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Integrating livestock into cropping system

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slideshow presented at 2015 ACORN Conference PEI

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Integrating livestock into cropping system

  1. 1.  Integrating  Livestock   into  Organic  Field   Cropping  Systems   ACORN  Conference    Charlottetown,  PEI     November  23-­‐  25,  2015   Ruth  Knight  –  Organic  Consultant  Inc  
  2. 2. 1.    Minimize  soil  disturbance  -­‐  tillage  
  3. 3. 2.        Keep  soil  covered  24/7  
  4. 4. 3.    Living  roots  as  long  as  possible  
  5. 5. Gruver,  Joel  http://www.slideshare.net/jbgruver/      
  6. 6. 1.  Diversity   4.    Diversity  
  7. 7. Cool  Season  Grasses     Oats     Winter  Rye     Winter  Triticale     Warm  Season  Grasses     Millet     Sorghum  Sudan     Cool  Season  Broadleaves     Radish     Turnip     Peas     Clover   Warm  Season  Broadleaves     Sunn  Hemp     Sunflower     Buckwheat     Cow  Peas     Faba  Beans    
  8. 8. 5.    Integrate  livestock  
  9. 9. Gabe  Brown,  Bismark  ND   Two  similar  fields:  diverse  rotation,  no  till,  cover  crops   One  field  had  livestock  grazing  2  years  out  of  past  6   Field  that  was  grazed:     Nitrogen  similiar     Phosphorous  difference            65  #  versus  239#       Potassium  difference                      429#  versus  595#        
  10. 10.   changes  in  OM  1993  to  2014    1.7-­‐1.9%  to  5.3-­‐6.1%     value  nutrients  N,P,K,  S          1%  OM            $751        5%  over      $3700  
  11. 11.   Fill  nutritional  quality  gaps  for  livestock     Use  a  grazing  chart  to  show  peak  growth  nutrient  wise  of   rangeland  -­‐  cool  season  and  warm  season     Fill  in  gaps  with  crop  land  -­‐  grazing  corn,  turnips/vetch,   oat/peas  BMR  Sorghum  Sudan     Build  grazing  plan  so  try  to  graze  the  entire  year     Minimize  the  gaps  that  have  to  feed  hay       Use  refractometer  to  check  on  nutrient  quality  -­‐  Brix  
  12. 12.   easiest  way  to  start  with  integrated  livestock  fall   seeded  biennials     difficult  to  get  cover  crops  started  in  perennial   grasses...seed  into  cropland      winter  triticale,  hairy  vetch  after  cover  crop     forage  winter  wheat  winter  pea  hairy  vetch  and  radish     brix  16,  adg  2.0+     radish  will  winter  kill  but  radish  go  several  feet  deep.   adding  radish  to  winter  wheat  increase  yield  5-­‐7  bu,   nitrogen  scavenger  release  N  in  spring,  help  with   infiltration  
  13. 13.   bring  cropland  up  or  regenerate..need  to  add   livestock  to  cropland     allow  biennials  to  get  mature  with  higher  carbon   state,  go  with  high  stock  density  over  700,000  #   ac,  move  multi  moves,  use  open  heifers  to  matt   down  carbon,  to  get  more  carbon  into  the  soil     dung  and  manure  all  spread  out     368  head  X$1.20/head/day  =  $441.60/acre  gross     Expenses,  seed  seeding,  land  cost,  labour  $84     net  income  per  acre-­‐      $357.60     plus  value  of  enhanced  soil  health  and  rest  on   pasture  
  14. 14.  directly  seed  diverse  warm  season  (late   June  early  July)    sorghum  sudan,  millet,  sunflower,   buckwheat.  cowpea,  sunn  hemp  etc   along  with  some  cool  season      to  set  the  drill,  put  in  the  middle   notch,  large  seed  push  up  small  seed    some  spp  specific  for  livestock-­‐ plaintain  for  internal  parasite  control  -­‐   no  dewormers  needed,  cattle  will   select  
  15. 15.  cattle  eat  money        for  every  $1  they  consume  they  will  deposit   approx  .$85  somewhere  on  your  farm      will  they  deposit  in  the  correct  location      bale  graze  in  the  place  you  want  to   improve  
  16. 16.   Broilers  5#  dressed  bird     sell  at  the  farm  999  birds  per  farm  limit     net  profit  /bird  12.25  
  17. 17.   old  stock  trailer  and  retrofit  -­‐  photo  sensitive  eye  above   access  door     use  quick  coupler  to  water  line  in  pasture     pull  eye  mobile  on  opposite  side  of  water       move  egg  mobile  every  5  days     600  hens  @  5  days/ac  @350eggs/day      $583     cost  of  hen,  feed  market  and  processing    $156     net  profit  /ac          $427     selling  at  $4  per  doz...$5  next  year    sell  out  at  market  in  5   minutes  sell  only  once  per  week     put  hens  in  hoop  house  (portable)  in  winter  time  
  18. 18.  feed  screening  from  grains  pigs  on   pasture  in  rotation    11  piglets  per  sow      Ranch  Profit      $141    Retail  Profit      $517      Total  Net  Profit      $658  per  hog      
  19. 19.  1200#  animal  at  735  days  of  age        Ranch  Profit      $998    Retail  Profit      $645    Total  net  profit      $1633  
  20. 20.  hair  sheep  -­‐  no  time  to  work  with   wool,  learning  curve  1.6  lambs  per  ewe   slaughter    finish  on  cover  crops      Ranch  Profit  $62    Retail  profit  $128    Total  net  Profit  $190  per  lamb    $270  per  ewe  
  21. 21.   350  cow  calf  pairs,  400  to  800  stocker  cattle,  grass   finish  beef,  ewe  flock  grass  finish  lambs,  egg   layers,  and  broilers,  pasture  pork,  market  grain   through  livestock,  limited  by  slaughter  facilities.       harvest  different  levels  of  energy     stacking  enterprises  -­‐  cash  crops,  lamb,  beef,   education,  poultry,  bees,  grazing,  vegetables,   hunting,  pork,  cover  crops,  agri-­‐tourism  
  22. 22.  directly  seed  diverse  warm  season  (late  June   early  July)    sorghum  sudan,  millet,  sunflower,   buckwheat,  cowpea,  sunn  hemp  along  with   some  cool  season      to  set  the  drill,  put  in  the  middle  notch,   large  seed  push  up  small  seed    some  spp  specific  for  livestock-­‐plaintain  for   internal  parasite  control  -­‐  no  dewormers   needed,  cattle  will  select  
  23. 23.  could  do  early  seeding  cool  season  -­‐ early  spring    oat/pea/brassica/clover        ADG  2.0  brix  20    -­‐  stocker  cattle    forage  pea,  forage  oats,  triticale,  hairy   vetch,  red  clover,  turnips,  sugarbeets    
  24. 24.  grazing  stimulates  plants  to  release   root  exudates  feed  soil  biology  -­‐   improve  soil  health    high  residue  after  grazing  go  into  with   another  cover  crop    to  integrate  into  cropping  system  -­‐  if   grazing  sole  activity  then  use   perennials  instead  of  annuals  
  25. 25.  short  season  warm  mix  -­‐  cowpea/proso   millet/  buckwheat  -­‐  ready  to  graze  40   days    cowpea  and  sudan  simple  short  season    tailor  mix  according  to  what  you  need    turnips  dont  bolt  -­‐  radishes  bolt-­‐dont   put  into  mix  spring  
  26. 26.  2  pass  -­‐seed  hairy  vetch  the  day  before   plant  corn    1  pass  white  planter  with  15"  put  corn   at  30"  and  vetch  on  the  other    Transition  –  seed  cover  crop  after  corn   established  during  last  cultivation  
  27. 27.   Browns  Ranch  mindset:  be  conservative  when  it   comes  to  deploying  capital  and  spending  resources   but  be  innovative  when  it  comes  to  learning  and   practicing  ideas  to  achieve  land  regeneration  and   insure  sustainability     Farm  operation  -­‐  limited  liability     Marketing  operation  LLC  -­‐  purchase  live  animals  and   produce  from  ranch,  process  and  direct  market  the   products  
  28. 28.  forage  based  genetics-­‐  convert  forage  to   beef  in  your  environment,  short  thick  and   easy  fleshing,  big  middle    cow  size  matters  -­‐  steers  finish  weight   approx  100#  heavier  than  their  dam,  heifers   will  finish  weight  approx  100#  lighter  than   their  dam  -­‐  cows  ave  over  1500#  in  North   Dakota  grass  finish  1600#  steers  or  1400#   heifers  not  going  to  work  
  29. 29.   past  year  produced  1200#  animal  at  735  days  of  age   $1022,  nursing  includes  cost  of  open  cows       total  finished  beef  net  profit     ranch    $2000  -­‐  $1022  =$978     retail  profit          $645     total  net  profit                                  $  1623    
  30. 30.     hair  sheep  -­‐  1.6  lambs  per  ewe  slaughter     cost  per  ewe                                                        $115     total  cost  per  finished  lamb    $117.87     finish  on  cover  crops       gross            $427     processing  market  transport      $119     live  animal  cost          $180     Ranch  Profit        $62       Retail  Profit      $128     Total  Net  Profit      $190     $270  per  ewe  
  31. 31.   feed  screening  from  grains  pigs  on  pasture  in  rotation     Sow  -­‐    11  piglets     total  cost  per  finished  pig    $133.69     gross  income        $1051     live  animal  cost        $275       Ranch  Profit      $141     Retail  Profit      $517       Total  Net  Profit                            $658  per  hog      
  32. 32.   Broilers  5#  dressed  bird     sell  at  the  farm  999  birds  per  farm  limit     net  profit  /bird          $12.25  
  33. 33.     old  stock  trailer  and  retrofit  -­‐  photo  sensitive  eye  above   access  door     use  quick  coupler  to  water  line  in  pasture     pull  eye  mobile  on  opposite  side  of  water       move  egg  mobile  every  5  days     600  hens  @  5  days/ac  @  350  eggs/day       cost  of  hen,  feed  market  and  processing      $156     net  profit  /ac            $427     selling  at  $4  per  doz...increasing  $5       sell  out  at  market  in  5  minutes  sell  only  once  per  week    
  34. 34.   need  guard  dogs  to  guard  sheep     have  guard  dog  pups  -­‐  use  border  collie       $14000  income  from  pups     cost  of  parents  -­‐  earn  their  living  
  35. 35.   cattle  eat  money  and  for  every  $1  they  consume  they   will  deposit  approx  .$85  somewhere  on  your  farm     bale  graze  in  the  place  you  want  to  improve  -­‐  deposit   in  the  correct  location      feed  is  added  fertility     animal  impact  needs  rest  and  recovery    
  36. 36.   Key  driver  for  nutritional  status  of  plants  -­‐  mineral   density  in  animals  and  people     Key  driver  to  moisture  holding  capacity  -­‐often  most   limiting  factor     Key  driver  for  farm  profit     all  living  things  are  based  on  carbon  

slideshow presented at 2015 ACORN Conference PEI

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