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Grammar Book
By: Arturo Chandler
Table of Contents
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1. Preterite and Imperfect
2. Por and Para

3. Demonstrative Adjectives/Pronouns
4. O...
Table of Contents(Ext)

• 10. Present Subjunctive
• 11. Present Subjunctive with influence
Andar- Anduv

e
i
aste iste
o
io
amos imos
eron ieron

R
e
g
u
l
a
r

Uses of Imperfect:

Estar- Estuv

Preterite

-No def...
Por

Para

Motion or a general locationLa excursion nos llevo por el
centro.

Destination-Salimos
para Merida el sabado.

...
Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
Used for pointing out specific things
Feminine-

MasculineEste

Estos

Esta

Estas

...
Ordinal Numbers
Primero(a)- first
Segundo(a)- second
Tercero(a)-third
Cuarto(a)-fourt
Quinto(a)- fifth
Sexto(a)- sixth
Sep...
Infinitive:

We will swim.
Nosotros nadaremos

-e
These
-as
endings are
used for all
-a
the verbs:
-emos
AR-ER-IR.
-an
Whe...
Abajo- down
Arriba- up
Debajo de- beneath
Dentro de- within
Encima de- above
Fuera de- Outside

Derecha- Right
Izquierda- ...
Possessive Adjectives/Pronouns
Possessive adjectives and pronouns
are used to show possession.
Singular:

Plural:

mio

nu...
Reflexives
Me lavo
Te lavas
Se lava

Example:
Hablarse:
Yo me hablo.
I speak myself.

Nos lavamos
Se lavan

Me- myself
Te-...
Ud +Uds commands
Tú-simply drop
the “s”

UD./UDS.- put it in ‘yo’ form
and change to opposite vowel

Los irregulars:

Los ...
Present Subjunctive
USED TO EXPRESS IDEAS THAT ARE UNCERTAIN OR
HYPOTHERICAL
SUBJUNCTIVE KEYS:
1. A ‘WEIRDO’ verb
2. Two d...
AconsejarImportar-

InsistirMandarProhibir-

To advise

Present
subjunctive
with
influence

To matter
To insist
To order
T...
Subjunctive w/ Verb of Influence
Common verbs of expressions of emotion:
AlegarseEsperarGustarMolestarSentirSorprenderTeme...
Expressions of certainty:
No dudarNot to doubt
No cabe duda de- There is no doubt
No hay duda de- There is no doubt
Ne neg...
Subjunctive with Conjunctions
Conjunctions that
require the subjunctive:
A menos queAntes queCon tal queEn caso quePara qu...
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Grammar book

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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar Book By: Arturo Chandler
  2. 2. Table of Contents • • • • • • • • • 1. Preterite and Imperfect 2. Por and Para 3. Demonstrative Adjectives/Pronouns 4. Ordinal numbers 5. Future 6. Prepositions 7. Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns 8. Reflexives 9. Ud. and Uds. commands
  3. 3. Table of Contents(Ext) • 10. Present Subjunctive • 11. Present Subjunctive with influence
  4. 4. Andar- Anduv e i aste iste o io amos imos eron ieron R e g u l a r Uses of Imperfect: Estar- Estuv Preterite -No definite ending or beginning. -Interuption Poder- Pud Poner- Pus Quere- Quis Car- que Gar- gue Zar- ce Saber- Sup Stem Changer: Dormir, preferir, leer, etc. Venir- Vin Tener- Tuv Conducir- Conduj Producir- Produj Traducir-Traduj Key words: Todos los dias A veces Cada dia Generalmente Imperfect ARAba Abas Aba Abamos Abais Abon Irregular Words Ir Ser Iba Era Ibas Eras Iba Era Ibamos Eramos Ibais Erais Iban Eran Ería ías ía Íais íbasteis ían Ver Veia Veias Veia Veiamos Veiais Veian
  5. 5. Por Para Motion or a general locationLa excursion nos llevo por el centro. Destination-Salimos para Merida el sabado. Duration of action- Estuve en Montevideo por un mes. Deadline- El va a arreglar el carro para el Viernes. Object of search- Vengo por ti las ochos. Purpose-Juan estudia para mechanic. Por is used for idiomatic suggestions- Employment- Sara trabaja para telecome. Por aqui- Around here Por ejemplo- For examples Por eso- That’s why therefore Por fin- Finally Can change the meaning of the sentence dependingTrabajo por su padre- He worked for his father. Trabajo para su padre- He worked for his father’s business.
  6. 6. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns Used for pointing out specific things Feminine- MasculineEste Estos Esta Estas Ese Esos Esa Esas Aquel Aquellos Aquella Examples: Aquellas gallinas- Those hens Esa vaca- That cow. HINT: This and These get T’s. Aquellas
  7. 7. Ordinal Numbers Primero(a)- first Segundo(a)- second Tercero(a)-third Cuarto(a)-fourt Quinto(a)- fifth Sexto(a)- sixth Septimo(a)-seventh Octavo(a)- eighth Noveno(a)- ninth Decimo(a)-tenth Change when between masculine and feminine.
  8. 8. Infinitive: We will swim. Nosotros nadaremos -e These -as endings are used for all -a the verbs: -emos AR-ER-IR. -an When using the future, you write the Spanish infinitive verb and add the ending for what person you are talking in.
  9. 9. Abajo- down Arriba- up Debajo de- beneath Dentro de- within Encima de- above Fuera de- Outside Derecha- Right Izquierda- Left
  10. 10. Possessive Adjectives/Pronouns Possessive adjectives and pronouns are used to show possession. Singular: Plural: mio nuestro mios nuestros tuyo vuestro tuyos vuestros suyo suyo suyos suyos
  11. 11. Reflexives Me lavo Te lavas Se lava Example: Hablarse: Yo me hablo. I speak myself. Nos lavamos Se lavan Me- myself Te- yourself Se- himself, herself Nos- ourselves Se - themselves
  12. 12. Ud +Uds commands Tú-simply drop the “s” UD./UDS.- put it in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite vowel Los irregulars: Los irregulars: Di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ven TVDISHES Tú- put it in ‘yo’ form and change to opposite vowel, add an ‘s’ Los irregulars: TVDISHES UD/UDS.- same as above Los irregulars: TVDISHES
  13. 13. Present Subjunctive USED TO EXPRESS IDEAS THAT ARE UNCERTAIN OR HYPOTHERICAL SUBJUNCTIVE KEYS: 1. A ‘WEIRDO’ verb 2. Two different subjects 3. The word ‘que’ WEIRO MEANING: W- Wish/Will E- Emotion I- Impersonal Expression R- Request/Recommendation D- Doubt/Denial O- Ojalà
  14. 14. AconsejarImportar- InsistirMandarProhibir- To advise Present subjunctive with influence To matter To insist To order To prohibit Recomendar- To recommend Rogar- To beg Sugerir- To suggest
  15. 15. Subjunctive w/ Verb of Influence Common verbs of expressions of emotion: AlegarseEsperarGustarMolestarSentirSorprenderTemerTener miedoEs extrañ0Es una lastimaEs ridiculoEs terribleEs tristeOjalà- To be happy To hope, to wish To like To bother To be sorry To surprise To be worried To be afraid It’s strange It’s a shame It’s ridiculous It’s terrible It’s sad I hope that I wish that Use infinitive after an expression of emotion when there is no change in subject.
  16. 16. Expressions of certainty: No dudarNot to doubt No cabe duda de- There is no doubt No hay duda de- There is no doubt Ne negarNot to deny Estar seguroTo be sure of Es ciertoIt’s true Es seguroIt’s certain Es verdadIt’s true Es obvioIt’s obvious Que significa: Quizàs and tal vez imply uncertainty Expressions of doubt, disbelief, or denial: DudarNegarNo creerNo estar seguroNo es cierto No es seguroNo es verdadEs imposibleEs improbableEs possibleEs probable- To doubt To deny Not to believe Not to be sure It’s not true It’s not certain It’s not true It’s impossible It’s improbable It’s possible It’s probable
  17. 17. Subjunctive with Conjunctions Conjunctions that require the subjunctive: A menos queAntes queCon tal queEn caso quePara queSin que- Unless Before Provided that In case that So that Without Use the infinitive after the prepositions antes de, para, and sin when there is no change in subject. Conjunctions used with subjunctive or indicative: Use the indicative if the verb in the main clause expresses an action that habitually happens or happened in the past. CuandoDespuès queEn cuantoHasta queTan pronto que- When After As soon as Until As soon as Use the subjunctive in the subordinate clause if the main clause expresses a future action or command

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