE 32 DEGREES 95-100% HUMIDITY CARROT HARVEST
  42. 42. • • • • • Carrot Harvester FMC Single row Bought Used Pros and Cons CARROT HARVEST
  43. 43. • • • • • 1 ROW POTATO DIGGER CHECCI MAGGLI 1 BUCKET PER GRAIN BAG LOAD BY VARIETY GENTLE! POTATO HARVEST
  44. 44. • • • CELERIAC KOHLRABI RUTABAGA • TRIM TOPS & ROOTS PACK IN GRAIN BAGS • LONG TERM STORAGE 6-8 MONTHS+ OTHER ROOT CROPS
  45. 45. • • • MEDIUM TO LONG TERM STORAGE TURNIPS BEETS RADISHES— Small round red & winter • TRIM TOPS • PUT IN 5 GAL BUCKETS • POUR IN GRAIN BAGS OTHER ROOT CROPS
  46. 46. • • • • LONG TERM STORAGE 4-5 MONTHS CABBAGE— RED & GREEN Storage #4 Reaction Super Red 80 • CUT AT BASE • PEEL EXCESS LEAVES • PUT IN GRAIN BAGS OTHER CROPS
  47. 47. • • • • SHORT TERM STORAGE 6-8 WEEKS CELERY SWISS CHARD ESCAROLE SPINACH • CUT AT BASE • PEEL EXCESS LEAVES • PUT IN STORAGE BINS • MIST IF NEEDED OTHER CROPS
  48. 48. • • • • SHORT TERM STORAGE 6-8 WEEKS LETTUCE KALE CAULIFLOWER BROCCOLI • CUT • PEEL OFF BAD LEAVES • PUT IN OLDER STORAGE BINS • MIST IF NEEDED OTHER CROPS
  49. 49. VEGETABLE TEMP F. RELATIVE HUMIDITY STORAGE LIFE HIGHEST FREEZING TEMP. Beet, topped 32 98-100 4-6 mon. 30.3 Brussel sprouts 32 95-100 3-5 weeks 30.5 Cabbage, late 32 98-100 5-6 mon. 30.4 Carrot, mature 32 98-100 7-9 mon. 29.5 Celariac 32 97-99 6-8 mon 30.3 Celery 32 98-100 2-3 mon. 31.1 Garlic 32 65-70 6-7 mon. 30.5 Kale 32 95-100 2-3 weeks 31.1 Kohlrabi 32 98-100 2-3 mon. 30.2 Leek 32 95-100 2-3 mon. 30.7 Lettuce 32 98-100 2-3 weeks 31.7 Onion, dry 32 65-70 1-8 mon. 30.6 Potato, late 38-40* 90-95 5-10 mon. 30.9 Radish, Winter 32 95-100 2-4 mon. Rutabaga 32 98-100 4-6 mon. 30.0 Squash, Winter 50* 50-70 Varies 30.5 Sweet Potato 55-60* 85-90 4-7 mon. 29.7 Turnip 32 95 4-5 mon. 30.1 * Require curing http://www.ba.ars.usda.gov/hb66/contents.html Adapted from Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers
  50. 50. ROOT CELLAR 20 FEET BY 30 FEET UNDER BARN • 7 foot Ceilings • Insulated • Into bank on 2 ½ sides
  51. 51. Loaded via assembly line into the root cellar ROOT CELLAR
  52. 52. All crops loaded by variety on separate pallet or section of pallets Stored Unwashed ROOT CELLAR
  53. 53. Root cellar is used all winter for crates ready for market Enables us to shut off the small cooler & use it for other type storage space ROOT CELLAR
  54. 54. • • • Crates sizes and colors vary for different types of produce, rejects, etc • Can be labeled with EXPO pen Water tank in corner from washing station Filters dirt out Silver tarp over potatoes if necessary to prevent green ROOT CELLAR
  55. 55. Original cooling system: • Double thermostats with fan exchanging cooler outside air with warmer inside air • Window open and closed ROOT CELLAR
  56. 56. Window for cold air system okay for late fall and winter, not early fall and late spring when temp outside not cold enough ROOT CELLAR
  57. 57. • Capacity is about 24 pallets with 18” walkway • Approximately 1 ton per pallet when stacked to ceiling • Total = 24 tons • Value of produce stored: $85,000
  58. 58. Need to spray water over bags periodically all winter to keep humidity 95%+ The more the compressor runs, the more water needed Plan for misting system around ceiling perimeter ROOT CELLAR HUMIDITY CONTROL
  59. 59. WEATHER STATION SOLAR TEMP HUMIDITY WIND RAIN
  60. 60. REMOTE SENSORS • TRANSMIT BACK TO THE HOUSE • ALARMS
  61. 61. WEATHER STATION Wireless 4 Stations Computer Davis Vantage Pro II • Repeater • • • • Scientific Sales, Inc.
  62. 62. Store fruits in different facility Ethylene gas causes maturity and bitterness Keep Root Cellar Clean and Tidy Rotting produce also causes maturing KEEPING QUALITY
  63. 63. WHAT WE STORE
  64. 64. WHAT WE STORE
  65. 65. WHAT WE STORE
  66. 66. • ROOT CELLARING & STORAGE OF PRODUCE IS AN INEXPENSIVE WAY TO INCREASE SALES • BENEFITS YEAR-ROUND MARKETING/INCOME • SEPARATE STORAGE FACILITIES IMPORTANT • MONITOR STORING CONDITIONS • CURE PROPERLY FOR QUALITY • KEEP CUSTOMERS HAPPY SUMMARY
  67. 67. Season Extension with Rowcovers and Fieldhouses (Low Tunnels) Paul & Sandy Arnold
  68. 68. • STAY ON THE FARM • LEVEL OUT THE INCOME • CUSTOMER IMPACTS • YEAR-ROUND WORKERS
  69. 69. SEASON EXTENSION • Row Covers • Field Houses Makes crops available yearround, more valuable, easy to grow & economic APRIL 10TH
  70. 70. ROWCOVERS • Brands • Types • Size
  71. 71. ROWCOVER TO GIVE VALUE AT BOTH ENDS OF THE SEASON COVER RHUBARB IN EARLY MARCH
  72. 72. Rhubarb will then start yielding May 1st 30ftx27ft …about $125,000/acre
  73. 73. POTATOES PLANTED & COVERED IN APRIL PRODUCE IN MID-JUNE
  74. 74. Heritage Raspberries Mow in March Hoop and Rowcover Ready in August Fully harvest by hard freeze FALL RASPBERRIES
  75. 75. Hooped Rowcover in November Multiple Layers
  76. 76. Protects from the wind and snow In dormancy for winter markets
  77. 77. EXTEND THE SEASON!
  78. 78. EXTREME PROTECTION!
  79. 79. STORAGE FOR LONGEVITY • Rescued! • Dried Out on Radiant heated benches
  80. 80. • Rolled up in balls • Labeled A, B or C • Stored in Attic
  81. 81. 1992—THE START OF FIELDHOUSES =Low Tunnel, Hoop House, Caterpillar
  82. 82. FIELDHOUSES • Low Tech • Inexpensive • Temporary • Built on Field • Quick Set-Up • Profit Centers • Good for Rotations • Long Lasting
  83. 83. CONSTRUCTION OF FIELD HOUSES
  84. 84. • Scrap fencing posts 1 ¼ “ galv steel 18-24” • Pounded in 4’ apart with board & Sledgehammer– Alternative is rebar • Slip 1” PVC pipes in about 6-8”
  85. 85. Duct tape ridge pipe down center
  86. 86. Duct tape support braces on both ends
  87. 87. Dig trench one or both sides—keep shallow
  88. 88. Pound in 4 pointed wooden stakes Attach Pre-made end with 3” screws
  89. 89. Pull plastic tight Lathe & secure with screws
  90. 90. Pull plastic tight and fill in trenches Rig venting with ropes if necessary
  91. 91. Plastic PVC Piped Fieldhouse Finished! 2 men 4 hours Cost in 1993 was $600
  92. 92. Metal Hooped Fieldhouse for Snow Load
  93. 93. PIPE BENDING ON HOMEMADE JIG
  94. 94. MAKING GOTHIC PEAK WITH PIPE BENDER
  95. 95. 20’ tunnel used for chickens also but same design
  96. 96. Side Rail makes them sturdy but time consuming to build
  97. 97. Cost in 1993 was $800! www.newfarm.org/features/0503/arnoldsbuild.shtml
  98. 98. • Lettuce • Tomatoes • Spinach • Peppers • Beets • Swiss Chard • Radishes • Basil • **ONIONS GROWING IN FIELDHOUSES
  99. 99. TOMATOES— 4” SOIL BLOCKS
  100. 100. INTERCROPPING
  101. 101. INTERCROPPING SPINACH & RADISHES MAKE THE MOST PER SQUARE FOOT
  102. 102. Home-made popper GROWING LETTUCE IN FIELDHOUSES
  103. 103. MAKING SPEEDLING TRAYS LAST
  104. 104. •Seeded in greenhouse late February •Planted into field-houses starting in late March •8” apart in row •12” between rows
  105. 105. LETTUCE •Plant 600 heads each week for 3 consecutive weeks •1800 Heads of Lettuce •Value of about $4500 at $2.50 per head •Extrapolates to over $145,000 per Acre!
  106. 106. SPINACH #1 IN FIELDHOUSES
  107. 107. Spinach planted 6” apart, Rows 12” apart Yields about 1150 row feet in one fieldhouse
  108. 108. Updated Irrigation: •Simple to install •Inexpensive & Timesaver •Quick Disconnects
  109. 109. VALUE IS OVER $150,000 gross per acre with more than $4700 worth picked in a 4-5 week period in May-June Spinach • We pick large leaves only •Average $30 worth every 10 minutes •Sell at $9 per pound summer/$12 winter
  110. 110. SOYBEAN MEAL OR PEANUT MEAL IS SPREAD AND PUSHHOED IN 2 WEEKS AFTER PLANTING FOR A NITROGEN SOURCE FOR LETTUCE AND SPINACH AND OTHER CROPS IF NEEDED
  111. 111. Do plantings weekly outside when warmer to have continual supply
  112. 112. PEPPERS Transplanted From 1 ½” Soil blocks Or 4” Soil blocks
  113. 113. MISTAKES MADE! •Jingle Bell Variety •Started in Greenhouse about March 1st •Potted up to 4” soil blocks •Planted out into fieldhouse May 1st into straw •Problems, but…
  114. 114. •Not being in a fieldhouseValue=$48,000 per acre gross •Season extended in a fieldhouseValue=$64,000 per acre
  115. 115. WINTER PRODUCTION Seed in Greenhouse Sept 1 Transplant out Oct 1 Fieldhouse Built over it Nov 1 We Pick Only Leaves All Winter WINTER USE
  116. 116. Great for startup Great for spring & fall Stockpile for Winter ROWCOVER & HARVEST
  117. 117. FIRST TRIAL WINTER-WHAT NOT TO GROW!
  118. 118. BRIDGER ONIONS-SEEDED AUGUST 15TH DEC 6TH-PLANTING DEC 10TH-HOOPS OVER
  119. 119. LOTS OF SNOW!
  120. 120. FORUM BOLTING IN LATE MAY BUT…
  121. 121. FORUM IN HIGH TUNNEL-LARGEST
  122. 122. 2011-12: FORUM & BRIDGER IN 14X100’ FIELD HOUSE FOR TRIALS-PLANTED IN DEC
  123. 123. MAY: TAKE OFF PLASTIC—START HARVEST JUNE 1—STORED TILL DEC+ 2012-13 PLANTED UNDER ROWCOVER ONLY
  124. 124. Caterpillar design Semi-permanent Screw Anchors Landscape Fabric ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS
  125. 125. 1 ¼” PVC punched into ground Tie and Stake ends Tension of Strings allows Venting
  126. 126. SUMMARY • CUSTOMER DRIVEN • HELPS BOTTOM LINE • ROWCOVERS INVALUABLE • FIELDHOUSE - INEXPENSIVE STARTUP • FAST PAYBACK • FIELDHOUSE ROTATION • EASY MAINTENANCE
  127. 127. NO BETTER WAY OF LIFE: RAISING FOOD YEAR-ROUND WITH SEASON EXTENSION WHILE RAISING CHILDREN ON THE GREATEST PLACE ON GOD’S EARTH: A FARM!!
  128. 128. THANKS AND HAVE A GREAT 2014 SEASON! Hawaii 2006 Alaska, Glacier 2011

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