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Joakim Nivre - 2017 - Presidential Address ACL 2017: Challenges for ACL

Association for Computational Linguistics
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Presidential Address to the ACL by Professor Joakim Nivre (Uppsala Universitet) for ACL 2017. 31 Jul 2017. Vancouver, Canada License: CC BY 4.0

Joakim Nivre - 2017 - Presidential Address ACL 2017: Challenges for ACL

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Challenges for ACL
ACL Presidential Address 2017
Joakim Nivre
(A)CL is booming!
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Joakim Nivre - 2017 - Presidential Address ACL 2017: Challenges for ACL
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Joakim Nivre - 2017 - Presidential Address ACL 2017: Challenges for ACL

  • 1. Challenges for ACL ACL Presidential Address 2017 Joakim Nivre
  • 3. 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 ACL submissions (A)CL is booming!
  • 4. 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 ACL submissions 92 93 94 95 96 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 UAS on WSJ (A)CL is booming!
  • 5. The future is bright!
  • 8. Challenges for ACL Equity and Diversity Publishing and Reviewing Good Science
  • 9. Can you spot the mistake? ACL Presidents 2009–2017
  • 10. Only four of them are wearing funny hats? Can you spot the mistake? ACL Presidents 2009–2017
  • 11. Can you spot the mistake? ACL Presidents 2009–2017 Has Jack Lemmon really 
 been ACL president?
  • 12. Can you spot the mistake? ACL Presidents 2009–2017
  • 13. Can you spot the mistake? ACL Presidents 2009–2017 I didn’t spot it three years ago!
  • 15. A biased world? The Matthew/Matilda effect in science Robert K. Merton, Science, 1968 Margaret W. Rossiter, Social Studies of Science, 1993
  • 16. A biased world? The Matthew/Matilda effect in science Robert K. Merton, Science, 1968 Margaret W. Rossiter, Social Studies of Science, 1993 Nepotism and sexism in peer-review Christine Wennerås and Agnes Wold, Nature, 1997
  • 17. A biased world? The Matthew/Matilda effect in science Robert K. Merton, Science, 1968 Margaret W. Rossiter, Social Studies of Science, 1993 Nepotism and sexism in peer-review Christine Wennerås and Agnes Wold, Nature, 1997 Awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s Anne E. Lincoln, Stephanie Pincus, Janet Bandows Koster 
 and Phoebe S. Leboy, Social Studies of Science, 2012
  • 18. A biased world? The Matthew/Matilda effect in science Robert K. Merton, Science, 1968 Margaret W. Rossiter, Social Studies of Science, 1993 Nepotism and sexism in peer-review Christine Wennerås and Agnes Wold, Nature, 1997 Awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s Anne E. Lincoln, Stephanie Pincus, Janet Bandows Koster 
 and Phoebe S. Leboy, Social Studies of Science, 2012 Nationality, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, …
  • 19. Why does it matter?
  • 20. Why does it matter? Equity “The acceptance or rejection of claims entering the lists of science is not to depend on the personal or social attributes of their protagonist; […] race, nationality, religion, class, and personal qualities are as such irrelevant.” Robert K. Merton. Science and Technology in a Democratic Order. 
 Journal of Legal and Political Sociology, 1: 115–126, 1942.
  • 21. Why does it matter? Equity “The acceptance or rejection of claims entering the lists of science is not to depend on the personal or social attributes of their protagonist; […] race, nationality, religion, class, and personal qualities are as such irrelevant.” Diversity “Decades of research by organizational scientists, psychologists, sociologists, economists and demographers show that socially diverse groups (that is, those with a diversity of race, ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation) are more innovative than homogeneous groups.” Robert K. Merton. Science and Technology in a Democratic Order. 
 Journal of Legal and Political Sociology, 1: 115–126, 1942. Katherine W. Phillips. How Diversity Makes Us Smarter. 
 Scientific American, October 1, 2014.
  • 22. What is ACL doing?
  • 23. What is ACL doing? A new nominating committee
  • 24. What is ACL doing? Revised selection criteria for ACL fellows A new nominating committee
  • 25. What is ACL doing? Revised selection criteria for ACL fellows Promoting a large and diverse pool of nominations A new nominating committee
  • 26. What is ACL doing? Revised selection criteria for ACL fellows Promoting a large and diverse pool of nominations Resources for promoting diversity and preventing bias A new nominating committee
  • 33. CL TACL ACL NAACL EMNLP 264 182 328 3926 • We like conferences The ACL Publishing Model
  • 34. • We like conferences • We use anonymous peer review (almost everywhere) The ACL Publishing Model
  • 35. • We like conferences • We use anonymous peer review (almost everywhere) • And then there is this thing called arXiv … The ACL Publishing Model
  • 37. Peer review • First used by PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Society, London, 1665 • Standard in scientific journals from the mid-20th century • Meant to guarantee scientific quality – “organized scepticism”
  • 38. Peer review • First used by PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Society, London, 1665 • Standard in scientific journals from the mid-20th century • Meant to guarantee scientific quality – “organized scepticism” Double-blind peer review • Popularized by sociology journals in the 1950s • Less common in natural sciences and engineering • Meant to reduce author bias – the Matthew/Matilda effect
  • 40. Odds multipliers from double-blind to single-blind review: • Famous authors: 1.66 • Top universities: 1.61 • Top companies: 2.10
  • 41. • 701 reviewers participated in a survey in June 2017 • 30% claimed they could identify the authors of a paper • 17% contributed 196 unique guesses Exact Partial Institution Incorrect Aurélie Névéol Karën Fort EMNLP 2017 Reviewer Survey on Double-Blind Reviewing Report available at: 
 https://www.aclweb.org/portal/ 41%16%38%5% Rebecca Hwa
  • 43. 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 ACL submissions Are we overusing peer review? • Increased volumes lead to reviewer fatigue and lower quality • Conferences lose their role as a discussion forum for new ideas • Scientific gatekeeping should be left to journals?
  • 44. Are we overusing peer review? • Increased volumes lead to reviewer fatigue and lower quality • Conferences lose their role as a discussion forum for new ideas • Scientific gatekeeping should be left to journals? Ideas to consider • Prescreening to reduce reviewer load (and increase quality) • Journal-style reviewing with rolling deadline for long papers • Abstract submission for short papers/posters
  • 45. Are we overusing peer review? • Increased volumes lead to reviewer fatigue and lower quality • Conferences lose their role as a discussion forum for new ideas • Scientific gatekeeping should be left to journals? Ideas to consider • Prescreening to reduce reviewer load (and increase quality) • Journal-style reviewing with rolling deadline for long papers • Abstract submission for short papers/posters How to combine our model with preprints on arXiv?
  • 47. FAST Speeds up scientific advances? Threatens scholarly thoroughness?
  • 48. OPEN Anyone can publish, anyone can read and discuss Papers can be revised with version control
  • 49. PEER REVIEW Openness undermines double-blind review Should preprints be cited in peer reviewed work?
  • 50. ACL Survey on Preprint Publishing and Reviewing • Run during three weeks in June 2017 • 623 complete responses • Full report available at: https://www.aclweb.org/portal/ Jennifer Foster Marti Hearst Shiqi Zhao
  • 51. 22% upload to preprint servers always or often • More likely user: graduate student, male • Less likely user: academic researcher, female 27% cite preprints often or very often • Frequent users are more likely to cite often ACL Survey on Preprint Publishing and Reviewing Do you upload preprints? Do you cite preprints? Never Seldom Sometimes Often Always 8%14%25%19%34% 11%16%27%30%15%
  • 52. 88% consider double-blind reviewing important • 65% consider it more important than preprint publishing • 9% consider preprint publishing more important ACL Survey on Preprint Publishing and Reviewing Which is more important? Double-blind Both Preprint Neither 9%65% 23%
  • 53. 87% would submit to ACL if preprints were banned • 5% would probably stop submitting to ACL ACL Survey on Preprint Publishing and Reviewing Would you still submit? Definitely yes Probably yes Maybe Probably not Definitely not 70% 17% 8% 4%
  • 54. ACL Survey on Preprint Publishing and Reviewing 0 75 150 225 300 No reviewing Open reviewing Single-blind reviewing Status quo Discourage preprints Ban preprints How would you like to see ACL’s reviewing model working in the future?
  • 55. ACL Survey on Preprint Publishing and Reviewing 0 90 180 270 360 Lobby preprint servers to allow papers to be anonymously uploaded Make available author guidelines for citing preprint papers Have a separate track at ACL for preprint papers Journal-style reviewing with a rolling deadline (with CL and/or TACL) The following are some actions suggested by members of the community. 
 Please indicate which, if any, you would like to see implemented.
  • 57. Conclusions – Survey • Strong support for double-blind reviewing in community
  • 58. Conclusions – Survey • Strong support for double-blind reviewing in community • Weak support for completely banning preprints
  • 59. Conclusions – Survey • Strong support for double-blind reviewing in community • Weak support for completely banning preprints • Temporarily anonymous preprints is worth looking into
  • 60. Conclusions – Survey • Strong support for double-blind reviewing in community • Weak support for completely banning preprints • Temporarily anonymous preprints is worth looking into • Guidelines for citing preprints are needed
  • 61. Conclusions – Survey • Strong support for double-blind reviewing in community • Weak support for completely banning preprints • Temporarily anonymous preprints is worth looking into • Guidelines for citing preprints are needed • Many are concerned about reviewing quality
  • 62. Conclusions – Survey • Strong support for double-blind reviewing in community • Weak support for completely banning preprints • Temporarily anonymous preprints is worth looking into • Guidelines for citing preprints are needed • Many are concerned about reviewing quality • We have to work both long-term and short-term
  • 63. • More detailed analysis of the survey • Invited quick-fire position statements • Open discussion about publishing and reviewing ACL Business Meeting Wednesday, August 2, 13:00-14:30
  • 65. Good Science 92 93 94 95 96 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 UAS on WSJ
  • 66. Good Science 92 93 94 95 96 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 UAS on WSJ “Measurement as a virtue in itself”
  • 67. Good Science “Lots of numbers with very small differences” 92 93 94 95 96 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 UAS on WSJ “Measurement as a virtue in itself”
  • 68. Good Science “Lots of numbers with very small differences” “What are the research questions?” 92 93 94 95 96 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 UAS on WSJ “Measurement as a virtue in itself”
  • 70. Experimental Science • Experiments are run to test hypotheses
  • 71. Experimental Science • Experiments are run to test hypotheses • Hypotheses are tentative theoretical explanations morphological segmentation facilitates syntactic parsing system A outperforms system B on data set C
  • 72. Experimental Science • Experiments are run to test hypotheses • Hypotheses are tentative theoretical explanations morphological segmentation facilitates syntactic parsing system A outperforms system B on data set C • Validating hypotheses requires repeated testing
  • 74. Replicability • Repeating the same experiment with the same result • Necessary to establish the reliability of measurements • Enables benchmarking and “fair” comparisons – fast science Reproducible Science
  • 75. Replicability • Repeating the same experiment with the same result • Necessary to establish the reliability of measurements • Enables benchmarking and “fair” comparisons – fast science Reproducibility • Repeating a similar experiment with a similar result • Necessary to establish the validity of hypotheses • Requires repeated testing and comparative analysis – slow science Reproducible Science
  • 76. Replicability • Repeating the same experiment with the same result • Necessary to establish the reliability of measurements • Enables benchmarking and “fair” comparisons – fast science Reproducibility • Repeating a similar experiment with a similar result • Necessary to establish the validity of hypotheses • Requires repeated testing and comparative analysis – slow science Reproducible Science We need both!
  • 77. Replicability • Repeating the same experiment with the same result • Necessary to establish the reliability of measurements • Enables benchmarking and “fair” comparisons – fast science Reproducibility • Repeating a similar experiment with a similar result • Necessary to establish the validity of hypotheses • Requires repeated testing and comparative analysis – slow science Reproducible Science We need both! We need diversity!
  • 79. Everything is connected … Publishing and reviewing • Our traditional publishing model has a bias towards fast science • Reinforced by increasing reviewer loads • Accelerated by preprint publishing
  • 80. Everything is connected … Publishing and reviewing • Our traditional publishing model has a bias towards fast science • Reinforced by increasing reviewer loads • Accelerated by preprint publishing Equity and diversity • We need diversity and innovation in research and publishing • A more inclusive and diverse community is more likely to give us that
  • 82. Keep up the good work!