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Energy, Metabolism And Performance


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Energy, Metabolism And Performance

  1. 1. Energy, Metabolism and Performance<br />Angela Corcoran MS, RCEP, CSCS<br />
  2. 2. Training For Marathons and Endurance Events<br />
  3. 3. Our Legacy<br />
  4. 4. Our Legacy<br />Horace Fletcher (1849-1919), nicknamed "The Great Masticator," was a well known and influential food and health faddist in early 20th century North AmericaFletcherism," for 24 years (from 1895 to 1919 . <br />This dogma taught that all food must be deliberately masticated and not swallowed until it turned to liquid. <br />Fletcher believed that prolonged chewing precluded overeating, led to better systemic and dental health, helped to reduce food intake, and consequently, conserved money. <br />People were cautioned not to eat except when they were "good and hungry," and to avoid dining when they were angry or worried. They were also told that they could eat any food that they wanted, as long as they chewed it until the "food swallowed itself." <br />J Hist Dent. 1997 Nov;45(3):95-100. Horace Fletcher (1849-1919): "The Great Masticator.".. Christen AG, Christen JA.Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis 46202-5186, USA.<br /> <br />
  5. 5. Our Legacy<br />“If you buy a dumbbell phone for use in Japan, there is an optional service to make sure you get the most out of your dumbbell phone. For an extra fee, your “personal fitness trainer” will call you every hour on the hour and make sure you pick up your phone. In Japan, that can mean 14, 16, or even 18 calls a day. The more overtime you work, the fitter you get.”<br />
  6. 6. Energy, Metabolism and Performance<br />The Basis of Personal Training <br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. 1st Law of Thermodynamics<br />
  9. 9. Basis of Human Energy<br />Carbohydrates<br />Fats<br />
  10. 10. Basis of Human Energy<br />Proteins<br />
  11. 11. Basis of Human Energy<br />Food Quality<br />Food Substrate<br />Food Calories<br />
  12. 12. Human Energy is ATP<br />
  13. 13. Percentage of Macronutrient Catabolism <br />
  14. 14. Metabolism<br />
  15. 15. Metabolism<br />the point of differentiation between Aerobic and Anaerobic metabolism is that <br />Aerobic metabolism is the form of metabolism that occurs in the cells Mitochondrion <br />Anaerobic metabolism is the form of metabolism that occurs in the cells Cytosol. <br />Let’s now also consider that process of anaerobic metabolism is also known as Glycolysis while the process of Aerobic metabolism is also known as the Citric Acid Cycle or the Respiratory Chain. <br /> <br />Exercise Physiology, Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance Sixth Edition. McArdle, Katch and Katch page 140<br />
  16. 16. Percentage of Energy Contribution<br />Approximately 4 Minutes<br />
  17. 17. Metabolism <br />Lactic Acid<br />The lactic acid molecule immediately releases a proton at physiologic pH and is termed lactate. (This will release ATP)<br /> As initial substrates decline, continued intense exercise becomes increasingly reliant on a high rate of glycolysis to regenerate ATP and enables glycolysis to continue (by releasing the H+). <br />Lactate production is a metabolic by-product not a detrimental one and should be viewed as a substrate. Lactate is associated with fatigue or pain but is not the cause. <br />Lactate concentrations are used as an indirect reflection of acidosis. A condition where H+ ions in abundance cause pain in the muscle.<br />H+<br />H+<br />O-2<br />H2O<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />O-2<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />O-2<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />H+<br />O-2<br />O-2<br />O-2<br />O-2<br />O-2<br />
  18. 18. Percentage of Energy Contribution<br />Approximately 4 Minutes<br />
  19. 19. Percentage of Energy Contribution<br />
  20. 20. Metabolism<br />
  21. 21. What is the final kick?<br />
  22. 22. Percentage of Energy Contribution<br />
  23. 23. Basic Training Principles <br />Often, aerobic metabolism is only associated with cardiovascular activity that is aerobic and not resistance training. However cardiovascular exercise is not always aerobic, and resistance training is not always anaerobic. By definition, “aerobic” means requiring oxygen. Therefore we can think of Aerobic exercise as any exercise that depends on oxygen for energy production. Requiring “oxygen” however does not mean cardiovascular. Recall that there are two metabolic pathways, one in the cells cytosoland one in the cells mitochondria.<br />ACSM Health and Fitness Journal<br />
  24. 24. Basic Training Principles <br />Overload Principle<br />regular application of a specific exercise overload enhances physiologic function to induce a training response.<br />
  25. 25. Basic Training Principles <br />Specificity Principle<br /> Refers to the adaptations in metabolic and physiologic functions that depend upon the stress and mode of overload imposed. <br />
  26. 26. Basic Training Principles <br />Specificity Principle<br /> Physiologic Attributes of Tri-athletes<br />Who’s more fit? Marthoners or Triathletes?<br />J Sci Med Sport, 2009 Jul 3 Physiologic Attributes of TriathletesSuriano R., Bishop D.: School of Human Movement and Exercise Science, the University of Wetern Australia<br />
  27. 27. Basic Training Principles <br />Specificity Principle<br />Specificity of VO2max<br />
  28. 28. Basic Training Principles <br />Specificity Principle<br />Specificity of Local Changes<br />
  29. 29. Basic Training Principles <br />Reversibility Principle<br />Physiologic function and performance adaptations decrease rapidly when stopping exercise. <br />Only 1-2 weeks of detraining reduces both metabolic and exercise capacity with many training improvements lost completely in a few months.<br />In fact strength gains are lost at a rate of 50% per week.<br />
  30. 30. Basic Training Principles <br />Initial level of aerobic fitness: aerobic fitness improvements with endurance training range between 5-25%<br />
  31. 31. Basic Training Principles <br />Training Intensity: Training induced physiologic adaptations depend primarily on the intensity of overload.<br />
  32. 32. Basic Training Principles <br />Training Intensity: Training induced physiologic adaptations depend primarily on the intensity of overload.<br />Training at Heart Rate Percentage: aerobic capacity improves if exercise intensity regularly maintains a heart rate of 55-70% of maximum. During lower body exercise this equals about 40-55% of VO2 max. Using the Karvonen formula this would place HR at about 60%. As aerobic fitness improves, sub maximal heart rates decrease about 10-20 BPM for a given level of exercise or oxygen consumption. When swimming or performing other “upper body” exercise, maximum heart rate will decrease about 13 BPM.<br />
  33. 33. Basic Training Principles <br />Training Intensity: Training induced physiologic adaptations depend primarily on the intensity of overload.<br />Train at the Lactate Threshold: Exercising at or slightly above the lactate threshold produces the best improvements for fit individuals. The RPE is an effective tool for determining that threshold. <br />
  34. 34. Aerobic Training<br />Proper endurance training overloads all components of oxygen transport and use.<br />When examining performance goals, it is clear that performances may have variable components that are reliant on one another, so that cross training with various intensities will enhance the overall performance.<br />
  35. 35. Fads, love them or leave them?<br />Shake Weights<br />Would this be more effective at toning the arms?<br />Why or why not?<br />Shape Ups<br />Ohio resident Holly Ward has filed a lawsuit against the company stating that she developed stress fractures in both hips as a result of wearing the shoes.Ward said that she wore the toning shoes during her job as a waitress and, after five months, developed severe pain in her hips. According to the lawsuit, the 38-year-old had no previous injuries and had a healthy bone density of a young woman, thereby alleging that the shoes were the culprits of her stress fractures.<br />
  36. 36. Fads, love them or leave them?<br />HIIT<br />Would this be more effective at “burning fat”?<br />Why or why not?<br />Fartlek Training/Wave Training<br />Frequency: 1time per week<br />Duration: 20-60 min<br />Intensity: between LSD and pace/tempo training( 75-90%) easy running with short fast bursts of running<br />Benefits: VO2 max, increased lactate threshold, improved running economy and fuel utilization.<br />Is this different than Circuit Training?<br />
  37. 37. Fads, love them or leave them?<br />High Volume Resistance Training<br />Resistance exercise prescription in excess of 4-sets (i.e. 8-sets) for faster and greater strength gains as compared to 1-set training. Common neuromuscular changes are attributed to high intensity squats (80% 1-RM) combined with a repetition to failure prescription. This prescription may not be useful for sports application owing to decreased early and peak contractile rate of force development . Individual responsiveness to 1-set of training should be evaluated in the first 3-weeks of training.<br />Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Mar 31. [Epub ahead of print] Strength and neuromuscular adaptation following one, four, and eight sets of high intensity resistance exercise in trained males. Marshall PW, McEwen M, Robbins DW. School of Biomedical and Health Science, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia,<br />
  38. 38. Fads, love them or leave them?<br />P90X<br />What is it?<br />Are there benefits?<br />Are their harmful side effects?<br />Who is this for?<br />
  39. 39. Fads, love them or leave them?<br />Whole Body Vibration Training<br />In the study, Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study. Verschue et al. concluded that WBV training may be a feasible and effective way to modify well-recognized risk factors for falls and fractures in older women. <br />Another study done at the University of Florida found that handheld vibration may help maintain glenohumeral internal rotation that is vital to the healthy and competitive throwing shoulder. <br />When looking at recreationally trained men, an acute 30-second bout of vertical WBV at 40 Hz and 8-mm peak-to-peak displacement significantly enhances explosive jumping performance in comparison to other frequencies.. <br />J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Mar;19(3):352-9. Epub 2003 Dec 22.Effect of 6-month whole body vibration training on hip density, muscle strength, and postural control in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled pilot study.VerschuerenSM, Roelants M, Delecluse C, Swinnen S, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S.<br /> IntJ Sports Med. 2009 Dec;30(12):868-71.Handheld vibration effects shoulder motion. Tripp BL, Eberman LE, Dwelly PM.<br />J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Feb 24. [Epub ahead of print]The Acute Effect of Different Frequencies of Whole-Body Vibration on Countermovement Jump Performance.TurnerAP, Sanderson MF, Attwood LA.<br /> <br />
  40. 40. Fads, love them or leave them?<br />Whole Body Vibration Training<br />There is no reputable literature that supports the claim that vibration therapy effectively promotes fat loss.<br /> <br />
  41. 41. What is your role as a Personal Trainer?<br />Expert<br />Professional<br />Know the science behind the training method.<br />Know the science behind various conditions/diseases that may affect your client.<br />Understand safe and effective implementation of exercise.<br />Consider each clients background before starting exercise.<br />Get results <br />Stay on top of current trends<br />Understand technology<br />Communicate effectively, listen first and avoid information dump.<br />Motivate your client to want to exercise<br />Coach your clients to achieve specific results <br />Manage time effectively<br />Dress appropriately<br />Incorporate trends only when appropriate<br />Keep detailed records using technology.<br />
  42. 42. What is your role as a Personal Trainer?<br />
  43. 43. What is your role as a Personal Trainer?<br />Understand the science; make it an art.<br />