RESOURCESSubstances available in our environment that can be used for specific purposes and are technologically accessible, economically viable and culturallyacceptable are referred to as resources.
CLASSIFICATION OF RESOURCESResources can be classified on the basis ofORIGIN: Biotic and abioticEXHAUSTIBILITY: Renewable and Non-renewableOWNERSHIP: Individual, Community-owned,National and InternationalSTATUS OF DEVELOPMENT: Potential,Developed and Stock
INDIVIDUAL RESOURCES• Privately owned by individuals• E.g. Individual ownership of land in theform of houses and agricultural fields COMMUNITY-OWNED RESOURCES• Accessible to all members of acommunity• E.g. Village ponds, public parks, burialgrounds etc.
NATIONAL RESOURCES• Those resources that exist within the territory of anation.• All minerals, water bodies, forests, wildlife etc.within the country and within 12 nautical milesfrom the sea coast are called national resources. INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES• Those oceanic resources that do not lie within theExclusive Economic Zone of any nation.• They are managed by international institutions andeach country has an equal right to access theseresources.
POTENTIAL RESOURCES• Though they are in existence, they are not being completely utilized.• E.g. Potential of wind and solar energy in Rajasthan DEVELOPED RESOURCES• Those resources that have been surveyed and areready for utilization. STOCK•Resources that exist but have not been utilized owing tolack of technical expertise.•E.g. Making hydrogen and oxygen from water RESERVES• They are those resources for whose utilization manhas the technical know-how but has not started usingthem.• E.g. Use of river water for generating electricity
PROBLEMS RELATED TO RESOURCES• Depletion of resources due to over-utilization.• Accumulation in few hands.• Indiscriminate exploitation of resourcesresulting in ecological imbalances. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT• It refers to that development which is lastingenough to be used by the future generations.• Development should be such that it does notcompromise with the needs of the cominggenerations.
RIO DE JANEIRO EARTH SUMMIT, 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment andDevelopment (UNCED) Held at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. First ever International Earth Summit. Aimed at addressing the problem of environmentaldegradation and finding ways of protecting theenvironment. The declaration on global climatic change andbiodiversity was signed. The Global Forest Principles were adopted.
AGENDA 21 was formulated. Aims at achieving global sustainabledevelopment. For combating environmental damage,poverty and diseases through globalcooperation. Every country is supposed to formulate itsown Agenda 21.
RESOURCE PLANNING It is necessary for making maximum utilization ofthe available resources. It involves Identification of resources through surveys,mapping and measurement. Evolving a structure for utilizing resources bymeans of appropriate technology and skills. Synchronizing the resource development planswith the national development goals. Resource planning in India is done through theFive Year Plans.
CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES Resources need to be conserved as they are vital fordevelopment. Over-utilization and irrational consumption ofresources creates ecological imbalance. Brundtland Commission Report of 1987introduced the concept of ‘Sustainable Development’that focused on the conservation of resources for thefuture.
LAND RESOURCES• Land is the basic natural resource on which all other resourcesexist.• India’s total land area: 3.28 million sq. km.Plains: 43%Mountains: 30%Plateaus: 27%
USES OF LAND1.Forests2.Net sown area3.Pastures4.Housing5.Roads6.Barren and waste land7.Culturable waste land8.Fallow land9.Area under miscellaneous trees, crops and grovesNational Forest Policy (1932) envisages 33% of theland area under forests in India. However, it is only22%.
LAND DEGRADATIONCauses Deforestation Over-grazing Mining and quarrying Over-irrigation Mineral processing Industrial effluents Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh andOrissa are the states where deforestation, owing tomining activities, has resulted in the degradation ofland. In Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra, the maincause of land degradation is over-grazing.
METHODS FOR STOPPING LAND DEGRADATION Afforestation Proper management of grazing Stabilization of sand dunes Control of mining activitiesProper discharge of industrial effluents
SOIL Soil is a renewable natural resource. It takes millions of years to form. It is formed by the action of temperature,running water, wind and glaciers.
SOIL EROSION The washing away of the top layer of soil by the actionof wind and water is called soil erosion. Soil formation and soil erosion are simultaneousprocesses and a balance exists between the two. Activities such as Deforestation Over-grazing Mining Construction Increase the rate of soil erosion and disturb thenatural balance.
GULLY EROSION AND BADLANDS Deep channels called gullies are formed when fastrunning water cuts through the soft clayey soil makingdeep ravines. This type of land becomes unfit for cultivation and iscalled badland. E.g. Chambal basin in Madhya Pradesh SHEET EROSION: It is caused when water flows as a sheet down a slope and washes-off the top layer of soil. Winds can also blow-off the top layer of soil.
METHODS OF SOIL CONSERVATION Ploughing along the contour lines of slopes Terrace farming Planting strips of grass between crops restricts the flow of water and breaks wind speed. This is calledStrip Cropping. Planting lines of trees creates a shelter from thefast moving winds and prevents erosion. These arecalled Shelter Belts.