Chapter 01


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Chapter 01

  1. 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th EditionChapter 1 — Orientation and Fire Service History Firefighter I
  2. 2. Firefighter I Course Goal• After completing this course, the student shall be able to certify as a Firefighter I per NFPA® 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications. Firefighter I 1–2
  3. 3. Chapter 1 Lesson Goal• After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to summarize fire department policies, procedures, and organizational principles as they apply to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). Firefighter I 1–3
  4. 4. Specific Objectives 1. Describe the history and culture of the fire service. 2. Describe the mission of the fire service. 3. Define fire department organizational principles. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–4
  5. 5. Specific Objectives 4. Distinguish among functions of fire companies. 5. Summarize primary knowledge and skills the firefighter must have to function effectively. 6. Distinguish among the primary roles of fire service personnel. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–5
  6. 6. Specific Objectives 7. Distinguish among policies, procedures, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) . 8. Summarize components of the Incident Command System (ICS). 9. Distinguish among the functions of the major subdivisions within the ICS structure . (Continued) Firefighter I 1–6
  7. 7. Specific Objectives 10. Define ICS terms. 11. Discuss fire service interaction with other organizations. Firefighter I 1–7
  8. 8. Fire Department Emergencies Firefighter I 1–8
  9. 9. History of the Fire Service• Old World and North America citizens kept: – containers of water – ladder to reach the roof• Bucket brigades used to put out fires• Pilgrims brought firefighting methods to North America (Continued) Firefighter I 1–9
  10. 10. History of the Fire Service• Industrial Revolution affected textile and steel industries – Textile mills had catastrophic fires – Iron and steel industries produced firefighting tools and equipment, especially pumping apparatus (Continued) Firefighter I 1–10
  11. 11. History of the Fire Service• Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments – Groups protected cities and towns – Benjamin Franklin –Organized one of the first groups –Founded first fire insurance company (Continued) Firefighter I 1–11
  12. 12. History of the Fire Service• Cities and towns organized fire companies and fire departments – Groups were made up of military organizations and adopted rank structure – Then, as today, majority of firefighters in North America were volunteers – Evolved into today’s fire departments Firefighter I 1–12
  13. 13. Fire Service Culture• Categories of fire service members – Volunteer – Paid-on-call – Career – Combination (Continued) Firefighter I 1–13
  14. 14. DISCUSSION QUESTION What type of fire department is in your home town? Firefighter I 1–14
  15. 15. Fire Service Culture• Volunteer fire departments – Communities of varying sizes – Outnumber career departments and career firefighters• Paid-on-call – Respond from homes or workplaces – Receive reimbursement for each call (Continued) Firefighter I 1–15
  16. 16. Fire Service Culture• Fire departments with career personnel — larger towns and cities• Combination departments — Combine full-time career firefighters with: – Volunteers or – Paid-on-call members (Continued) Firefighter I 1–16
  17. 17. Fire Service Culture• Necessary characteristics and behaviors – Integrity – Moral character – Work ethic – Pride – Courage Firefighter I 1–17
  18. 18. DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some of the characteristics and behaviors necessary in the fire service? Firefighter I 1–18
  19. 19. Fire Service Mission• To save lives and protect property – Programs to prevent fires – Fire prevention and code enforcement – Public education Firefighter I 1–19
  20. 20. Tactical Priorities• Life safety – Always the first and highest priority – Protecting firefighters and individuals – Protecting pets and livestock (Continued) Firefighter I 1–20
  21. 21. Tactical Priorities• Incident stabilization — Prevent and incident from getting worse• Property conservation — Save property without putting firefighters in mortal danger Firefighter I 1–21
  22. 22. DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some examples of recent fires that have been in the media and how were the priorities addressed? Firefighter I 1–22
  23. 23. Fire DepartmentOrganizational Principles• Unity of command — Report to only one supervisor• Span of control — Number of individuals or groups that can be supervised• Division of labor — Dividing large jobs into small jobs (Continued) Firefighter I 1–23
  24. 24. Fire DepartmentOrganizational Principles• Discipline — Providing direction and following directions – Setting limits or boundaries for expected performance – Enforcing limits or boundaries (Continued) Firefighter I 1–24
  25. 25. Fire DepartmentOrganizational Principles• Purposes of discipline in a fire department – Educate and train – Correct inappropriate behavior – Positive motivation – Ensure compliance – Provide direction Firefighter I 1–25
  26. 26. Functions of Fire Companies • Engine company — Deploys hoselines for fire attack and exposure protection (Continued) Firefighter I 1–26
  27. 27. Functions of Fire Companies • Truck company — Performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilation, salvage and overhaul, provides access to upperCourtesy of District Chief levels (Continued)Chris E. Mickal. NOFDPhoto Unit. Firefighter I 1–27
  28. 28. Functions of Fire Companies• Rescue/squad company — Removal of victims from areas of danger or entrapment Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mickal. NOFD Photo Unit. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–28
  29. 29. Functions of Fire Companies• Brush company — Extinguishes wildland fires and protects structures in wildland/urban interface (Continued) Firefighter I 1–29
  30. 30. Functions of Fire Companies • Hazardous materials company — Responds to and mitigates hazardous materials incidents (Continued) Firefighter I 1–30
  31. 31. DISCUSSION QUESTION How has the threat of terrorism and terrorist tactics affected the fire service, especially in areas such as hazardous materials responses? Firefighter I 1–31
  32. 32. Functions of Fire Companies• Emergency medical/ambulance company — Provides emergency medical care to patients• Special rescue company — Responds to and performs technical rescue Courtesy of Darrel Levine. Firefighter I 1–32
  33. 33. Primary Knowledge and Skills• Meeting NFPA® Standard 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications• Knowing department organization, operation, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) (Continued) Firefighter I 1–33
  34. 34. Primary Knowledge and Skills• Knowing district or city street system and physical layout• Meeting minimum health and physical fitness standards• Meeting educational requirements of the AHJ Firefighter I 1–34
  35. 35. DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some of the typical duties of a Firefighter I and a Firefighter II? Firefighter I 1–35
  36. 36. Fire Department Personnel• Fire apparatus driver/ operator (Continued) Firefighter I 1–36
  37. 37. Fire Department Personnel• Fire department officer – Fire chief – Fire department officers – Other roles Courtesy of San Ramon Valley Fire District. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–37
  38. 38. Fire Department Personnel• Fire department health and safety officer• Fire department incident safety officer Courtesy of Rick Montemorra. Firefighter I 1–38
  39. 39. Other Personnel• Communications personnel (telecommunicators)• Fire alarm maintenance personnel Courtesy of Paul Ramirez, Phoenix FD, AZ. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–39
  40. 40. Other Personnel• Apparatus and equipment maintenance personnel (Continued) Firefighter I 1–40
  41. 41. Other Personnel• Fire police personnel• Information systems personnel Firefighter I 1–41
  42. 42. Special Operations Personnel• Airport firefighter• Hazardous materials technician Courtesy of Steven Baker. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–42
  43. 43. Special Operations Personnel• Technical rescuer• Wildland firefighter Courtesy of Monterey County Training Officers. Firefighter I 1–43
  44. 44. Fire Prevention Personnel• Fire prevention officer/inspector• Fire and arson investigator (Continued) Firefighter I 1–44
  45. 45. Fire Prevention Personnel• Public fire and life safety educator• Fire protection engineer/specialist Firefighter I 1–45
  46. 46. Emergency Medical Services(EMS) Personnel• First responder• Emergency medical technician• Paramedic Firefighter I 1–46
  47. 47. Training Personnel• Training officer/chief of training/drillmaster• Instructor Firefighter I 1–47
  48. 48. DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some career development opportunities in your department? Firefighter I 1–48
  49. 49. Fire Department Regulations• Policy — A guide to decision making within an organization• Procedure — Describes in writing the steps to be followed – Order – Directive (Continued) Firefighter I 1–49
  50. 50. Fire Department Regulations• Order — Based upon a policy or procedure; compliance is mandatory• Directive — Not based upon a policy or procedure; a request or suggestion (Continued) Firefighter I 1–50
  51. 51. Fire Department Regulations:Standard Operating Procedures• Provide a standard set of actions; basis for every incident action plan• Means to start the emergency operation• Should follow fireground priorities – Life safety – Incident stabilization – Property conservation (Continued) Firefighter I 1–51
  52. 52. Fire Department Regulations:Standard Operating Procedures• Reduces confusion and chaos on the scene• Prevent duplication of effort• Safety is highest priority when writing SOPs (Continued) Firefighter I 1–52
  53. 53. Fire Department Regulations:Standard Operating Procedures• Should be applied to all situations• May be used for administrative and personnel functions Firefighter I 1–53
  54. 54. Incident Command SystemComponents• Common terminology• Modular organization• Integrated communications• Unified command structure• Consolidated action plans (Continued) Firefighter I 1–54
  55. 55. Incident Command SystemComponents• Manageable span of control• Predesignated incident facilities• Comprehensive resource management Firefighter I 1–55
  56. 56. DISCUSSION QUESTION What is the advantage of using an incident command system? Firefighter I 1–56
  57. 57. Incident Command System Firefighter I 1–57
  58. 58. ICS Subdivisions: Command Firefighter I 1–58
  59. 59. ICS Subdivisions:Operations Section Firefighter I 1–59
  60. 60. ICS Subdivisions:Planning Section• Planning Section Chief — Responsible for the collection, documentation, evaluation, and dissemination of information Firefighter I 1–60
  61. 61. ICS Subdivisions:Logistics Section Firefighter I 1–61
  62. 62. ICS Subdivisions:Finance/Administration Section Firefighter I 1–62
  63. 63. ICS Subdivisions:Information/Intelligence Function• Information/Intelligence Function — Responsible for analyzing and sharing incident information Firefighter I 1–63
  64. 64. ICS Terms• Assigned — Resources currently committed• Available — Resources checked-in and not assigned• Branch — Organizational level between Divisions/Groups and the IC and operations (Continued) Firefighter I 1–64
  65. 65. ICS Terms• Command — Function of directing, ordering, and controlling resources• Command Post — Location from which all incident operation are directed• Division — A geographic designation assigning responsibility for all operations within a defined area (Continued) Firefighter I 1–65
  66. 66. ICS Terms• Group — A functional designation• Incident Action Plan (IAP) — Written or unwritten plan for managing the emergency• Incident Commander (IC) — Officer in overall charge of the incident (Continued) Firefighter I 1–66
  67. 67. ICS Terms• Out-of-service — Resources not available• Resources — All personnel and major pieces of apparatus on scene or en route (Continued) Firefighter I 1–67
  68. 68. ICS Terms• Resource Status — Resources are in one of three status modes: – Available – Assigned – Out-of-service (Continued) Firefighter I 1–68
  69. 69. ICS Terms• Single Resource — Individual personnel and equipment teams• Strike Team — Set number of resources of the same kind and type• Strategic Mode — Determines positions for companies: offensive and defensive (Continued) Firefighter I 1–69
  70. 70. ICS Terms• Supervisor — Someone in command of a division or a group• Task Force — Any combination of resources assembled in support of a specific mission Firefighter I 1–70
  71. 71. Interaction With EmergencyMedical Services• If fire department personnel do not provide EMS or medical transportation, they should develop a relationship with those who do• Firefighters must have appropriate level of first- aid training Firefighter I 1–71
  72. 72. Interaction With Hospitals• May operate ambulances and provide EMS; usually do not• Hospital personnel may be called to an emergency scene – Mass casualty incidents – Advanced life support – Serious entrapment Firefighter I 1–72
  73. 73. Interaction With LawEnforcement• Law enforcement and fire personnel must understand each other’s roles and priorities• Law enforcement may be present at fire scene• Firefighters may assist law enforcement Firefighter I 1–73
  74. 74. Interaction With UtilityCompanies• Many incidents involve utility providers (electricity, natural gas, and water) so fire personnel must have a good working relationship (Continued) Firefighter I 1–74
  75. 75. Interaction With UtilityCompanies• Fire units must coordinate with utilities on mutual responses• May have specially trained and equipped emergency response teams Firefighter I 1–75
  76. 76. Interaction With Media• NIMS-ICS includes a Public Information Officer for dealing with the media• Students should not make comments or express opinions; refer to PIO• Can play an important role in delivery of news based on an incident Firefighter I 1–76
  77. 77. DISCUSSION QUESTION How do you view the media when they are covering incidents? Firefighter I 1–77
  78. 78. Interaction With Other Agencies• Any possible contacts should be identified and a relationship established Examples: Public health departments, coroner/medical examiner’s officers, EPA Firefighter I 1–78
  79. 79. Summary• The fire service has a long and proud history of protecting communities. Today’s fire service often performs functions such as emergency medical services, technical rescues, and hazardous materials mitigation. (Continued) Firefighter I 1–79
  80. 80. Summary• Firefighters must have certain aptitudes and capabilities. The job of firefighter required dedication and hard work but it is also rewarding. Firefighter I 1–80
  81. 81. Review Questions 1. What are four categories of fire service members? 2. What are two necessary characteristics and behaviors of firefighters? 3. What is the mission of the fire service? (Continued) Firefighter I 1–81
  82. 82. Review Questions 4. What is unity of command? 5. Name two fire companies and their functions. 6. Name three fire service personnel and describe their functions. 7. What are Standard Operating (Continued) Procedures (SOPs)? Firefighter I 1–82
  83. 83. Review Questions 8. What are the major subdivisions within the ICS structure? 9. Define the following ICS terms: Command, Group, Strike Team, and Supervisor. 10. Name two organizations that fire service personnel may interact with. Firefighter I 1–83