The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) is a federal government authority which regulates broadcasting, the internet, radio-communications and telecommunications. The ACMA managethe ‘Do not call register’ and is responsible for enforcing the Spam Act as well as coordinating and overseeing Australia’s transition to digital television. Complaints about something you have seen on TV or heard on the radio and spam are investigated by the ACMA. The reporting of online child abuse material and other prohibited content is also one the ACMA’s roles. In addition to the ACMA’s regulatory role the ACMA also provides educational awareness information and programs. The ACMA Cybersmart Outreach Program is raising awareness of online risks and teaching strategies to minimise risk to help students stay safe online. We do this by giving presentations like tonight to students, teachers parents and final year trainee teachers at university.
The adolescence experience is characterised by:1. The search for personal identity, experimentation, belonging, inclusion, acceptance and interaction. In early adolescence there are physical changes - anxiety about body shape, brain changes, sexuality, sensitive-hormonal changes, same sex friends. Social networking has become an organic and established part of life around 13 years old for the majority. By middle adolescence identity formation is important.Risk-taking is part of this process and peer groups take on greater relevance. There is less of a family focus and will often push adults away. Social networking becomes a primary means of building, negotiating and presenting their social identities. There is a high need for parents/mentors during this stage. The frontal cortex still not fully developed.2. It is a time of peer influence. Actions and behaviours are influenced by peer pressure and the need for peer approval. The creation of a positive or negative digital footprint can be influenced by those they are interacting with. Social groups are at times fluid. It is during this period we see cyberbullying peaking.3. During adolescence, teenagers become aware of their sexual identity. Online behaviours indicating this includes sexting, seeking contact with strangers and accessing adult content. Gender, social and cultural differences are explored and when young people are forming relationships password sharing is often an indication of commitment. Education around the risks of geo tagging is most suited to this stage.4. This is the age at which the potential for risk taking is at its highest. Education around the legal and social consequences of online actions is paramount. There online language dominated by Facebook centric terms.6. Adolescents seek privacy. Regulating their online/offline balance is sometimes difficult giving the ownership of many devices. The digital divide becomes more evident between them and the significant adults in their lives. Social networking dominates their interactions. Although looking for freedom from authority, they crave fair, negotiated rules, limits and boundaries. Linked to this characteristic is regular reminders of what constitutes respectful communication.
Cybersmart Presentation- Young Australians, Social Media & Cyberbullying- National Centre Against Bullying Conference
„Part and parcel‟ – Young Australians,cyberbullying and social mediaRosalie O‟Neale Dr Matthew DobsonCybersafety Outreach Digital Society Policy and ResearchNational Centre Against BullyingConferenceMelbourne 15-16 June 2012
The Australian Communications and Media Authority isresponsible for the regulation of telecommunications,internet, broadcasting and radio-communications
About the Cybersmart program• Cybersmart: the national cybersafety and cybersecurity education program managed by the ACMA.• Part of the Australian Government‟s commitment to keeping children and families safe online.
Role of research• Research identifies issues, audiences, attitudes and behaviours and information needs.• Allows for development of targeted and tailored education programs and resources.• Ongoing informal and formal review of programs and resources, to ensure accessibility, usability, and utility.
ACMA research• The ACMA‟s research program examines the role of online interaction and new technologies in the lives of Australian children and young people (CYP).• Research assists ACMA to “keep up with the kids” and will inform future Cybersmart program initiatives.• This recent study is a 3 year follow up to ACMA‟s original 2009 Click and Connect research on CYP use of online social networking services.• Quantitative study to be completed in 2012.
Research objectives• Understand children and young people‟s attitudes and perceptions toward social networking services.• Identify attitudes and behaviours which profile children and young people‟s online risk level.• Understand children and young people‟s self-management of online risk, including through protective behaviours and resilience.• Explore the role of families and peers in children and young people‟s experience and use of social networking services.
Current ACMA Research• Quantitative research design: • Online survey sample n=1500 • Three distinct surveys instruments: • Parents • Children aged 8-11 and • Young people aged 12-17• Additional questions on witnessing bullying & bystander intervention.• Fieldwork conducted in June 2012.
Methodology• Qualitative research design: • Six group discussions with 13 to 17 year olds • Six in-home depth interviews in friendships pairs with 8 to 12 year olds • Four in-home ethnographic immersions with 12 to 15 year olds• Fieldwork conducted in June 2011 across different metropolitan and regional settings: Sydney, Adelaide, Coffs Harbour, Armidale and Murray Bridge.
Internet usage patterns• 8 to 9 year olds have limited repertoires and are closely supervised.• By 10 to 12 years, children are starting to seek information online.• By 13 to 14 years, the majority are using the internet to socialise.• At 15 to 17 years young people are independently engaged with the internet.
As CYP age, the internet meets an increasing number of needs I want to shop, bank etc I want to engage with other people (social networking) I want to know a piece of information (searching and research) I want to be passively entertained (browsing, consuming content) I want to be actively entertained (gaming) 10 – 12 13 – 14 15 – 17 8 - 9 years years years years
Social Networking Services• Facebook dominates the field of user-generated online social networks.• From the age of 13+ CYP expect to engage online using Facebook as their social networking service.• The language of social networking is dominated by Facebook- centric terms – Now, CYP talk exclusively in terms of their Facebook use when referring to their online social networking.
Social networking services are central to creating andpresenting CYP identities A number of activities on Facebook has become central Facebook can signal identity: to identity building: • Who you are friends with • It has become a vital conduit • What you write in your status through which CYP build, negotiate and project their • The pictures you put up of identities yourself • With many CYP who are less • The content you share socially confident, using it in • The things you ‘like’ some cases more than the real world to do so (keyboard • The comments you make on warriors) other people’s content • Facebook is a particularly powerful identity tool as it allows a public expression of identity to reach a wide audience
However, CYP recognise that there are twokey risks with social networking services Cyberbullying Privacy • CYP recognise that cyberbullying • CYP are aware that they potentially happens „open themselves up‟ to other people • Have either experienced it themselves, • Some degree of risk to personal safety is through friends, or witnessed it acknowledged, although mostly confined • Recognise that it can happen easily, to the extremes quickly and can rapidly escalate • There is a strong feeling that there are a • Often involves a significant number of lot of „weirdos‟ / undesirables out there people
Cyberbullying• Cyberbullying perceived by children to be an inevitable consequence of using social networks. “It‟s sort of part and parcel of it all. You use social networks and you‟re going to see cyberbullying.”• Impact of online „distance”. ”I reckon some people get this extra confidence to be someone different online. They‟ll say all this stuff there is no way they‟d say to your face.”
Privacy risks• Personal information “There is no way I‟d ever give out my personal information over the internet. I don‟t have my phone number on there, or my address, that‟s just stupid.” “When people check-in at home it just makes me laugh. They‟re so stupid, now everyone knows where they live.”• Digital footprint “You don‟t really think about that. It‟s sort of far away and I‟m sure when we‟re older and have to get jobs and that we might need to think about it, but right now it doesn‟t really matter.”
Risks• Contact “If you just use your common sense and don‟t do things like make friends with complete randoms, then you‟ll be fine. Make everything private and you don‟t have much to worry about.”• Content “Sometimes I do see naughty things but I just click the red cross straight away.” “I‟ve found heaps of funny stuff that I wouldn‟t tell my mum about but it‟s funny to send to people from school to try and gross them out.”
Role of parents• Parental role changes over time.• Parental IT literacy a critical factor in their ability to engage, understand and mediate their child‟s internet use. “Like, my parents don‟t have a clue about computers so I think why should I listen to them, they don‟t even know what it is I‟m doing really, so their advice is useless.“
Role of siblings• Older siblings play multiple roles: • Set expectations • Act as a source of risk through exposure to inappropriate content • Act as „protectors‟ as they Partner with parents to educate• Older siblings often display a sense of responsibility for their younger siblings. “I have thought before about whether or not I‟d like my little brother to see this or that and it does make you think about what you‟re looking at sometimes.”
Role of peers• Peer influence is often greater than that of parents or siblings. “Lots of the things I do on the internet is stuff my friends all do too. Sometimes we even do things online together.”• Examples of online behaviour that can be influenced by peers include: • the type of content consumed • the manner of interacting online with others • the level of online „sharing‟ undertaken, including posts and geo-spatial social networking • the likelihood of making contact with others, including strangers
Education needs• As CYP age their exposure to new education materials diminishes as does their interest in the subject matter.• Perception among research participants that when it comes to cybersafety they “know it all.”• Older teenagers felt that there was a need to present cybersafety education in new, interesting, and personally relevant ways.• The emergence of new technologies – geo-spatial and mobile social networking – requires tailored cybersafety education programs in order to effectively reach CYP.
Part and parcel • The place of technology in young people‟s lives • The experience of cyberbullying • The continuing need to provide young people with the knowledge and skills to engage in a positive way with the virtual world.
Our challenge• Seen it all /Heard it all / Know it all• Cutting through the clutter• Finding a solution: • Learning • Listening • Talking
Key questions• Who is the audience that most needs this resource?• What does it need to address?• What do we want to achieve• How do we package it? (and deliver it)• How do we support it?• How will we know it‟s worked?
But!• Exposure to online risk does not always = harm• Risky experiences can help develop coping strategies, resilience• Limiting experiences may increase vulnerability• Our ultimate goal is a positive one
What are the issues?• Cyberbullying• Sexting• Digital reputation• Digital citizenship
Building and deliveringTagged• A learning partnership• Looking at the evidence• Being clear about the aims• Preferred format• Consultation
How do we know Tagged is working?• Formal evaluation• Feedback• Awards
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