Achyut final prsnt ppt

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This is the presentation of my final year Industrial training at CEL Ghaziabad

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  • it would be a big help if u mail it... vedantmishra619@gmail.com
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  • This template can be used as a starter file for presenting training materials in a group setting.SectionsRight-click on a slide to add sections. Sections can help to organize your slides or facilitate collaboration between multiple authors.NotesUse the Notes section for delivery notes or to provide additional details for the audience. View these notes in Presentation View during your presentation. Keep in mind the font size (important for accessibility, visibility, videotaping, and online production)Coordinated colors Pay particular attention to the graphs, charts, and text boxes.Consider that attendees will print in black and white or grayscale. Run a test print to make sure your colors work when printed in pure black and white and grayscale.Graphics, tables, and graphsKeep it simple: If possible, use consistent, non-distracting styles and colors.Label all graphs and tables.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Give a brief overview of the presentation. Describe the major focus of the presentation and why it is important.Introduce each of the major topics.To provide a road map for the audience, you can repeat this Overview slide throughout the presentation, highlighting the particular topic you will discuss next.
  • Achyut final prsnt ppt

    1. 1. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL Achyut Shukla 14th Aug 2013
    2. 2. About the company • Central Electronics Ltd. is a public sector enterprise, under the administrative control of the Dept. Of Scientific & Industrial Research. • CEL is a pioneer in the field of solar Photovoltaic in the country and is today ranked among the first few in the world in this area of activity. CEL is also credited with many firsts in the country, professional Ferrites being one of them. • CEL is presently engaged in the development, production and sale of selected electronic components (Professional Ferrites, Electronics Ceramics and Phase Shifters), selected electronic systems, solar photovoltaic cells, modules and SPV systems and to take up engineering development & production based on indigenous technology developed through in house efforts or know how from National Laboratories / Institutions.
    3. 3. Solar Energy • Energy obtained from the sun is called solar energy. Though low grade energy with temporal and spatial variation is available from the sun, it is clean, cheap, abundant and a very attractive alternate source of energy. • Solar energy spectrum can be approximated by black body spectrum at 5900 k (E Vs ). • The energy of sun spectrum extends from 0.3 to 2.5 m of wavelength and its peak is at wavelength of 0.5 m. • Solar Energy received at the surface of the earth is around 1000W/m2 over an entire year.
    4. 4. Solar Photovoltaic Effect • The photovoltaic effect is the means by which solar panels or photovoltaic modules generate electricity from light. A solar cell is made from a semiconductor material such as silicon • The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic attributes: 1. The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitants. 2. The separation of charge carriers of opposite types. 3. The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.
    5. 5. Solar Cell A solar cell is any device that directly converts the energy in light into electrical energy through the process of photovoltaic The solar cell works in three steps: 1. Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed by semiconducting materials, such as silicon. 2. Electrons (negatively charged) are knocked loose from their atoms, causing an electric potential difference. Current starts flowing through the material to cancel the potential and this electricity is captured. Due to the special composition of solar cells, the electrons are only allowed to move in a single direction. 3. An array of solar cells converts solar energy into a usable amount of direct current (DC) electricity.
    6. 6. Specifications 4 inch round cells 5 inch Pseudo square cells Isc 2.5 A 4.6 A Voc 605 mV 605 mV Pm(typical) 1.05 W 1.95 W Pm with AR Coating (Optional) 1.15 W 2.13 W Modules wattage from 36 Cells (Non AR Coated) 38 Wp 74 Wp Types of Solar Cells
    7. 7. Fabrication Of Solar Cell
    8. 8. 1. Surface Preparation • Wafers are cleaned to make it free from impurities as these impurities may affect the electrical performance of the solar cell. • Polishing is to ensure that the wafer surface is free from any saw cut marks.
    9. 9. 2. Texturisation or Alkaline Etching • Texturisation is to get maximum absorption of sunlight and uniform Texturisation surface on silicon wafer by formation of tiny pyramids. • When a ray of sunlight falls on the textured flat Silicon Substrate and then due to pyramid multiple reflection occur on pyramid surface which causes absorption of more sunlight
    10. 10. 3. Diffusion • This process forms a negative junction over the p-type substrate. This, therefore, make a p-n junction. • The texturised wafer is placed on printing chuck. The diffusion paste is transferred on the silicon wafer with the help of screen by using squeeze. The printed wafers are then placed on the belt of diffusion furnace by using tweezers. The diffused wafers are then collected on the receiver & undiffused wafer side is marked by quartz for identifications of p-type.
    11. 11. 4. Edge Isolation or Plasma Etching • The purpose of the plasma etching is to ensure that n-type & p-type surface of the diffuse wafer are isolated from each other • Plasma materials attack the Stack of silicon wafer unnecessary part of wafer will be affected and part is removed.
    12. 12. 5. Anti Reflection Coating • It reduces interference effects in reflected wave from the anti-reflection coating out of phase with the wave reflected from the semiconductor surfaces. • The thickness of the AR coating should be quarter of the wavelength of incident wave.
    13. 13. • Comparison of surface reflection from a silicon solar cell, with and without a typical anti- reflection coating
    14. 14. 6. Front Contact Printing • The basic requirement of front contact are 1. Improving the current carrying capability. 2. Increasing the light collection by reducing the shadowed area • In Front contact printing two most important parts of solar cell are made- 1. Grid of very fine circuit lines known as Fingers. 2. Larger collecting lines known as Bus-Bars.
    15. 15. Close up of a finished printed cell. Shows the grid and finger by top view and side They have a spacing of about 3 mm.
    16. 16. 7. Back Contact Printing • It is created on the rare side of solar cell (P side). • It is mainly used for soldering purpose. contact created on the rare side
    17. 17. 8. Firing • This process ensures a good ohmic contact between the paste and wafer otherwise no current will flow through it. It also lowers the solar cell resistance. Solar Cell
    18. 18. Solar Modules A module is simply an array of solar cells in series or parallel as per electrical requirements A solar module is the power source of an SPV system
    19. 19. Applications 1. Solar water pumping systems for irrigation or drinking purposes A Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System essentially consists of an SPV panel or array directly powering a water pump. Water pumped during day can be stored in the storage tanks for use during night. The generated electricity from the SPV array is fed to the pump through a switch. Normally low storage batteries are provided, as the water can be stored in the storage tanks if required. SPV array
    20. 20. 2. Village power plant.. A view of 100 kWp Grid Interactive Power plant installed & commissioned at Kalyanpur, Aligarh, The power plants being modular in nature can be augmented in case of increased demand for power. 3. Medical Refrigeration Solar Powered Refrigerator PV Modules for the Solar Powered Refrigerators
    21. 21. 4. Industrial applications A Cathodic Protection (CP) Station for Oil/Gas pipeline Very Low Power TV Transmitter Obstruction warning light at Airports Far end System of the Solar Powered Railway Level Crossing Radio warning System (SOLAGARD)
    22. 22. THANK YOU

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