I suspect you will see many presentations on 5G – I certainly have on my travels.
Most of them are full of technical promise of what can be achieved so today I want to show you examples of what 5G is going to be used for….
The biggest difference between 4G and 5G design requirements is the diversity of use-cases that 5G networks must support as compared to 4G networks that were primarily designed for the single use-case of delivering high speed mobile broadband.
5G is the new generation of radio systems and network architecture delivering extreme broadband and ultra robust, low latency connectivity and massive networking for the Internet of Things to enable the programmable world, which will transform our individual lives, economy and society.
What 5G will be good for and what technical requirements that imposes on the network have become quite clear. The industry has widely adopted Nokia’s view that 5G will be about people and things as per the following three use case categories: 1. Massive broadband that delivers gigabytes of bandwidth on demand 2. Critical machine-type communication that allows for the immediate, synchronous eye-hand feedback that enables remote control over robots 3. Massive machine-type communication that connects billions of sensors and machines
So lets take a look at these three areas : extreme mobile broadband, massive machine communication and critical machine communication and what they mean for vendors, operators and most importantly consumers.
Netflix - High Definition (HD) streaming expect around 156GB per month
On-line Gaming: The biggest consideration these days is for those of us who buy games through online stores and download the game files. These files can be 50GB or more
General web browsing and email - The average Australian spends around 48 hours browsing the web per month or about 7GB per month per person.
Renting movies & TV shows A standard length movie on iTunes requires 4GB for a HD file and about 1.5GB for a SD copy. TV shows about 1.5GB for HD and 800MB for SD
Facebook & social media: Mark Zuckerberg claims the average US user spends around 40 minutes per day on the service. 2MB of data was consumed per minute. Two teenagers would be using a good 4GB per month
YouTube: For every 5 minutes of 720p video footage on YouTube you're using up around 37.5MB of data. In 2012, the average YouTube viewer watched 6 hours of video per month.
Need to show growth of Netflix and corresponding network traffic
Explosion of 4K / 8 K video
Virtual reality – theme of mwc 2016 – what data rates are required.
Story of son in Singapore – never experienced broadcast.
Today's Radio are mainly worked <6GHz, 5G need band >6GHZ, up to 100GHz. Low band radio has better penetration characteristic, so good for coverage, high mobility and reliability. While there are small available free bands and bands tend to be fragmented for <6GHz. While High band has more free bands, so good for capacity and massive throughput Different bands has different recommended bandwidth. X*20M(<6GHz), x*100MHz(cmWave), 1~2GHz (mmWave) FDD for low(er) bands and TDD for high(er) bands; low band is good for coverage, used for Macro, TDD has weakness of UL coverage limit compared with DL(due to limit Maximum UE transmission power) when used in macro. high band is for capacity and used in small cell. besides TDD has advantageous of DL and UL resource can be adjusted to reflect asymmetric real traffic . (other advantageous like one Duplex to lower down cost…) Low band have fragmented bands available, Carrier aggregation is important technique to use these non contiguous bands Besides, if no exclusive band available for cellular in low band, Spectrum sharing between operators (e.g. Co-Primary sharing) and other incumbents (e.g. LSA/Licensed Shared Access, ASA/authorized Shared Access) as a complementary solution for getting additional spectrum Exploration of above 6 GHz bands for mobile access beside backhaul Operator benefits More exclusive spectrum Exclusive sharing of bands with other incumbents to provide predictable QoS Refarming of ‘legacy’ bands Innovation examples Nokia leads spectrum work package in METIS I and will continue leading in coming 5G PPP METIS II (METIS is Europe funded project for 5G) Channel and propagation measurements (e.g. with Finland/Aalto, USA/NYU, Denmark/AAU…), leading channel modeling know-how Worlds first LSA/ASA trail and demo. Work with Google on 3.5GHz. Worlds first UHF eMBMS trail
5G Demo: mmWave Radio Why is this exciting? Bell Labs have created pre-commercial 73GHz mmWave access system delivering 15Gb/s over a 2GHz bandwidth, unlocking the massive potential of mmWave for multi-gigabit-per-second wireless access.
Why is it important? The ultra-high capacity delivered is the key to advanced services such as burst-mode wireless delivery of 4k videos, virtual 3D presence and unprecedented high-speed fixed wireless access to the home.
What is the enabling technology innovation? A high-sensitivity receiver opens up the use of 64QAM with 2x2 MIMO, thereby enabling the record speeds of 15Gb/s in the 73GHz band.
WRC2015 outcome Agenda Item for WRC 2019 to identify spectrum for IMT2020 Ongoing studies will focus on bands: 24.25-27.5 GHz 37-40.5 GHz 42.5-43.5 GHz 45.5-47 GHz 47.2-50.2 GHz 50.4-52.6 GHz 66-76 GHz 81-86 GHz UHF band will be revisited in WRC 2023
Nokia’s view on 5G development Currently 5G is in exploration phase, however there is a clear roadmap for standardization and commercialization. 2015 is all about a variety of demos and intense collaboration in the industry Standardization in 3GPP has started and will be in full swing 2017. We will see a considerable number of field trials in 2016 providing real-live experience with 5G technology and further refinements. Nokia plans to launch the first pre-standard 5G solution in 2017. There will be pre-standardized 5G trial deployments for the Olympics in Korea in 2018, very first commercial deployments for Olympics in Japan in 2020 From 2020 onwards: first commercial 5G networks are going to be deployed. globally.
In order to meet industry needs and timelines Nokia has implemented a clear roadmap.
Nokia 5G includes revolution 5G RAT and also LTE-A evolution. LTE-M will play main role for massive machine communication (small, infrequent & low cost data transfer). Massive machine communication needs low cost, low power consumption and good coverage(e.g. some meters are in basement). LTE-M is under discussion in 3GPP R13. Different techniques have been used for Power saving to achieve >10 years battery life with two AA batteries. Extended Discontinuous Reception (DRX) to enable Longer sleeping cycles, wake only when need transmitting data. Less signaling for wakeup, plus “Power saving mode” which was accepted in Rel12 as one NAS for idle mode. Low cost can be achieved by remove unnessecary functions in transmitters and receivers, e.g. Narrowband transmission, Reduced transmit power, Limited downlink transmission modes, UE processing relaxations Coverage is increased via Repetition, power spectral density boosts, and New coding, which leads to 4 times more coverage compared to Rel. 12.
(In case question about “new coding”, there’s discussion of whether to replace Turbo encoding to convolution encoding for UL data transmission, here ‘new’ refers to changes of the coding method. But both Turbo and convolution code are from legacy coding scheme. Kind of new that there’s change)
Nokia has already shown 1st live LTE-M demo on commercial Nokia FlexiZone and core in MWC 2015 working together with KT.
Why is this exciting? Autonomous cars need to be connected to “the cloud” to make the system work as a whole. It is not sufficient to put sensors on the cars and let each car do the driving control by themselves, high traffic system performance requires tight network control, basically every millisecond, reliable all the time. And therefore 5G is needed. Why is it important? One of 5G's biggest promises is ultra-low latency, delivering uninterrupted communication flow to driverless cars. That could dramatically improve vehicle safety and reduce congestion. What are the enabling technology innovations? Live demonstration shows how architectural principles like SDN, NFV, split of user/control plane, and distributed network components in the edge cloud work together with a new air interface to enable autonomous driving. There is a clear effect of 5G vs. LTE connectivity in the behavior of the cars, such as more timely commutes.
In order to introduce support low latency services, the GW and application (MEC) should be introduced close to the radio. Depending on the location of the communicating devices, switching happens either at the radio or in an aggregator cloud. Furthermore, it should be ensured that service continuity is achieved when the communicating devices are fully mobile.