Real life situationThe conflict in the Middle-East about who has the right in the ‘promised land’ Jews or Palestinians. Knowledge issue: Is is possible to have an absolute truth about the‘promised land’ that is universally accepted? If so, who should decide it and on what standards is should be based on?
ARAB-ISRAELI VIOLENT EVENTS Israeli War of Independence 1948-1949 Retribution operations 1951-1955 Suez War 1956 Six-Day War 1967 War of Attrition 1967-1970 Yom Kippur War 1973 1978 South Lebanon conflict 1978 First Lebanon War 1982 South Lebanon conflict 1982-2000 First Intifada 1987-1993 Second Intifada 2000-2004 Second Lebanon War 2006 Gaza War 2008-2009
RECENT EVENTSOn which standards do politicians base their opinions about the promised land?
REASONS OF THE CONFLICTHOW IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF EACH SIDE ACQUIRED? Historical aspect Religious aspect Political aspect
HISTORICAL ASPECT WHOSE LAND? Defeat of Ottoman Empire in World War I. Britain claims the control of Palestine. Partition of the country between Arabs and Jews. David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the creation of the State of Israel On May 15, the United States recognized the State of Israel and the Soviet Union soon followed suit.
KNOWLEDGE ISSUES whose land? To what extent we should trust history to form knowledge and determine the absolute truth? Who wrote history? Is history unbiased? Who can determine the right answer?
RELIGIOUS ASPECT:INTERPRETATIONS OF THE IDEA OF THE CHOSEN PEOPLE INWITH REGARD TO THE "PROMISED LAND" AND THE "CHOSEN PEOPLE" OF JERUSALEM. Jewish perspective The Land of Canaan (Land of Palestine/Israel) was, according to the Torah promised by God to the Children of Israel. Muslim Perspective Muslims also claim rights to that land in accordance with the Quran. They argue that the Land of Canaan was promised to all descendants of Abraham, including his elder son Ishmael, from whom Arabs claim descent. Christian Perspective Christian Zionists support Israel because they recognize an ancestral right of Jews to this land, as suggested, for instance, by Paul in Romans 11. Some also believe that the return of Jews in Israel is a prerequisite for the Second Coming of Christ.
KNOWLEDGNE ISSUES Does religion affect knowledge? To what extent? Should we trust holy books to make jugdements? How did God tell people about the promised land? How can we base knowledge on something that we cannot check its validity? Did God know that there were people living in the promised land? How can be base knowledge Is God unfair?
POLITICAL ASPECTHOW DID THE POLITICAL CONFLICT INFLUENCED KNOWLEDGE?
CONSEQUENCES Affecting knowledge Destorting facts Changing history
THE ABSOLUE TRUTH ABOUT THEPROMISED LAND IS AFFECTED BY: Politics History Religion
WHAT CAN AFFECT THEABSOLUTE TRUTH AS WELL? Language Logic Mathematics
LANGUAGE JESUS, ONE PERSON…MANY VIEWS Christianity Christ, The Saviour and Redeemer Son of God, the Lord Judaism rejects the idea of Jesus being God, or a person of a Trinity, or a mediator to God. Jesus is not the Messiah."For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savour is no longer a Jew and is an apostate". Islam Messenger of God and the Masih (Messiah) The belief in Jesus (and all other messengers of God) is required in Islam. The Quran mentions Jesus twenty-five times, more often, by name, than Muhammad. Jesus wasn’t a God incarnate or the son of God.
KNOWLEDGE ISSUES To what extent language can contribute in blocking the absolute truth? The significane of the conflict: Crusades: expansion of Christianity Jihad: expansion of IslamMilkhemet Mitzvah ‘ commandment war’ to keep the promised land Consequences: Terror attack Invasion of Afghanistan Gaza Bombing
ABSOLUTE TRUTH IN LOGIC A proposition is said to have universality if it can true in all possible contexts without creating a contradiction. The relativist conception denies the existence of some or all universal truths, particularly ethical ones (through moral relativism). Mathematics is a field in which those truths discovered, inrelation to the field of mathematics, are typically considered of universal scope
MATHEMATICS HOW MANY TRUTHS ARE THERE?Everything is energy, vibrating at different frequencies, and thefrequencies that you focus on, that you pay attention to the most createsyour reality. This is the reality youre aware of. But its not the only one. Store A or Store B? To you, it seems like theres only one reality, however, because youre only aware of the paths you took, not the ones you didnt take. But those other paths were taken, by different versions of you.
TRUE KNOWLEDGE THAT CONSTRUCT THE ABSOLUTE TRUTH INVOLVES: Certainty – its hard if not impossible to deny Evidence – it has to based on something but the evidence can be doubtable Practicality – it has to actually work in the real world but not in the practical world Broad agreement – lots of people have to agree itstrue (the more people believe the Earth is flat doesn’t make it flat)
CONCLUSIONIf we start doubting everything from the beginning to find the absolute true, then everything will be uncertain. The only thing that is certain is that you are thinking.To disaprove that you are thinking, you have to think.Personal thought: there is only one absolute truth, but there are many versions of it.
BACK TO THE KNOWLEDGE ISSUE It is impossible to have an absolute truth It is also impossible to have a unified view about whoe land is the promised land. Sharing the land, having equal rights and stopping violence.