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Planyc 2011 planyc_full_report

  1. 1. UPDATE april 2011 NEW YORK The City of New York Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg
  2. 2. This page left blank intentionally. Please print this plan using the double-sided printer setting.
  3. 3. 2 Introduction 16 Housing and Neighborhoods 30 Parks and Public Space 46 Brownfields 58 Waterways 74 Water Supply 86 Transportation100 Energy118 Air Quality132 Solid Waste146 Climate Change160 Cross Cutting Topics178 Appendices A greener, greater new york A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 1
  4. 4. 2 IntroductionCredit: NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S. /Japan ASTER Science Team
  5. 5. Four years ago we asked what we want our The Plan focuses on the physical city, andcity to look and feel like in 2030. the functionality of its infrastructure in our everyday lives: housing that is too often tooA growing population, aging infrastructure, expensive, neighborhoods that need morea changing climate, and an evolving economy playgrounds, aged water and power systemsposed challenges to our city’s success and quality overdue for upgrade, congested streets andof life. But we recognized that we will determine crowded subways. If these challenges remainour own future by how we respond to and shape unaddressed, we will undermine our economythese changes with our own actions. and our quality of life.We created PlaNYC as a bold agenda to meet Our city’s history teaches us that investing inthese challenges and build a greener, greater our future is not a luxury, but an imperative.New York. In the 19th century, innovative and ambitious investments in infrastructure like the CrotonThis effort has yielded tremendous results. water system and the Brooklyn Bridge, plusIn just four years we’ve added more than 200 an unprecedented influx of new people, firmlyacres of parkland while improving our existing established New York as the nation’s leadingparks. We’ve created or preserved more than city. In ensuing decades, the city’s dynamism64,000 units of affordable housing. We’ve and ability to reinvent itself, exemplified by newprovided New Yorkers with more transportation investments in subways, skyscrapers, sanitation,choices. We’ve enacted ambitious laws to make and sewers all propelled New York’s status as aexisting buildings more energy-efficient. And our global leader in infrastructure and innovation.greenhouse gas emissions have fallen 13% below2005 levels. That’s the story of our city, century after century. Times change, but New York City often leadsNow we must do more. the change. The key to New York’s success has always been our leaders’ foresight and courageToday, we put forward an updated plan that to boldly meet challenges and capitalize onbuilds upon the progress and lessons of the opportunities.past four years. Those are our aims with PlaNYC.PlaNYC complements other City efforts, suchas those we are making on crime, poverty,education, public health, or social services. A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 3
  6. 6. 4
  7. 7. Our Challenges and Opportunities For New York to thrive, we must accommodate a growing population, invest in and maintain our infrastructure, enhance our economic competitiveness, and improve the quality of our air and water, while reducing our contributions to climate change and preparing for its effects. Growth New York City’s population is still growing. By 2030 we project that our population will increase to more than 9 million, some newcomers and some who are already here, along with their children and grandchildren. This growth, if properly planned for, offers tremendous opportunities. New people bring new ideas and innovation to our economy. Growth can enrich our communities and add to the energy and diversity of our city. But unplanned growth—development in places that don’t make sense and that out-strips the capacity of public infrastructure—can burden our city and harm everyone’s quality of life. As we plan for a growing population, we must think not just of our quantitative goals but also of our qualitative desires. While we build more capacity in statistical terms like housing units and subway mileage, we must simultaneously realize our task is to preserve and maintain neighborhoods that people want to live in, or where they can start new businesses. As New York City gets bigger, it’s up to us to make sure it gets better as well.Credit: Pablo Fernandez; TF Cornerstone Construction New construction in Long Island City, Queens A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 5
  8. 8. Infrastructure Serving our people, attracting and supporting innovation and entrepreneurs, and preparing our city for the effects of climate change requires a visionary approach to the design, financing, and maintenance of our shared physical space and infrastructure. From the subways we ride on, to the pipes that deliver our drinking water, to the power lines that bring electricity into our homes and offices, we rely on an inherited array of invaluable infrastructure to meet our basic needs. The New Yorkers who built these systems looked beyond the short-term and planned for a city that could outlast its challenges and continue to prosper beyond their own lifetimes. We must have equal foresight. Today, in some respects, we are living on the limits of our inheritance. With ridership at its highest levels in half a century, our subways are increasingly jammed. Our bridges, some over 100 years old, are in need of repair, or even replacement. Our water system, continuously operating since it was first turned on, is leaking and in need of maintenance. Our energy grid, built with the technology and demand assumptions of an earlier era, strains to meet modern needs. For much of the second half of the 20th century, New York did not take care of what it had inherited. The city was widely believed to be in decline and the City failed to adequately invest in new infrastructure or maintain the existing assets we depend upon. We have learned that prophecies of decline can be self-fulfilling and so, despite the recession, we have chosen to renew our investment in our civic assets in order to increase opportunities and build a greater city now and for the future. New Yorkers deserve to be able to turn the tap and have pure water come out, and flip a switch and be confident the lights will come on. They deserve to ride a frequent, reliable subway, the ability to stroll to a nearby park, or safely walk their children to school without the hazards of traffic. They deserve to live in the greener, greater New York that is the goal of PlaNYC. The new Willis Avenue Bridge being transported up the East River6 INTRODUCTION
  9. 9. A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC7 Credit: AP Worldwide Photos/Seth Wenig
  10. 10. 8
  11. 11. A Global Economy New York has always been a place of promise and possibility, a place where people go in search of a better life. The millions who come to our city arrive with the capacity for hope and hard work. And, as a result of their efforts, New York City has become an epicenter of global commerce, attracting the best talent from around the world. New York can still attract talent and the prosperity that comes with it. But today’s mobility of people and capital has created a fierce competition among cities. We’re competing for the best ideas and the most capable and highly-trained workforce. To thrive economically, we must create a setting where talented entrepreneurs—and the businesses they grow—want to be. One of the fundamental prerequisites for creating that business climate is functional, cost-effective infrastructure: a transportation system that gets goods to and from market and commuters to and from work efficiently, and energy systems that businesses and households can rely on. Another of the fundamentals is quality of life, no longer a vague nicety but a tangible feature that business leaders consider when deciding where to locate or expand: where do talented workers want to live, in an age when they can choose to live anywhere? They don’t consider great parks or clean air to be a frill. The economic implications of sustainability become even more important in periods of dynamic change. As technology changes, energy prices fluctuate, and climate conditions change, economic opportunity will come first to those cities that are leading the way to the adoption and commercialization of new services and infrastructure suitable for new conditions. PlaNYC’s emphasis on innovation and the application of new techniques to difficult problems will help keep the city’s residents and businesses in the role of global economic leaders.Credit: NYC Economic Development Corporation Waterfront parks ringing Lower Manhattan A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 9
  12. 12. Climate Change Our climate is changing. Temperatures are increasing, glaciers are receding, oceans are rising, and storms are intensifying. We must acknowledge the risks posed by climate change and accept our responsibility to address them. This includes our own readiness, guided by science. Climate change poses acute risks to our city. By 2030, average temperatures could rise by as many as three degrees Fahrenheit in New York City. Hotter temperatures will increase public health risks, particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly, and place further strains on our infrastructure. Our city is more affected by rising temperatures than the rest of the region because urban infrastructure absorbs and retains heat. This phenomenon, known as the “urban heat island effect,” can cause temperatures in New York City to be seven degrees Fahrenheit warmer than the surrounding suburbs. As a city with 520 miles of coastline, we are also at risk of increased flooding as sea levels rise and storms become more intense. Our sea levels have already risen a foot in the last 100 years and are projected to rise by up to 10 inches more in the next two decades. Some of our homes, businesses, and infrastructure like streets and power plants will be further exposed to hazards. The challenge of climate change for New York City is two-fold; we must reduce our contribution to global warming and we must prepare for its inevitable effects. We are taking steps to address both needs. New York City already has one of the lowest per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels among major global cities, one-third the U.S. average, due to our density and reliance on mass transit. In 2007 we set a goal to reduce our GHG emissions by more than 30% by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. A series of actions have yielded significant progress toward this goal. We also launched a comprehensive effort to understand our climate risks and take concrete actions to reduce the vulnerabilities we identify. But we must do more if we hope to slow the rate of climate change and protect our city from the changes already occurring. No city can solve this challenge alone. Nor can any of us afford to wait. New York has always pioneered the development of answers to pressing problems. It is incumbent on us to do so again, rising to the definitive challenge of the 21st century. Highway flooding from intense precipitation10 INTRODUCTION
  13. 13. A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC11 Credit: NYC Office of Emergency Management
  14. 14. Executive Order issued Construction begins Creation of the Office Green Light to reduce municipal GHG on the Number 7 subway of Environmental for Midtown emissions 30% by 2017 line extension Remediation announced Received new Filtration Launch of Avoidance Determination the NYC from EPA Climate Change Adaptation Release Launch of Task Force of PlaNYC GreeNYC APRIL 22, 2007 APRIL 22, 2008 10 universities City’s first Release of the join Mayoral Select Bus Sustainable Challenge to Service route Stormwater reduce GHG launched on Management emissions Fordham Road Plan in the Bronx First official climate First tree planted as Second phase of Schoolyards change projections part of MillionTreesNYC to Playgrounds launched released for NYC Our Progress Released in 2007, PlaNYC was an unprecedented effort over 250,000 more New Yorkers within a 10-minute to prepare for one million more residents, strengthen walk of a park. We’ve launched the city’s first bus rapid our economy, combat climate change, and enhance transit system and committed $1.5 billion for green the quality of life for all New Yorkers. The Plan brought infrastructure to clean our waterways. We’ve planted together over 25 City agencies to work toward the nearly half a million trees. We’re making unprecedented vision of a greener, greater New York. While our long- investments in our drinking water supply network. term goals will not be met for many years, we are on schedule toward most of them and launched 97% of the Over 30% of the yellow taxi fleet is now “green,” 127 initiatives in the 2007 Plan, as documented in annual reducing emissions from some of our heaviest-used progress reports. vehicles. We’ve enacted regulations to phase out dirty heating fuels, which are responsible for more pollution We’ve made smart and innovative investments in our than all of the cars and trucks on our streets. We’ve infrastructure, which will help us accommodate future streamlined the process to remediate brownfields, growth and better meet the needs of present-day New reducing the average time it takes to begin a cleanup Yorkers. In just four years, we’ve created or preserved of our city’s most polluted plots. We’ve created public over 64,000 units of housing. We’ve completed over plazas for pedestrians, including one in Times Square, 20 transit-oriented rezoninings so that more than the “crossroads of the world,” that are attracting tourists 87% of new development is transit-accessible. We’ve and New Yorkers alike. Pedestrian fatalities are down. embarked on a new era of parks construction, bringing We’ve completed over 100 energy efficiency retrofits12 INTRODUCTION
  15. 15. Start of $175 rehabilitation of 250,000th tree Greener, Greater Launch of the St. George Ferry Terminal planted as part of Buildings Plan enacted NYC Brownfield MillionTreesNYC to improve energy efficiency Cleanup Program Launch of Release Ground- NYC’s first NYC °CoolRoofs of the breaking energy- NYC Green on new aligned Infrastructure municipal commercial Plan recycling lease facility signed in Sunset Park, BrooklynAPRIL 22, 2009 APRIL 22, 2010 NYPD unveils Started Introduction first hybrid $508 million of Green Taxis patrol cars rehabilitation of Act of 2010 in Brooklyn Bridge Congress NYC Green Acquisition of 30-acre Codes Task Force parcel for Hunters Local law enacted to lower the releases 111 Coated one millionth square Point South in Queens retirement age of school buses recommendations foot of rooftop whiteon City-owned buildings as part of our commitment to dirtier air. The global recession has forced us to reducereduce City government greenhouse gas emissions 30% our capital budget; and as a result we have delayed someby 2017. Working with the City Council, we’ve enacted PlaNYC projects. Several initiatives have also been slowedlandmark green building legislation that will have the by a lack of state or federal permission, action, or funding.equivalent impact of making a city the size of Oakland, But we remain resolved toward our long-term goals.CA carbon neutral. And we’ve launched one of themost comprehensive efforts of any city in the world to While we have made great progress, much work remains.increase our resilience to climate change. When PlaNYC was first launched we recognized thatThese actions are having a direct positive impact on the we didn’t have all the solutions to the challenges welives of New Yorkers, as well as reducing our greenhouse faced. We also knew that the city would face additionalgas emissions. challenges in the years ahead. That’s why we’re updating PlaNYC now, four years after its initial launch. ThisAt the same time, we have encountered obstacles to update is a reaffirmation, not a redirection, that includesachieving some of our goals. Our efforts to maintain, modifications and additions that do not significantly alterimprove, and expand the transit network have been our overall trajectory.stymied by the lack of a stable, sufficient, and rationalfunding source. Congestion continues to clog our streets,costing us all money measured in time, wasted fuel, and A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 13
  16. 16. Credit: NYC Mayor’s Office Our Way Forward We have been explicit and accountable in stating In the meantime, while we’re doing our part in Red Hook goals and measuring progress toward them. But and Hamilton Heights, the eyes of Rotterdam and Hong truly achieving our goals will require the active Kong are on us. In November 2010 Mayor Bloomberg engagement and involvement of all New Yorkers, not was selected as Chair of the C40 Cities Climate just City government. Thousands of community-based Leadership Group, a network of 40 of the largest cities organizations and individuals are already working to in the world whose leaders are dedicated to reducing enhance the sustainability of our neighborhoods: the greenhouse gas emissions. C40 cities, including 18 Bronx River Alliance is helping clean up the Bronx River; smaller, affiliate cities, account for approximately 21% the Staten Island Greenbelt Conservancy encourages of the global Gross Domestic Product. Nearly one out children to engage with nature; and the Brooklyn of every 12 people on Earth lives in or near their city Waterfront Greenway organization promotes the limits. Those cities’ selection of our Mayor as the leader ability to walk or bike along the harbor. of C40 is a recognition of the pace that New York City is now setting. It also represents an opportunity to Neighbors are also coming together to create plans learn from these sister cities. Ideas about bus service to make their own blocks or neighborhoods more improvements from Curitiba might be put to use in environmentally sustainable, like the Sustainable Canarsie, and parks reforestation techniques from Flatbush effort in Brooklyn to promote energy efficiency Melbourne might be transplanted to Middle Village. and recycling, or the Lower East Side Ecology Center in Manhattan, which organizes community composting Global challenges and neighborhood challenges truly and education. These examples are illustrative are linked. We all have a role to play and a responsibility of hundreds of other groups with diverse interests to act. The City of New York takes its responsibility and different geographic roots, sharing one thing seriously. Just as generations before us rose to the in common: they care enough to work to create the challenges they faced and bequeathed this great city to greener, greater neighborhoods that will compose us, so shall we to the next generation. Striding toward a greener, greater New York. the future, we will create a greener, greater New York. We will encourage and support these efforts while inspiring more New Yorkers to join with us.14 INTRODUCTION
  17. 17. Our goals for achieving agreener, greater New York Housing and Neighborhoods Transportation Create homes for almost a million Expand sustainable transportation more New Yorkers while making choices and ensure the reliability housing and neighborhoods more and high quality of our affordable and sustainable transportation network Parks and Public Space Energy Ensure all New Yorkers live within Reduce energy consumption a 10-minute walk of a park and make our energy systems cleaner and more reliable Brownfields Clean up all contaminated land Air Quality in New York City Achieve the cleanest air quality of any big U.S. city Waterways Improve the quality of Solid Waste our waterways to increase Divert 75% of our solid waste opportunities for recreation from landfills and restore coastal ecosystems Climate Change Water Supply Reduce greenhouse gas Ensure the high quality and emissions by more than 30% reliability of our water supply system Increase the resilience of our communities, natural systems, and infrastructure to climate risks A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 15
  18. 18. Housing andNeighborhoods
  19. 19. Credit: AP Wroldwide Photos/Mark Lennihan
  20. 20. Together we canCreate capacity for new housingFinance and facilitate new housingEncourage sustainable neighborhoods
  21. 21. This is a city of neighborhoods where dynamism, diversity, and enterprise come together. You haveI believe the biggest challenge facing New York people from 192 countries that make New YorkCity is growth. Everybody wants to live, work, City their home. These neighborhoods becomeand play here. this beautiful mosaic of the world.Onyinye Akujuo // Queens Rahul Sur // ManhattanJust realizing that a small group of people I think that low-cost housing for families earningcould band together to make their own change $40,000 or less is the number one thing manyin their own environment and their own neighborhoods in the city need. People come toneighborhood. That’s the gateway for me to [Queens Community House] on a regular basis andexplore the power of community organizing as say, ‘My rent is too high. I can’t afford it anymore.it relates to the environment in the city. I need a cheaper apartment. Where do I go?’Nathan Storey // Brooklyn Anna Dioguardi // Queens A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 19
  22. 22. Housing and Neighborhoods Create homes By 2030, New York City will be home to over nine million people—nearly one million more people transit-oriented neighborhoods helps stem con- gestion on our roads, protect our air quality, and for almost a than lived here in 2005. lower our global warming emissions. million more As we prepare for the challenges and opportuni- ties that will come with population growth, we The primary tool we have to accomplish this shift is zoning, a type of regulation that governs New Yorkers must set our goals beyond just increasing the the use, bulk, and density of development in the number of housing units—which will continue to city. By increasing allowable densities at appro- while making be a major focus for the City. We must also create priate locations in areas of the city near transit, housing and and maintain sustainable, affordable neighbor- hoods. We recognize that strong neighborhoods and decreasing them in more auto-dependent areas, we can direct growth to more transit-ori- neighborhoods are among our greatest assets. Each neighbor- hood has its own distinctive character, history, ented parts of the city. more affordable and culture; maintaining this diversity plays a vital role in the continuing health of the city. Providing housing opportunities near transit is fundamental to building greener, greater and sustainable To accommodate a growing economy and popu- neighborhoods—and, therefore, a greener, greater New York. Mixed-use communities with lation within our fixed boundaries, we face chal- a variety of employment opportunities and local lenging decisions about how to invigorate neigh- retail and services, including access to healthy borhoods, and provide opportunities for a range food within walking distance of residences, are of housing, in ways compatible with the existing increasingly desirable. We must use resources surroundings. Increased population density can like energy, water, and construction materials generate tangible benefits for neighborhoods, more efficiently as well as ensure that residents but can also provoke valid concerns about have access to clean air and ample public spaces potential impacts of new development. like parks and plazas. And we must encourage mixed-income communities that provide a vari- For most of the 20th century, housing growth fol- ety of housing choices available to households lowed the expansion of the subway system. Mass at a range of incomes. transit allowed residents to disperse to lower- cost land on the edges, while giving them easy The need to create and preserve affordable access to the jobs concentrated at the center. housing continues to be a priority across the city. Increasing the affordability of housing for In the latter half of the century, though, this New Yorkers is directly connected to increas- pattern became even more dispersed. The per- ing the supply of housing. When supply cannot centage of New Yorkers living within a half-mile keep up with the demands of a growing popu- of transit decreased, as many of our neighbor- lation, housing becomes less affordable as hoods with the best subway access either lost residents bid higher to live in existing units. As population or experienced only modest growth. sites available for new development become Development accelerated in parts of the city that scarcer, the land price component of housing depend more heavily on cars. costs rises, which further increases the cost of new housing. To ease this scarcity premium, Although this expansion helped create a diver- we can continue to increase the zoned capacity sity of neighborhoods and lifestyle choices, con- in areas where additional development can be tinued growth in car-dependent areas poses sig- supported, and shift capacity from inappropri- nificant challenges. Encouraging growth in more ate to appropriate locations.20 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOODS
  23. 23. Rent-Burdened Households In New York City Units of Affordable Housing Created or Preserved under the New Housing Marketplace Plan SHARE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH Gross rent/income PRESERVATION (completed) construction (completed) ratio greater than 30% PRESERVATION (projected) construction (projected) 60 165,000 150,000 50 135,000 120,000 105,000 40 90,000 75,000 60,000 30 45,000 30,000 15,000 20 0 1950 ’55 ’60 ’65 ’70 ’75 ’80 ’85 ’90 ’95 2000 ’05 ’10 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: U.S. Census Bureau Housing and Vacancy Surveys Source: NYC Dept. of Housing Preservation and DevelopmentMaking housing more accessible and affordable Despite the current downturn in the housing create a greener, greater New York if we are ato New Yorkers requires more than increasing market, the City has continued to make sub- city of greener, greater communities. We mustthe overall housing supply. New market-rate stantial investments in affordable housing. Since also recognize that we can’t meet this goalhousing generally serves higher income levels. 2004, we have created or preserved 110,000 on our own. A majority of the new units willWhile new inventory generally relieves pres- units of affordable housing. We remain commit- be built by private developers. And we mustsures on costs in the long run, housing currently ted not only to creating and preserving a total of empower communities to develop and imple-is too expensive for many New Yorkers. Over 165,000 units of affordable housing by 2014, but ment neighborhood-specific solutions to thehalf of households spend more than 30% of their also to making the housing built or rehabilitated challenges they face. By providing local part-gross incomes on housing costs, and only 64% of by the City more energy efficient and, therefore, ners with technical, financial, and regulatoryapartments are affordable to a median income more affordable. assistance, we can foster greener, greater com-New Yorker. We must employ targeted programs munities. In doing so, we will create a healthier,geared toward creating new affordable housing Despite these achievements and commitments, more equitable city, block by block, neighbor-units and preserving existing ones, in addition to we have more to do. In planning for the city’s hood by neighborhood.increasing housing supply. Without action from growth, we must recognize that we will onlythe City, there will continue to be fewer optionsfor many New Yorkers.Since 2007, we have made significant progress inovercoming these diverse challenges. As part ofa program of 109 comprehensive neighborhoodrezonings dating back to 2002, we have cre- Our plan for housing and neighborhoods:ated new housing opportunities in areas betterserved by transit, while limiting growth in auto- Create capacity for new housingdependent areas and preventing development 1 Continue transit-oriented rezoningsthat would undermine the livability of neighbor- 2 Explore additional areas for new developmenthoods. Already, these rezonings have helpedto shift our growth toward transit-supported 3 Enable new and expanded housing models to serve evolvingoptions. While roughly 70% of the city’s popula- population needstion lives within a half-mile of transit, over 87% ofnew housing starts since 2007 have been within Finance and facilitate new housinga half-mile of transit. 4 Develop new neighborhoods on underutilized sitesFurthermore, we have implemented targeted 5 Create new units in existing neighborhoodsaffordability programs aimed at low- and middle- 6 Develop new housing units on existing City propertiesincome New Yorkers through Mayor Bloomberg’sNew Housing Marketplace Plan, launched in2003. In 2010, the plan was updated to address Encourage sustainable neighborhoodsthe challenges and opportunities of the current 7 Foster the creation of Greener, Greater Communitieshousing market. We will strengthen neighbor- 8 Increase the sustainability of City-financed and public housinghoods by preserving the investments we havemade in the past, expand the supply of afford- 9 Promote walkable destinations for retail and other servicesable housing, and stabilize families. Although 10 Preserve and upgrade existing affordable housinga decline in the real estate market has shiftedour focus more toward preservation, we have 11 Proactively protect the quality of neighborhoods and housingremained committed to creating housing as well. A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 21
  24. 24. !!22 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOODS
  25. 25. Case Study Lower Concourse Rezoning For much of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the South Bronx waterfront along the Harlem River hummed with industrial activity. The area’s good rail and canal connections attracted garment and piano factories, stone masonries, iron works, and coal and lumber yards. But this activity faded as heavy industry left New York City and the Bronx experienced a general decline, including devastating population losses in the South Bronx. By 2002, despite access to multiple subway lines and highways, many buildings in the Lower Concourse area stood vacant, and outdated zoning limited redevelopment options. Aside from public facilities such as Lincoln Hospital and Hostos Community College, investment on and near the Harlem River was limited to self-storage, gas stations, and parking. Four subway and ten bus lines pass through the Lower Concourse, making it a neighbor- hood rich in public transportation and ableOur Plan Create capacity for new to sustain significant growth. In 2009, the City rezoned a 30-block area from the HarlemWe will continue to create new housing to meet housing River to Morris Avenue south of 149th Streetthe needs of our growing population. To increase to stimulate private investment, start the To accommodate our growing population andpotential supply, we must work with communities next phase of this neighborhood’s develop- improve the affordability of housing for Newto study where new development is most appro- ment, and help repopulate the South Bronx. Yorkers of all incomes, we will propose regula-priate. We must act on those studies, rezone, New mixed-use zoning districts will help tory changes and other actions to enable theand facilitate new housing creation. And we must facilitate the development of more than creation of new housing units. We will studyexplore other mechanisms for enabling existing 3,000 units of housing in renovated lofts areas of the city that could potentially be rede-properties to be used more efficiently. veloped, and continue to invest in infrastruc- and new apartment buildings while retaining ture to support new development. We will also light industrial businesses. The rezoning wasBut we will do more than expand potential the first in the Bronx to use the Inclusionarysupply; we will continue to finance and facilitate explore opportunities to update regulatory stan- dards to reflect 21st century uses and needs. Housing Program to encourage the creationthe creation of new housing. We will enable the and preservation of permanently affordablecreation of housing on a wide range of scales, housing, and it will leverage investment infrom creating entirely new neighborhoods such INITIATIVE 1 housing and retail to create a publicas Hunter’s Point South in Queens to financing Continue transit-oriented rezonings esplanade along the Harlem River.new housing units in neighborhoods where wehave already made large investments, such as To promote a complete, healthy neighbor-Melrose in the Bronx. Rezoning has been a powerful tool for the City hood, the City eased restrictions on both to promote the creation of additional hous- supermarkets and mapped a 2.2 acreWe will also ensure that our housing and neigh- ing and to steer those new units toward transit public park along the Harlem River. Withborhoods become more sustainable. Sustainabil- oriented neighborhoods. Rezonings, such asity means more energy-efficient buildings, walk- the 2009 rezoning of the Lower Concourse in the rezoning in place, the Lower Concourseability, the availability of transportation choices, the Bronx, have helped prepare the city for long- is poised to become a walkable, mixed-useemployment opportunities, and access to retail, term growth in the places where it makes sense, neighborhood with a revitalized waterfront.including healthy food. while addressing our communities’ needs today.City government can’t make New York sustain- By encouraging denser development in neigh-able on its own. We need everyone to build a borhoods well-served by transit while limit-greener, greater New York—which is by defi- ing growth in auto-dependent areas, we cannition made up of greener, greater neighbor- steer new development to areas where resi-hoods. We will engage with and support local dential growth is sustainable. Even in areassustainability efforts and projects to nurture close to transit that may be able to accommo-those neighborhoods. date more growth than current zoning allows, A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 23
  26. 26. neighborhood rezonings must be done carefullyand with community involvement and consid-eration of local infrastructure and services. Byincreasing density along key corridors, while put- Credit: Hudson Yards Development Corporationting in place appropriate limits on the height andbulk of buildings, we can reinforce the current char-acter of neighborhoods, while increasing capacityand promoting a diversity of housing types.We will continue to propose and implementtransit-oriented rezonings throughout the city.Anticipated areas include corridors in Sunny-side/Woodside, Queens; Bedford-Stuyvesant The Hudson Yards in ManhattanNorth, Brooklyn; West Harlem and West Clinton,Manhattan; and East Fordham Road, the Bronx.Through the Inclusionary Housing Program, We will evaluate potential scenarios for the The City also has many facilities where it storeswe will continue to encourage the creation and improvement of the Sheridan Corridor and Hunts and archives data. By centralizing data centers,preservation of affordable housing in conjunc- Point area in the Bronx, as part of a study of pos- using archiving and filing management systems,tion with new development. The Inclusionary sible changes to the highway network described and exploring the use of re-locatable storageHousing Program permits an increase in the floor in the Transportation chapter of our Plan. The facilities, we can free up space for new housingarea of residential developments in exchange for outcome of this study will be based on a vision and other types of development. We will con-the provision of low-income housing. Since 2005, for the overall land use needs in the corridor. tinue to use these and other methods to reducethe program has yielded more than 1,900 units City government leased or owned space by 1.2 We will also work with the New York City Hous- million square feet.of permanently affordable housing. ing Authority (NYCHA), their tenants and sur-The City can’t take on the enormous task of rounding communities, to determine if there arereadying New York for growth on its own. Pri- additional opportunities for development on the INITIATIVE 3 grounds of NYCHA properties.vately initiated rezoning actions can contribute Enable new and expanded housingto our objectives for transit-oriented growth. We will continue to implement the Hudson Yards models to serve evolving populationWhere appropriate, we will work with develop- Plan, including taking ownership of the last por- needsers proposing to make new development acces- tion of the High Line in Manhattan and com-sible, well-connected to transit, and responsive pleting the 7 train line, to continue to catalyze Between now and 2030, the demographics ofto communities. development in this district. These steps will our city will change. The median age is expected help transform Hudson Yards in Manhattan into to rise, leading to more elderly and single, and a vibrant extension of the Midtown business dis- fewer family, households. However, this portionINITIATIVE 2 trict with 24 million square feet of commercial of the population is not necessarily well-servedExplore additional areas for new use, over 13,000 units of housing, as well as sub- by the present day housing stock and currentdevelopment stantial public open space and cultural uses. codes and development practices may not ade- quately allow for the development of new hous-We are investigating areas throughout the We will also act to realize the potential of under- ing geared toward these smaller households.city that could potentially accommodate new utilized Seward Park sites on the Lower East Side We can better serve individuals seeking smallergrowth, and one day could be rezoned or rede- of Manhattan. The Seward Park Extension Urban housing alternatives through better use of ourveloped to create housing. Renewal Area was created in 1965, for commer- existing stock and by building more efficient cial and housing development. Portions of the new housing models.Over the next few years, we will advance stud- plan were implemented over the years, but fiveies that identify potential opportunities for sites remain undeveloped. We are consulting The City will explore regulatory changes affect-development across the city, including in Staten with the community to create a plan for a vibrant ing existing housing stock that would enable theIsland’s North Shore, where we are working with mixed-use development suitable for the area. addition of a legal apartment to one- and two-the community and studying transportation and family homes, where appropriate. These unitsother supporting improvements. In cooperation Finally, opportunities exist to consolidate the could add housing options suited to elderlywith the MTA, we will study the areas around approximately 42,000 acres of land and 285 or single residents and smaller households inMetro North stations in the Bronx to identify million square feet of built space that the City neighborhoods where diverse and smaller hous-opportunities for both new development and owns. Many of these sites are devoted to the ing types are otherwise hard to find. The Citytransportation access improvements. We will storage or repair of the City’s 26,000 vehicles. will carefully weigh options that would makealso work with the MTA to study additional Using new technologies, we could transform such units possible, taking into account a rangeproperties they own or lease that could be used conventional fleet storage lots into automated of factors, including transportation access andto create housing or other enhancements for vertically stacked facilities, thereby reducing the neighborhood character.surrounding communities. municipal footprint and creating opportunities for appropriate development.24 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOODS
  27. 27. CASE STUDYHunter’s Point SouthAlong a barren strip of the Queens waterfrontoverlooking midtown Manhattan, the City isbuilding the largest affordable housing develop-ment in New York City since the early 1970s. Credit: Related/Phipps/Monadnock with SHoP ArchitectsThis new neighborhood, Hunter’s Point South,will include approximately 5,000 new units ofhousing and is anticipated to catalyze more than$2 billion in private investment and create morethan 4,600 jobs.Once completed, residents living in Hunter’s PointSouth will be able to enjoy neighborhood stores,restaurants, an 11-acre landscaped waterfrontpark, and their children will be able to attend anewly-built local school. With affordable housing An architectural rendering of Hunter’s Point Southfor middle-income New Yorkers and good accessto public transportation, Hunter’s Point South is South will also be served by the East River Ferry $32,000 to $130,000 per year for a family of four.a model of a new neighborhood that will help the pilot program set to launch this spring, giving Building Hunter’s Point South is key to achievingcity grow more sustainably. residents even more choices for ways to move the affordable housing targets set in MayorBy 2013, the first phase of Hunter’s Point South around the city. Bloomberg’s New Housing Marketplace Plan.will have transformed more than 800,000 square Finding an affordable place to raise a family is a As a new waterfront neighborhood, Hunter’s Pointfeet of vacant waterfront land into an active challenge for many middle-income New Yorkers. South will help expand access to the shoreline,neighborhood with vibrant retail corridors. At least 75% of the apartments in the first phase promote economic development, and enhanceThe neighborhood will feature wide sidewalks of Hunter’s Point South will be permanently the public experience of the waterways.and buildings that access the street with multiple targeted to low-, moderate-, and middle-incomeentries to shops and apartments. Hunter’s Point residents, with household incomes ranging fromWe will also explore the development of new Finally, we are identifying existing government On Willets Point in Queens, we are also preparinghousing models to better serve the needs of seg- buildings and properties to adapt to housing. All for the construction of an entirely new neighbor-ments of our growing population. In areas that together we will develop approximately 20,000 hood. During much of the early 20th century, thecould accommodate higher density, we could new affordable units by 2014 under the New approximately 60-acre peninsula on the Flushingconsider rethinking traditional unit design and Housing Marketplace Plan. River in Northern Queens known as Willets Pointpursue the development of new non-conven- was used as an ash dump. While the surround-tional housing alternatives. The City will carefully ing areas have experienced remarkable transfor-weigh options that could make smaller housing INITIATIVE 4 mation, including the development of Flushingmodels possible, taking into account housing Develop new neighborhoods on Meadows-Corona Park in preparation for thequality and safety, as well as the appropriate- 1939 World’s Fair, Willets Point became furtherness of such arrangements with respect to sur- underutilized sites environmentally compromised.rounding land uses. In a city as densely developed as New York, few Over the next four years, we will select a devel- large tracts of land present opportunities to build oper and begin infrastructure construction, entire new residential neighborhoods. WhereFinance and facilitate new such opportunities exist, we will capitalize on environmental remediation, and development for Willets Point Phase I, a mixed-use develop-housing them to create vibrant new neighborhoods with ment including 400 new housing units. When housing that meets the needs of households completed, the entire Willets Point developmentSimply creating the potential for the private with a range of incomes. will include 5,500 units, 35% of which will besector to increase the supply of housing in the affordable. It will include 150,000 square feet ofcity is not enough. Without action from the City, We are investing more than $65 million in community space, a school, eight acres of openmany New Yorkers will continue to have fewer infrastructure—including roads, sewers and space, 1.7 million square feet of retail, a hotel,affordable housing options. utilities—in Hunter’s Point South to create an office space, and a convention center. entirely new neighborhood on the QueensThe City must proactively finance and facilitate waterfront. Over the next three years, we will We will complete similar developments inthe creation of new units, particularly affordable begin construction of 900 new housing units. Arverne, Queens, and Gateway in East New York,units, to ensure that we can meet our housing When completed, this project will provide 5,000 Brooklyn, together creating 2,600 new units.needs. That is why we are creating entirely new new units of housing, 3,000 units of which willneighborhoods, such as Hunter’s Point South be permanently reserved for low-, moderate-,and Willets Point in Queens. We are also leverag- and middle-income families. It will provideing existing programs to finance and create new more than 11 acres of landscaped waterfrontaffordable housing developments throughout parkland, retail spaces, and a new 1,100-seatthe city. public school. A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 25
  28. 28. INITIATIVE 5Create new units in existingneighborhoodsVacant or under-used land in our existing neigh-borhoods also presents opportunities for newhousing development. We will strategicallytarget new construction funding in neighbor-hoods where it will have the most immediateimpact, particularly in ones that are near toexperiencing or experiencing the rewards ofrevitalization after many years of community andpublic investments.In the Melrose Commons Urban Renewal Areain the South Bronx, we will transform the lastthree large City-owned parcels of vacant landby financing the development of more than700 rental units for low- and moderate-incomeresidents. These units will add to the more than2,800 units of City-financed new constructionalready completed or under construction in theMelrose Commons area.Opportunities exist to repurpose and redeveloplightly used portions of New York City HousingAuthority (NYCHA) sites, including surface park-ing facilities, in ways that can reinforce their rela-tionship to surrounding neighborhoods. When to the cost of affordable housing. By lowering construction costs, we will be able to stretch our Encourage sustainableNYCHA began building tall towers surroundedby open space and parking lots beginning in the dollars further, creating more units in the devel- neighborhoods1940s, the result often interrupted the continu- opments we finance. In addition to facilitating more housing, we mustity of neighborhoods and retail corridors, and make our communities more sustainable. Sus-too often left NYCHA developments as islandsisolated from the broader community. In 2004, INITIATIVE 6 tainability means encouraging growth in areas well served by transit. It means nurturing neigh-NYCHA and the City agreed to target some of the Develop new housing units on borhoods that provide housing choices andareas on these sites for new housing. existing City properties employment opportunities at multiple incomeWhen developing sites, NYCHA has carefully levels. It means building housing that conserves The City and other public authorities own acres energy and water, constructed of materials thatselected areas in communities that can sup- of land that are underutilized and could be usedport additional development. It has consulted do not harm residents’ health. It also means cul- for housing. There are significant opportunities tivating neighborhoods that contain a vibrantwith the community and local elected officials to for housing to co-exist with current uses—fromdetermine the ultimate shape of development. mix of uses, including retail that offers healthy libraries to schools to parking lots. We will work foods—a community asset missing from tooThrough partnership with the City and the New to maximize these co-locations and opportuni-York City Housing Development Corporation, many neighborhoods—and other services ties to convert City-owned underutilized sites within walking distance of residences.nearly 2,400 units have been built or are being into affordable housing.built on NYCHA land, including 168 units at the We will lead by example by promoting these ele-Elliot-Chelsea Housing in Manhattan and 748 Across the city, there are also dozens of sites ments through publicly sponsored developmentunits in University Avenue Consolidated Housing that are no longer appropriate or needed for and regulatory tools. However, City governmentin the Bronx. Through this partnership, by the their original use. These sites, ranging from can provide only some of the tools to build com-end of 2014, we will have completed or started warehouses, former schools, shuttered hospi- munities. Greening our neighborhoods begins atconstruction for nearly 3,400 new affordable tals, or former police stations, can be reclaimed the neighborhood or even block level, and relies onunits located throughout the five boroughs. as affordable housing. We will capitalize on local knowledge, energy, and ingenuity to succeed. opportunities to preserve these buildings whileWe will also explore whether current parking meeting our housing needs. For example, 90 We will support the work local neighborhoodminimums for affordable housing are appropri- affordable units will be built as artists’ hous- groups, community-based organizations, andate. In more densely populated areas where car ing, in P.S. 109, a former public school in East individuals are already doing to make New Yorkownership rates are low, particularly among low- Harlem, Manhattan. greener and greater. By providing technical, finan-income individuals, we will determine whether cial, and regulatory assistance, we can help theseparking minimums may be unnecessarily adding efforts grow, build a new model of collaborative action, and create greener, greater communities.26 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOODS
  29. 29. INITIATIVE 7 INITIATIVE 8 Case StudyFoster the creation of Greener, Increase the sustainability of Greener, Greater CommunitiesGreater Communities City-financed and public housing All across the city, New Yorkers are helping make their neighborhoods greenerThis Plan outlines numerous initiatives that the Rising utility costs are increasing rents through- and greater.City will undertake to make New York a more out the city. Between 2005 and 2008, citywidesustainable city, while realizing the vision of a contract rents increased 1.6% in real dollars; In Brooklyn, Sarita Daftary of East New Yorkgreener, greater New York will also require the median gross rents, which include utilities, Farms is tending the largest communityefforts of community organizations and millions increased by 4.2%. garden in the city. She and other localof individual New Yorkers. residents are capturing stormwater to To manage rising utility costs and reduce our transform what was once vacant space into aCommunities are already coming together to greenhouse gas emissions, we must find ways to useful resource. In East Harlem in Manhattandecide what they can do to make their neighbor- use less electricity, heating oil, and natural gas in and on Forrest Avenue in the Bronx, thehoods more sustainable. The available opportuni- all housing, including our publicly financed hous- Harvest Homes Farmer’s Market has teamedties and local priorities will be different in every ing. A more energy-efficient housing stock will up with Transportation Alternatives and theneighborhood. The solutions that work in Bay not only reduce stress on our infrastructure and Strategic Alliance for Health to create twoRidge, Brooklyn may be different than those that lower our global warming emissions, but also Play Streets, closed to traffic during certainwork in Bayside, Queens—and will often originate contribute to the long-term financial viability ofwith the people who call those places home. our affordable housing stock. times in the summer to give youth space to socialize. On Staten Island, the Joan and AlanWe will launch the Greener, Greater Communi- Building on previous work we have done in mod- Bernikow Jewish Community Center hasties approach to help community- and neighbor- ifying our rehabilitation building specifications to teamed up with MillionTreesNYC to givehood-based organizations develop and imple- include energy and sustainability requirements, away trees to local residents. In Queens,ment local initiatives. This includes projects to we will require that all major City-financed sub- the Jackson Heights Beautification Leaguemanage stormwater, improve energy efficiency, stantial rehabilitations and new construction recruited 400 people to communityestablish community composting resources, certify with Enterprise Green Communities (EGC). workshops that developed the Greencreate new public space, and enhance the stew- EGC is a set of guidelines specifically suited to Agenda for Jackson Heights.ardship of parks. greening affordable housing. By achieving Enter- prise Green Communities certification, we will Our Plan includes numerous City programsWe will also help create greener, greater com- ensure that City-financed affordable housing that New Yorkers can tap into. We willmunities by integrating sustainability into neigh- will be built to minimize construction waste and connect communities with a number ofborhood planning. We have begun and will com- maximize water conservation, energy efficiency, existing City, state, and federal programs inplete a study in East New York, Brooklyn, where, and the use of non-toxic building materials. We seven priority areas: energy efficiency, publicworking in close cooperation with the Commu- will certify approximately 40 affordable housing space creation, tree stewardship, stormwaternity Board and other local stakeholders, includ- projects annually as Enterprise Green Communi- management, air quality improvement, anding the Cypress Hills Local Development Corpo- ties and provide financing for more than 30,000 landfill diversion. We will also align ourration, we will generate recommendations for units with energy efficiency and sustainability brownfield remediation efforts with localland use and zoning changes, and assess other requirements by 2014. visions for employment growth andopportunities for making the neighborhood redevelopment.greener. The collaboration will include identify- Making our homes sustainable extends beyonding opportunities to improve walkability, bicycle the materials and systems we use, to the In each of these areas we want to provideaccess, streetscape, traffic safety, and connec- actions of individual owners and tenants. To organizations with financial and technicaltions among housing, retail, educational, and reach out to the individuals who run buildings, support to help them achieve communityemployment opportunities. The study will also we will expand the NYC Green House program impact.identify opportunities to improve the energy effi- to educate small and medium-sized buildingciency and environmental performance of build- owners on what they can do to increase energy To engage all New Yorkers, we will launch anings and public spaces in the area, and promote efficiency, conserve water, use healthy materi- online platform, “Change By Us,” to empowerstormwater management best practices and als, and educate their tenants. We will distribute New Yorkers to self-organize around issuesincreases to tree canopy. educational toolkits that provide information that matter to them. This site will ask “How on how private building owners can avoid high can we green our neighborhoods?” andThe study will also incorporate efforts to pro- energy bills or costly rehabilitations that can connect New Yorkers to other residents,mote public health through improved access to drive up housing costs. We will also conduct groups, and resources. Like GreeNYC,fresh food by seeking to utilize the City’s FRESH six Green Owner’s Nights a year. These events “Change By Us” will give citizens the(Food Retail Expansion to Support Health) pro- teach best practices on building management, information they need to take action ingram and build on the efforts of local groups and connect building owners to local experts on their own lives.such as East New York Farms. By integrating operation and maintenance practices.these efforts and finding new opportunities for Greener, Greater Communities will connectcollaborative action in one neighborhood, the Similarly, NYCHA is implementing its Green New Yorkers to each other and to theseCity and its citizens will set a new high standard Agenda. This is a series of sustainability initia- programs, so that together we create afor neighborhood sustainability planning. tives aimed at preserving public housing and greener, greater New York, block by block, neighborhood by neighborhood. A GREENER, GREATER NEW YORK PLANYC 27
  30. 30. CASE STUDYRoofsIn a crowded city, rooftops represent our last bigfrontier. Constituting almost 20% of our total area,rooftop space equates to an entire extra borough.Currently this asset is not just underutilized; itcontributes to our problems. Largely impervious,black tar worsens the urban heat island effect,smog, and problems with stormwater runoff.But it could be different. Coating roofs white (“coolroofs”) could help moderate our temperatures. Credit: Nicholas NoyesInstalling collars around drains (“blue roofs”) couldhelp retain stormwater and improve water quality.And extensive plantings (“green roofs”) could doboth. Additionally, rooftops could provide sites Roofs in Northern Manhattanfor clean energy installations like solar panels,gardens, urban farms, or recreational spaces. roofs, and possibly blue roofs, too, through the of every rooftop. And volunteers working withTo take advantage of these opportunities, NYC Green Infrastructure Plan. our NYC °CoolRoofs program have coated overwe are working to ensure property owners a million square feet of roofs with cool coating.can get the most out of their roofs. Proposed We are also helping New Yorkers install sustainableamendments to local codes will allow alternative roofs. Through our tax incentives we are offsetting We are just beginning to understand the potentialenergy equipment to be sited like other the costs of solar panels and green roofs, through of our rooftops. As every roof is different, finances,equipment and expand the areas allowed for our Solar Empowerment Zones we are encouraging technical constraints, and desired uses will resultsolar panels, and new guidelines for building- the placement of solar panels in key neighbor- in a unique mix of strategies for each building.mounted wind turbines will ensure safety. Our hoods, and through a CUNY partnership we will But over time, a vibrant patchwork of beneficialnew codes will expand requirements for cool create a Solar Map showing the solar potential uses should replace the current sea of tar.improving quality of life while reducing environ- INITIATIVE 9 access to healthy foods. In partnership with themental impact and operating costs. As part of its City Council, we are developing and implement- Promote walkable destinations forGreen Agenda, NYCHA successfully piloted inno- ing programs to provide low-cost temporaryvative lighting and heating upgrades at Castle Hill retail and other services solutions, while encouraging the developmentHouses in the Bronx, saving more than $660,000 of more permanent markets.in heating costs in 2009 and 2010. By encouraging the location of residents, jobs, retail, and other services within a walkable dis- Through the Healthy Bodegas initiative, moreBased on this success, NYCHA is pursuing a multi- tance from one another, we can encourage the than 1,000 bodegas have promoted the sale ofphase Energy Performance Contracting program use of sustainable modes of transportation and fresh produce and low-fat dairy products, increas-to scale up energy conservation and efficiency decrease greenhouse gas emissions. ing sales of these products to local residents.measures in other developments. NYCHA is also The Green Carts program has issued almost 500exploring innovative techniques such as Building In order to support a mix of uses in neighbor- new permits to street vendors selling fresh fruitInformation Management Software and Green hoods, we will promote neighborhood shop- and vegetables in underserved neighborhoods,Physical Needs Assessments. These will allow ping districts as part of a broader Neighborhood quickly and effectively expanding retail options.NYCHA to more strategically assess the environ- Retail Strategy that seeks to maintain built envi- By augmenting the federal food stamp programmental and financial impact that green retrofit ronments to attract private investment, local (SNAP) with “Health Bucks,” we are providingefforts will have on its building stock. residents, and visitors and support the needs SNAP recipients with $2 in coupons for every of small businesses. The City will create a local $5 in SNAP spent at farmers markets. More thanIn 2009, NYCHA created 37 Resident Green Com- retail zoning “toolkit” that will expand the use 110,000 Health Bucks were distributed in 2009,mittees with more than 400 members. The mem- of zoning tools to address specific retail issues generating an additional $220,000 in sales ofbers have embraced a responsible, low-carbon facing different types of commercial corridors fresh, locally grown fruit and vegetables.lifestyle by switching to CFLs, recycling, con- throughout the city.serving water, and taking care of newly planted We will facilitate the creation of 300 moretrees. NYCHA will continue to work with the cur- Stores selling fresh, healthy foods do not exist in healthy food retail options in targeted under-rent Resident Green Committees, while helping some communities. More than three million New served neighborhoods. To encourage theto create at least six new Committees. Yorkers currently live in dense neighborhoods growth of new grocery stores and supermar- with limited opportunities to purchase nutri- kets, we launched the FRESH program, whichBuilding on the success of pilot programs at the tious, affordable foods. In these areas, consump- provides zoning and financial incentives forBronx River Houses, NYCHA, in collaboration tion of fruits and vegetables is low, and rates of full-service grocery stores that locate in certainwith the City, will explore scaling up stormwater diet-related diseases are high. neighborhoods considered underserved by foodretention best management practices at other retailers. We will identify additional amendmentssites. NYCHA will also expand upon its current Opportunities exist to use existing food distribu- to zoning, including an expansion of the FRESHwork to better incorporate sustainability into its tion infrastructure, like bodegas and food carts, program, to direct grocery stores to more com-procurement practices. and the City’s regulatory powers to increase munities with food access needs.28 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOODS

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