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WJEC GCSE Geography case study rural to urban migration Limpopo to Gauteng

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Notes for WJEC Geography case study rural to urban migration - Limpopo to Gauteng features a previous 2011 exam question and answer example

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WJEC GCSE Geography case study rural to urban migration Limpopo to Gauteng

  1. 1. GCSE GEOGRAPHY CASE STUDY: RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION Revision notes and Previous Exam question + answer example
  2. 2. THE QUESTION -BARE THIS IN MIND FOR THE REVISION NOTES i. Name and locate an area within an LEDC from which people have migrated. ii. Describe the effects on the area from which people have migrated. iii. Explain why they migrated. (8 marks)
  3. 3. Rural to urban migration from Limpopo to Gauteng STEP 1: WHICH CASE STUDY?..
  4. 4. • Rural province in South Africa • Houses 90,000 people • Rural region with only one city • Gauteng has three major cities: o Johannesburg o Pretoria o Soweto STEP 2: LOCATE CASE STUDY
  5. 5. • The Limpopo province produces up to 60% of all fruit, veg, maize meal, wheat and cotton for South Africa • Major international mining operations contribute to 20% of Limpopo’s economy • The 23,000 hectare Manyeleti Game reserve • Walking safaris are organized, elephant back rides and tracking; the traditional game viewing drives • Push Factors: o Dissatisfied with life in countryside o No connection to national grid and therefore no electricity o No electric cookers o Lack of money o Poor job opportunities o Poor quality of life o People rely on farming and tourism for their income. Which are both very seasonal o Most households earn little less than 1,000 Rand per month. 60% of people live below the poverty line o Remittances -money earned in Guateng (in the city) is sent home to rural Limpopo and used to support their families. STEP 3: DESCRIBE ATTRACTIONS OF THE AREA-REMEMBER KEY WORDS Hectare: 100m x 100m land area
  6. 6. STEP 4: CONFLICTS • The pull factors of Gauteng(to the people of Limpopo) : o Jobs available that pay more o Better healthcare o Better schooling (In Limpopo only 120,000 children complete primary education, in Gauteng 320,000 children complete primary education) o Most household earn 7,175 Rand a month o 77.86% own an electric stove o 87.26% own a fridge freezer o 57.65% have a phone connection • Brain drain -rural areas lose their most skilled workers, aged between 24 and 35. Can have an impact on the regions economy. • Circular migration occurs where migrants go back to Limpopo at busy times of the year to help with har-vests etc. This reduces demand on water and food supplies in rural areas but on the negative side has encouraged the spread of AIDS which has a big impact on people of a working age.
  7. 7. Have you answered the requirements of the question?(through your notes) STEP 5: CHECK i. Name and locate an area within an LEDC from which people have migrated. ii. Describe the effects on the area from which people have migrated. iii. Explain why they migrated. (8 marks)
  8. 8. FINALLY: ANSWER THE QUESTION An area which people have migrated from is in the LEDC of South Africa. It is called Limpopo. It has a population of around 90,000 people - 90% of which live in the rural areas. Many people from Limpopo migrated to another province in South Africa, it’s neighbour Gauteng. The migration has had many effects on the area and it’s people. Firstly, it has lost its most skilled, brightest and youngest workers which means elderly, women and children who struggle to grow food so there is malnutrition. Also, families have been left separated and in many cases children have been left to raise themselves. However, often the migrants are economic migrants looking for better jobs and opportunities in the cities. These people may send remittances home for their families or money to invest in rural community projects to develop their home area. Also the migrants may bring back new ideas, experiences and farming techniques. However, if they are circular migrants (return to Limpopo in the best farming season) they could bring back illnesses and sexually transmitted diseases that will spread round the community quickly. There are many reasons why people migrate from rural to urban areas. The rural areas lack sanitation, schooling opportunities or healthcare centres that many would want to experience and have the privilege of having in the urban area. These are called push factors. There are also pull factors to Gauteng, for example, the higher wages, the faster paced lifestyle it offers. Here is an example but there are many other ways to have written out your answer…

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