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Chisholm organic dairy goat


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Chisholm organic dairy goat

  1. 1. Small Scale Organic Goat Production Alyson Chisholm Windy Hill Farm
  2. 2. Why keep goats? ● lower milk production per animal: 3- 6 litres/day ● milk is easier to digest for some people ● smaller animal = easier care and handling ● browsers and grazers eat a wide variety of feed ● good at clearing brush from land ● contributes valuable manure to a small farm ● they happily eat leftover veggies like carrot tops and market returned kale
  3. 3. Breeds of Goats Dairy: ● ● Alpine, Toggenburg, Sanaan - Swiss breeds produce higher milk yields with lower fat Nubian - African breed produces lower milk yields and higher fat - good for cheese. Can be dual purpose. Meat: ● ● Boer - doubled muscled South African breed Kiko - from New Zealand feral goats, very hardy mothers and meaty kids
  4. 4. Nubian
  5. 5. Alpine
  6. 6. Alpine/Nubian cross
  7. 7. Boer
  8. 8. Housing ● ● ● ● shelter from the elements - goats hate rain safe from predators especially during kidding season indestructable - goats climb on things, chew on things and can hurt themselves in the process be able to create separate spaces for things like quarentine, kidding, housing the breeding buck and creep feeding kids
  9. 9. Fencing Very important! Goats will go over, under and through inadequate fences. ● ● Fence #1: strong barrier such as page wire or boards Fence #2: deterant to climbing the barrier = electric wire With goats, good fences definitely make good neighbors
  10. 10. Feeding Goats are ruminants = 4 stomachs = chew cud = converts plant fibre indigestible to humans into meat and milk ● ● ● a healthy rumen houses a large and diverse community of microbes that consume plant fibre and release nutrients to the animal a healthy rumen means a healthy animal a healthy animal requires less chemical intervention in the form of anthelmintics (chemical wormers) and drugs like antibiotics
  11. 11. Rule #1: Feed the Rumen ● ● ● ● hay, grass, weeds, browse (branches, leaves and bark of trees and bushes) will keep the rumen healthy concentrates = grain and legumes - keep to a minimum and whole grains are better than ground ruminants make their own high quality protein in the rumen so don't need supplements concentrates will increase growth and production to a point but at a cost - find the balance and use them wisely
  12. 12. Health Maintenance ● ● ● high forage diet, including access to pasture with diverse plant species, and careful use of concentrates for production access to clean water at all times access to salt and goat minerals (BioAg) at all times ● regular hoof trimming ● good milking hygiene to avoid mastitis ● ● keep pasture and barn free of hazards to avoid injury vaccines?
  13. 13. Internal Parasite Management ● ● goats tend to have fewer parasite problems than sheep grazing animals will always carry a certain parasite load, your job is to prevent it from affecting their health and production ● rotational grazing is very helpful ● rotate with poultry or let them range with goats ● ● ● ● feed hay in the morning then let them out to graze once dew has lifted early kidding means kids are larger by the time they are on pasture and better able to handle parasites herbal wormers: mix of red clover, thyme, oregano, pumpkin seed, garlic, hyssop and wormwood (artemisia absinthium) chemical wormers when necessary and after fecal testing
  14. 14. Milking
  15. 15. Principles ● ● ● ● ● goats are seasonal breeders and usually seasonal milkers some goats will milk for 2-3 years without having to be bred you can milk once or twice/day keep kids on the does and you can milk only when you want to good hygiene is important for goat health and milk quality
  16. 16. Good Milk Quality ● keep all containers clean ● wash and dry udder before milking ● ● ● ● strip out the first few squirts of milk, check for abnormalities and discard (feed to cat!) milk the udder out completely and handle the udder carefully (squeeze, don't pull the teats!) dip the teats in a teat dip solution after milking if she doesn't have a kid with her, make sure you milk her on a regular schedule
  17. 17. Milk Quality cont'd ● ● ● ● ● if she is milking a kid, make sure you still monitor the udder and that both sides are being milked evenly filter milk through a proper filter (single use) before storing in clean glass or stainless steel containers cool milk as soon after milking as possible and store cold (coldest part of fridge) keep track of milk in the cooler so oldest milk is used first after 5 days, unpasteurized milk will start to turn so try to use it up before then
  18. 18. Cheese making
  19. 19. Cheeses - easiest to hardest ● ricotta and paneer ● mozarella ● chevre ● feta ● crottin ● gouda ● blue castello, fourme d'ambert ● cheddar, brie, camembert, gorgonzola
  20. 20. Costs ● ● ● ● ● Milking doe - $150 - $450 (grade - registered purebred) 50 - 60 bales first cut hay/goat/year @ $1.50$2.50/bale 25 bales second cut hay/goat/year @ $3.00$3.50/bale 200 kg oats/goat/year @ $0.43/kg other = milking supplies, feed for kids, minerals, vet, breeding costs
  21. 21. Costs cont'd ● equipment = milking stand, fencing, building, milk equipment, hoof trimmers, disbudding iron, feed buckets, heated water bucket = $500 and up ● cheese making equipment ● butchering fees ● your time = 180-200 hours/year not including cheese-making or butchering
  22. 22. References ● Natural Goat Care - Pat Coleby, Acres USA ● Living with Worms - Anne Macey, COG ● Fiasco Farm - ● GoatKeeper magazine -