According to Adams (1954, cited in Schultz & Schultz, 1994)
… that we get a good idea of what personality is by listening to what we say when we use "I". When you say I, you are, in effect, summing up everything about yourself - your likes and dislikes, fears and virtues, strengths and weaknesses.
• Description: considers the ways in which we should characterize and individual. Should we described personality traits by comparing people with one another or use strategy to study individuals?• Dynamics: How do people adjust their life situations? How are they influenced by culture and their own cognitive processes?• Development: How does it reflect the influence of biological factors and experience in childhood and beyond?
Personality assessments help explain behavior. Often,assessments are the only way of understanding and explaining behavior.
Psychological assessments involve the observation, measurement and evaluation of an individuals or organizations adaptive functioning in the modern world.
• Prior to any treatment or remediation can begin, its important to understand the nature of the problem or difficulty.• A psychological assessment is the necessary first step in determining the strengths and weaknesses in an individuals functioning when that functioning has been called into question, either by displaying actions that are unexpected or by not displaying actions that are expected, in a given circumstance or environment.
• Developmental Focus• Supervision, File Review, Expert Testimony and Continuing Education Services• Clinical and Case Consultation• Academic and School Referrals• Clinical and Professional Applications• Forensic and Disability Applications•• Family Law Issues
• Earliest form of obtaining information from clients was through clinical interviewing• Modeled after question and answer format• More structured and goal-oriented mental status examination – By Adolf Meyer 1902• The difficulty with unstructured interviews is that they are still considered questionable reliability, validity, cost effectiveness• Standardized psychological test were developed to overcome these limitations.• Groth-Marmath, G. Handbook of Psychological Assessment 4th ed.
Content vs process – W.Synder(1945) found out that non-directive approach was most likely create favorable changes and self-exploration of clients. While the directive style using persuation, interpretation and interview judgment may resulted a defensive client and resistant in expressing problems.
• Considerable amount of research was stimulated by C. Rogers who emphasized understanding the proper interpersonal ingredients necessary for standard care.• 1960s development and formulation of behavioral assessment, primarily in the form of goal-directed interviews that focused on understanding current and past reinforcers and stablishing workable target behavior.
1950s – 1960s – child assessment was conducted primarily through interview with parents. Direct interviews with the child were considered to be therapeutic purposes rather than assessment. Differential diagnosis were unusual: almost all children were referred were diagnosed or undiagnosed as “adjustment reactions”.
Elaboration of the trend during 1960s, as well as the increase emphasis on structured interview.
Both structured and unstructured interview allows a clinicians to place results in a wider, more meaningful context. Flexibility is inherent both unstructured and structured interviews frequently the strongest advantage over standardized tests. Allow clinician in establishing rapport and client self-exploration
Extreme disadvantage of with structured interviews is the interviewers bias. Structured interviews have higher psychometric properties than unstructured format.
• General consideration – interviewer style is strongly influenced by theoritical orientation and practical considerations. Diagnostic interview – to develop a specific diagnosis Behavioral interview – based on the assumption that change occurs because of external consequences Informal/Exploratory – person centered and do not pursue formal diagnosis. Client’s coping style social supports, family dynamics or the nature of disability
• History of the problem – Description of the problem, initial onset, frequency, duration, attempts to solve, treatments• Family background – Socioecomic level, parent occupation, emotional history, cultural background, parent’s current health, family relationship, urban rural upbringing• Personal History – Infancy, early and middle adulthood, medical history, toilet training, life changes• Miscellaneous – Somatic concerns, self-concept (like/dislike) happiest/saddest memory, fears
Clarification statements Use of concrete examples Verbatim playback therapeutic double binds Probing Random probing Confrontation Self-disclosure Active listening Feedback Understanding Summary statement Reflection
• Initial phase – organize the physical characteristics : room, lighting, seating• Introduction• State the purpose of interview• Explain how the information derived from the interview be used• Describe the confidential nature of the information• Explain the role of activities you would like the client to engage in e.g. Instruments, length of time, or formalized written contract• Fee arrangements must be clarified
Objective personality tests are usually self- report inventories.Self-report inventories are paper-and-pen tests that require people to answer questions about their typical behavior. Commonly used objective tests include the MMPI-2, the 16PF, and the NEO Personality Inventory.
The MMPI-2 The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed in the 1940s and revised in the 1980s. The revised version is called the MMPI-2. The MMPI-2 contains a list of 567 questions. People taking the test must answer these questions with true, false, or cannot say.
The 16PF The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) is a test that assesses sixteen basic dimensions of personality. It consists of a list of 187 questions.
Projective personality tests require subjects to respond to ambiguous stimuli, such as pictures and phrases, that can be interpreted in many different ways. Projective tests are based on the projective hypothesis, which is the idea that people interpret ambiguous stimuli in ways that reveal their concerns, needs, conflicts, desires, and feelings.
• The Rorschach test consists of a series of ten inkblots. Psychologists ask subjects to look at the inkblots and describe what they see, and the psychologists then use complex scoring systems to interpret the subjects’ responses. Scores are based on various characteristics of responses, such as the originality of the response and the area of the blot described in the response. The Rorschach gives information about the person’s personality traits and the situational stresses the subject may be experiencing.
• Self-report inventories are useful because they allow clincians to get precise answers to standardized questions. In other words, all subjects who take a test answer the same questions, and all subjects have to select answers from the same range of options. Inventories are also objective, which means that different people scoring the same test would score them in the same way. However, these scores might be interpreted differently by different people.
• Self-report inventories often contain transparent questions, which means subjects can figure out what a psychologist wants to measure. Therefore, subjects can lie intentionally and fake personality traits they don’t really have.• The social desirability bias can affect responses on self-report inventories. In other words, when filling out an inventory, people might state what they wish were true, rather than what is true.• People sometimes don’t understand the questions on the test.• People sometimes don’t remember aspects of the experience they are asked about.
(TAT) consists of a series of pictures containing a variety of characters and scenes. Psychologists ask subjects to make up stories about each picture and look for themes that run through the subjects’ responses. For example, a person with a high need for achievement may consistently come up with stories that have achievement-related themes.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Projective Tests• Projective tests are useful because they allow psychologists to assess unconscious aspects of personality. Projective tests are also not transparent: subjects cannot figure out how their responses will be interpreted. Therefore, subjects cannot easily fake personality traits on a projective test.• A serious disadvantage of projective tests is that they have questionable reliability and validity. Despite this flaw, many researchers and clinicians find that such tests give them useful information.
Numerology- Pythagoras- Various operations are performed with numbers and the results are predictive of personality and future eventsPhrenology– Franz Gall & Johan Spurzheim (c. 1800) Bumps on the head are associated with organs ofthe brain which are in turn associated withpersonality characteristics
• Graphology– Analysis of personality from handwriting– Examine handwriting as physical manifestation ofunconscious processes– No data to support• Techniques are reducible to impressions from suchthings as pressure exerted on the page, spacing ofwords and letters, size, slant, speed, and consistencyof writing.• Content plays a role, too, though they won’t admit it.
Astrology– Based on the idea that the position of the sun, moon, stars, planets and other heavenly bodies at some point in time influence the personality characteristics of the perso
Animal Year Personality characteristicsRabbit 1927, 1939, 1951, 1963, Luckiest of all signs. Individuals are 1975, 1987, 1999 talented and articulate. Affectionate yet shy, they seek peace throughout their lives. Should marry a Sheep or a Boar. Opposite is the Cock.Dragon 1928, 1940, 1952, These individuals are eccentric and their 1964, lives are complex. They have a very 1976, 1988, 2000 passionate nature and abundant health. They should marry a Rat or a Monkey late in life. They should avoid the Dog.
Snake 1929, 1941, These individuals are wise and intense with 1953, 1965, a tendency towards physical beauty. They 1977, 1989, are vain and high-tempered. The Boar is 2001 their enemy. The Cock or the Ox are their best signs.Horse 1930, 1942, These individuals are popular and 1954, 1966, attractive to the opposite sex. They are 1978, 1990, often ostentatious and impatient. They 2002 need to be around people. They should marry a Dog or a Tiger early in life but should never marry a Rat.Sheep 1931, 1943, These individuals are elegant and creative, 1955, 1967, yet are timid and prefer anonymity. They 1979, 1991, are most compatible with Bears and 2003 Rabbits but not the Ox.
Monkey 1932, 1944, 1956, 1968, These individuals are very intelligent and are 1980, 1992, 2004 able to influence people. Enthusiastic achievers, they are easily discouraged and confused. They should avoid Tigers and seek out Dragons or Rats as mates.Cock 1933, 1945, 1957, 1969, These individuals have pioneer spirits. They 1981, 1993, 2005 are devoted to work and quest after knowledge. They can be selfish and eccentric. Rabbits are troubles while Snakes and Ox are fine
Constellation Planet Dates Personality CharacteristicsCapricorn Saturn 12/21-1/20 Ambition, caution, workAquarius Uranus 1/21-2/19 Humane, unconventional, high and low spiritsPisces Neptune 2/20-3/20 Inspiration, easily influenced, dreamingAries Mars 3/21-4/20 Impulsiveness, adventure, disputesTaurus Venus 4/21-5/21 Endurance, obstinate, laborGemini Mercury 5/22-6/21 Skill, versatility, good relationshipsCancer Moon 6/22-7/23 Appreciates home life, imagination, indecisionLeo Sun 7/24-8/23 Generality, pride, desire for powerVirgo Mercury 8/24-9/23 Analytical, studious, modestLibra Venus 9/24-10/23 Justice, artistic sense, sensitivityScorpio Mars 10/24-11/22 Critical sense, secrecy, fightsSagittarius Jupiter 11/23-12/20 Idealism, open-mindedness, mobility
Autobiography• Family background/ Genogram (describe emotional lines) – Socioecomic level, parent occupation, emotional history, cultural background, parent’s current health, family relationship, urban rural upbringing• Personal History – Infancy, early and middle adulthood, medical history, toilet training, life changes• Miscellaneous – Somatic concerns, self-concept (like/dislike) happiest/saddest memory, fears