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# Communicate better! (Using logic)

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### Communicate better! (Using logic)

2. 2. So, you have something to say Cartoons are from Cartoonbank.com See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 2 : 38
3. 3. ... but you don’t know how to say it Cartoons are from Cartoonbank.com See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 3 : 38
4. 4. Using logic can help you improve your thinking and communication See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 4 : 38
5. 5. This presentation shows how to use logic to improve your thinking and communication Use logic to improve your thinking and communication Introduce Use optimally pyramids Include the Choose the Use the Relate each Optimize w/ right Tell a story order of right idea w/ additional information components sequence others tips See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 5 : 38
6. 6. Use logic to improve your thinking and communication Introduce Use optimally pyramids Include the Choose the Use the Relate each Optimize w/ right Tell a story order of right idea w/ additional information components sequence others tips See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 6 : 38
7. 7. Use logic to improve your thinking and communication Introduce Use optimally pyramids Include the Choose the Use the Relate each Optimize w/ right Tell a story order of right idea w/ additional information components sequence others tips See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 6 : 38
8. 8. Effective communications are pyramidal See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 7 : 38
9. 9. Effective communications are pyramidal Introduction See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 7 : 38
10. 10. Effective communications are pyramidal Introduction Primary idea See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 7 : 38
11. 11. Effective communications are pyramidal Introduction Primary idea Primary supporting ideas See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 7 : 38
12. 12. Effective communications are pyramidal Introduction Primary idea Primary supporting ideas Supporting data See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 7 : 38
13. 13. The introduction is a story that takes your audience from what they know to what you want them to know WHAT YOUR WHAT YOU WANT AUDIENCE INTRODUCTION YOUR AUDIENCE KNOWS TO KNOW Must be a story! Cartoons are from Cartoonbank.com See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 8 : 38
14. 14. Every introduction has a situation, a {complication/ problem} and a {key question/answer} Situation Complication Key question And/or Answer See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 9 : 38
15. 15. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with Situation See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
16. 16. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
17. 17. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
18. 18. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation  Generates the reaction: “I agree, but so what?” / “Why are you telling me this?”  Contains only the elements critical for understanding this problem See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
19. 19. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation  Generates the reaction: “I agree, but so what?” / “Why are you telling me this?”  Contains only the elements critical for understanding this problem See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
20. 20. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation  Generates the reaction: “I agree, but so what?” / “Why are you telling me this?”  Contains only the elements critical for understanding this problem  Is self-sufficient: it can be understood without additional information See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
21. 21. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation  Generates the reaction: “I agree, but so what?” / “Why are you telling me this?”  Contains only the elements critical for understanding this problem  Is self-sufficient: it can be understood without additional information See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
22. 22. The situation is a declaration that you know that your audience agrees with  Establishes time and place Situation  Generates the reaction: “I agree, but so what?” / “Why are you telling me this?”  Contains only the elements critical for understanding this problem  Is self-sufficient: it can be understood without additional information  Is no controversial: your audience has to agree with it See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 10 : 38
23. 23. The complication builds on the situation to lead to one question: the one that your communication will solve Complication See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 11 : 38
24. 24. The complication builds on the situation to lead to one question: the one that your communication will solve Complication  Complements the situation with the explicit statement of a problem See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 11 : 38
25. 25. The complication builds on the situation to lead to one question: the one that your communication will solve Complication  Complements the situation with the explicit statement of a problem See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 11 : 38
26. 26. The complication builds on the situation to lead to one question: the one that your communication will solve Complication  Complements the situation with the explicit statement of a problem  By the end of the complication, you must have introduced all the relevant elements for your audience to understand your problem See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 11 : 38
27. 27. The key question and/or answer is the central idea of your communication: the top of your pyramid Introduction Situation Complication Key question Answer See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 12 : 38
28. 28. The key question and/or answer is the central idea of your communication: the top of your pyramid Introduction Situation Complication Key question Answer See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 12 : 38
29. 29. Sometimes it is convenient to combine the key question and the answer in a single element Situation Complication Key question Key question / Answer Answer See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 13 : 38
30. 30. You can modify the order of elements to produce specific effects Standard (S-C-KQ) Situation Complication Direct (KQ-S-C) Key question / Answer Preoccupied (C-KQ-S) See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 14 : 38
31. 31. Use logic to improve your thinking and communication Introduce Use optimally pyramids Include the Choose the Use the Relate each Optimize w/ right Tell a story order of right idea w/ additional information components sequence others tips See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 15 : 38
32. 32. Use logic to improve your thinking and communication Introduce Use optimally pyramids Include the Choose the Use the Relate each Optimize w/ right Tell a story order of right idea w/ additional information components sequence others tips See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 15 : 38
33. 33. The most important factor to ensure that your message is clear is to present your ideas in the the right sequence See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 16 : 38
34. 34. Let’s look at an example. Consider receiving the following card Dear Chivis, Do you remember, last Saturday afternoon, when I was playing with my boyfriend and you came? Well, he said that, when I turned around, you gave him a kiss. And Sunday, when you came to my house and my mom prepared a tuna fish salad, and you said: “Yuk, that’s the worst salad I’ve ever had!”? And yesterday, when my cat got tangled in your legs and you kicked her and threatened to attack her with your dog “Brutus”? Well, for these reasons I hate you and I don’t want to be your friend. Lucy Example from Zelazny, Say it with Presentations See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 17 : 38
35. 35. Wouldn’t it be clearer if Lucy had put the central idea first? Dear Chivis, ¿Recuerdas que el sábado pasado por la tarde cuando estaba jugando en el parque con mi novio y tú llegaste, él me dijo que cuando les di la espalda, lo besaste? ¿Y que el domingo, cuando viniste a mi casa y hate you. Here is why: I mi mamá te preparó ensalada de atún para almorzar y dijiste: “¡Fuchi! ¡Es la peor ensalada que he comido!”? 1. You stole my boyfriend ¿Y que ayer, cuando mi gata se restregó en tu pierna, la pateaste y amenazaste atacarla 2. You insulted my mom con tu perro “Titán”? 3. You scared my cat Bien, por todas estas razones, te odio, y ya no quiero ser tu amiga. Lucy Lucy Example from Zelazny, Say it with Presentations See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 18 : 38
36. 36. Wouldn’t it be clearer if Lucy had put the central idea first? Dear Chivis, ¿Recuerdas que el sábado pasado por la tarde cuando estaba jugando en el parque con mi novio y tú llegaste, él me dijo que cuando les di la espalda, lo besaste? ¿Y que el domingo, cuando viniste a mi casa y hate you. Here is why: I mi mamá te preparó ensalada de atún para almorzar y dijiste: “¡Fuchi! ¡Es la peor Main idea ensalada que he comido!”? 1. You stole my boyfriend ¿Y que ayer, cuando mi gata se restregó en tu pierna, la pateaste y amenazaste atacarla Supporting 2. You insulted my mom con tu perro “Titán”? arguments 3. You scared my cat Bien, por todas estas razones, te odio, y ya no quiero ser tu amiga. Lucy Lucy Example from Zelazny, Say it with Presentations See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 18 : 38
37. 37. The second card is clearer because it establishes a dialogue with the reader... Why did Lucy write me this card? Lucy hates me Why? I stole her I insulted her I scared her boyfriend mom cat Why? Etc. See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 19 : 38
38. 38. ... and she doesn’t have to guess Lucy’s point: she knows from the start and can relate each new element to the original idea Why did Lucy write me this card? Lucy hates me Ok, but does it makes sense? I stole her I insulted her I scared her boyfriend mom cat Ok, so what do I reply? Chivis may or may not agree with Lucy’s message, but she understands what it is See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 20 : 38
39. 39. So it is useful to first present your summary idea and then build a supporting pyramid below See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 21 : 38
40. 40. So it is useful to first present your summary idea and then build a supporting pyramid below 1. The central idea of your message See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 21 : 38
41. 41. So it is useful to first present your summary idea and then build a supporting pyramid below 1. The central idea of your message 2. central idea that support your The main ideas See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 21 : 38
42. 42. So it is useful to first present your summary idea and then build a supporting pyramid below 1. The central idea of your message 2. central idea that support your The main ideas 3. The information that supports each idea See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 21 : 38
43. 43. In a presentation, the title and the index are the parts of the pyramid that your audience notices first… See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 22 : 38
44. 44. In a presentation, the title and the index are the parts of the pyramid that your audience notices first… The title of the presentation is the general idea See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 22 : 38
45. 45. In a presentation, the title and the index are the parts of the pyramid that your audience notices first… The title of the presentation is the general idea The index shows the supporting ideas See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 22 : 38
46. 46. The tag line of each slide summarizes its content. It is understandable without the rest of the slide and it coordinates with the tag lines of the other slides Our sales are growing Sales (M\$) See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 23 : 38
47. 47. The tag line of each slide summarizes its content. It is understandable without the rest of the slide and it coordinates with the tag lines of the other slides The tagline is the main Our sales are growing idea of the slide Sales (M\$) See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 23 : 38
48. 48. The tag line of each slide summarizes its content. It is understandable without the rest of the slide and it coordinates with the tag lines of the other slides The tagline is the main Our sales are growing idea of the slide Sales (M\$) The slide’s content supports its tagline See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 23 : 38
49. 49. The tag line of each slide summarizes its content. It is understandable without the rest of the slide and it coordinates with the tag lines of the other slides The tagline is the main Our sales are growing idea of the slide Sales (M\$) The slide’s content supports its tagline The tagline is an idea, no just a title See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 23 : 38
50. 50. The tag lines of your various slides combine to form the general summary of your communication See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 24 : 38
51. 51. The tag lines of your various slides combine to form the general summary of your communication You stole my boyfriend See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 24 : 38
52. 52. The tag lines of your various slides combine to form the general summary of your communication You stole my boyfriend You insulted my mom See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 24 : 38
53. 53. The tag lines of your various slides combine to form the general summary of your communication You stole my boyfriend You insulted my mom You stole my cat See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 24 : 38
54. 54. The tag lines of your various slides combine to form the general summary of your communication I HATE you You stole my boyfriend You insulted my mom You stole my cat See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 24 : 38
55. 55. Pyramids are also useful in table of contents and titles of sections VS. See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 25 : 38
56. 56. Pyramids are also useful in table of contents and titles of sections VS. See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 25 : 38
57. 57. Similarly, pyramids are useful to structure paragraphs PISA seeks to assess PISA seeks to measure how well young adults, at age of 15 how well 15-year-olds and therefore approaching the end of compulsory schooling are prepared for life´s are prepared to meet the challenges of today’s knowledge challenges. societies. The assessment is forward-looking, focusing on young people’s ability to use their knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges, rather than merely on the extent to which they have mastered a specific school curriculum. This orientation reflects a change in the goals and objectives of curricula themselves, which are increasingly concerned with what students can do with what they learn at school, and nor merely whether they can reproduce what they have learned. PISA is a collaborative Key features driving the development of PISA have been: effort by governments to monitor student progress – Its policy orientation, with design and reporting in a global framework… methods determined by the need of governments to draw policy lessons; – The innovative “literacy” concept that is concerned with the capacity of students to apply knowledge and skills in key subject areas to analyze, reason and communicate effectively as they pose, solve and interpret problems in a variety of situations; See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 26 : 38
58. 58. Similarly, pyramids are useful to structure paragraphs PISA seeks to assess PISA seeks to measure how well young adults, at age of 15 how well 15-year-olds and therefore approaching the end of compulsory schooling are prepared for life´s are prepared to meet the challenges of today’s knowledge challenges. societies. The assessment is forward-looking, focusing on young people’s ability to use their knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges, rather than merely on the extent to which they have mastered a specific school curriculum. This orientation reflects a change in the goals and objectives of curricula themselves, which are increasingly concerned with what students can do with what they learn at school, and nor merely whether they can reproduce what they have learned. PISA is a collaborative Key features driving the development of PISA have been: effort by governments to monitor student progress – Its policy orientation, with design and reporting in a global framework… methods determined by the need of governments to draw policy lessons; – The innovative “literacy” concept that is concerned with the capacity of students to apply knowledge and skills in key subject areas to analyze, reason and communicate effectively as they pose, solve and interpret problems in a variety of situations; See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 26 : 38
59. 59. While building your pyramid, ensure that your ideas are connected to one another 1. Ideas connect with the ones around them 2. Ideas within a group are of the same type 3.Ideas within a group flow logically See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 27 : 38
60. 60. Ideas within the pyramid connect with the ones above, below and at the same level Each idea... See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 28 : 38
61. 61. Ideas within the pyramid connect with the ones above, below and at the same level Each idea... ... supports the point above See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 28 : 38
62. 62. Ideas within the pyramid connect with the ones above, below and at the same level Each idea... ... supports the point above ... summarizes the ideas below See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 28 : 38
63. 63. Ideas within the pyramid connect with the ones above, below and at the same level Each idea... ... supports the point above ... summarizes the ideas below ... connect logically with those at the same level See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 28 : 38
64. 64. So developing the pyramid is an iterative process of grouping and summarizing 1. Grouping ideas: What do the ideas have in common? 2. Summarizing: So what? See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 29 : 38
65. 65. The structures and rules within the pyramid help you to not only communicate your ideas clearly, but also to discover them The focus of the pyramid is on ... • The narrative flow of the introduction • The vertical relationship between points and sub-points • The horizontal relationship within a set of sub-points See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 30 : 38
66. 66. The structures and rules within the pyramid help you to not only communicate your ideas clearly, but also to discover them The focus of the pyramid is on ... • The narrative flow of the introduction • The vertical relationship between points and sub-points • The horizontal relationship within a set of sub-points Introducción See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 30 : 38
67. 67. The structures and rules within the pyramid help you to not only communicate your ideas clearly, but also to discover them The focus of the pyramid is on ... • The narrative flow of the introduction • The vertical relationship between points and sub-points • The horizontal relationship within a set of sub-points Introducción Vertical Relationships See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 30 : 38
68. 68. The structures and rules within the pyramid help you to not only communicate your ideas clearly, but also to discover them The focus of the pyramid is on ... • The narrative flow of the introduction • The vertical relationship between points and sub-points • The horizontal relationship within a set of sub-points Introducción Vertical Relationships Horizontal Relationship See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 30 : 38
69. 69. Pyramids are even more powerful if you watch for key concepts Communicate the general idea (that summarizes all the others) Separate the analysis from the communication Name groups of ideas Differentiate induction and deduction Avoid blank assertions See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 31 : 38
70. 70. Communicate juste one idea: the one that summarizes all the others ? See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 32 : 38
71. 71. You solve problem from the bottom up, but you communicate from the top down. Don’t reproduce your analysis process in your communication! See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 33 : 38
72. 72. You solve problem from the bottom up, but you communicate from the top down. Don’t reproduce your analysis process in your communication! Analysis See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 33 : 38
73. 73. You solve problem from the bottom up, but you communicate from the top down. Don’t reproduce your analysis process in your communication! Analysis Effective communication See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 33 : 38
74. 74. You solve problem from the bottom up, but you communicate from the top down. Don’t reproduce your analysis process in your communication! Analysis Effective “ communication ´ “ I know there are things you don ´ want to hear, but I m enjoying the hell out of saying them. t See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 33 : 38
75. 75. Los elementos de cada grupo deben ser similares; si puedes identificarlos con un nombre, puedes comprobar la consistencia de tu pirámide See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 34 : 38
76. 76. Los elementos de cada grupo deben ser similares; si puedes identificarlos con un nombre, puedes comprobar la consistencia de tu pirámide Buena camisa See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 34 : 38
77. 77. Los elementos de cada grupo deben ser similares; si puedes identificarlos con un nombre, puedes comprobar la consistencia de tu pirámide Buena camisa Buen diseño Buen prestigio See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 34 : 38
78. 78. Los elementos de cada grupo deben ser similares; si puedes identificarlos con un nombre, puedes comprobar la consistencia de tu pirámide Buena camisa Buen diseño Buen prestigio Punto de Material Color Corte Patrón Marca venta See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 34 : 38
79. 79. The lateral order depends on whether the grouping is deductive or inductive We think that employee satisfaction will drop in Deduction a few months During recessions We think there will be a Therefore we think the employee satisfaction recession in a few satisfaction will drop drops months The second argument comments on the first to yield a third Mexico is becoming more violent Induction Violence is increasing in Violence is increasing at Violence is increasing in cities the border on roads between cities The arguments are similar See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 35 : 38
80. 80. You can make the same argument with induction or deduction. In your communication, it’s better to use induction I’ll hire Emma Analysis I’m looking for an assistant that can speak Spanish and Emma qualifies on all Therefore I organize a project and is accounts should hire her willing to travel abroad I’ll hire Emma Communication because she meets all my requirements She can speak She can organize She is willing to Spanish projects travel See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 36 : 38
81. 81. When you summarize ideas avoid “blank assertions”; instead identify their essence and use that as a summary ✘ I need to find: first food, I have two problems then money I’m hungry I’m hungry I have no money for the rent I have no money for the rent The summary is effective: The summary is blank: it integrating the ideas and summarizes the ideas below but analyzing them, it brings a new doesn’t bring any value element (time) See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 37 : 38
82. 82. Closing, you can drastically improve your thinking and communication using logic So, you have ... but you don’t Use logic to improve something to say know how to say it your thinking and communication Introduce Use pyramids optimally Include the Tell a Choose the Use the Relate Optimize w/ right order of story right each idea additional tips information components Idea central Visibles en Visibles Identifica Inducción No hacer Ideas En mismo Una Lógicamente S-P-PCR Ideas principales presenta- en otros grupos con mejor que afirmaciones relacionadas grupo = idea ordenadas Apoyo ciones documentos nombres deducción en blanco entre sí mismo tipo Apoya las Se conecta Resume del nivel lógicamente con las de abajo de arriba las de al lado See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 38 : 38
83. 83. References • B. Minto, The Minto Pyramid Principle, Minto International, 1996 • G. Zelazny, Say It with Presentations, McGraw-Hill, 1999 • http://www.dbai.tuwien.ac.at/staff/gatter/work/ 051104_The_Minto_Pyramid_Principle.pdf See more at powerful-problem-solving.com 39 : 38