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HBO Lesson 1_2_3

Human Behavior in Organization Course at PCLU.

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HBO Lesson 1_2_3

  1. 1. Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  2. 2. Lesson 1.The Dynamics of people and organizations A primary goal of management education is to develop students into managers who can think ahead, exercise good judgment, make ethical decisions, and take into consideration the implications of their proposed actions – Jane Schmidt-Wilk
  3. 3. Premises Organizations are complex systems.  Need to understand how the system operates esp. in a sociotechnical system – humanity and technology. Human behavior in organizations is sometimes unpredictable  Behaviors may come from deep-seated needs, lifetime experiences and personal value systems Human behavior in a organization can be partially understood  Applying the frameworks of behavioral science, management and other disciplines.
  4. 4. There are no perfect solutions to organizational problems  Increase the understanding and skills – work relationships can substantially upgraded We do not have the luxury of not working with or relate to other people.  Learn human behavior.  Explore how to improve he interpersonal skills  Begin to mange ones relationships with others at work. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–4
  5. 5. What is an Organization? An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals.
  6. 6. What is an Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  7. 7. The Meaning of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) is  the study of human behavior in the workplace,  the interaction between people and the organization,  and the organization itself.  OB studies what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–7
  8. 8.  Describe Goals of OB how people behave under a variety of conditions.  Understand Why people behave as they do. Probe for underlying explanations  Predict Predict future employee behavior (tardiness, productive & unproductive etc.) Provide preventive actions  Control At least partially and develop some human activity at work. Managers need to remember that organizational behavior is a tool for human benefit
  9. 9. Levels of Analysis Organizational Level Group Level Individual Level
  10. 10. Components of Organizational Behavior Understanding organizational behavior requires studying Individuals in Organizations Group and Team Processes Organizational Processes
  11. 11. Benefits of Studying Organizational Behavior  Develop skills to function effectively in the workplace.  Grow personally through insight into human behavior. Enhance overall organizational effectiveness  Sharpen and refine common sense. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–11
  12. 12. Key forces – complex set of forces affects the nature of organizations
  13. 13. Key Forces • People Make up the internal social system of an organization Melting pot of diversity – talents, background and perspectives to their jobs
  14. 14. Managers need to be tuned in to these diverse patterns and trends. –Changes in the labor force »Decline in work ethic and rise in emphasis on leisure, self expression, fulfillment and personal growth »Decreased automatic acceptance of authority and increase in the desire for participation, autonomy and control. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–14
  15. 15. »Skills become obsolete due to rapid technological advances – retrain or be displaced »Security needs are prime concern and loyalty diminishes because of downsizing and outsourcing »Absence of meaningful salary growth has placed renewed emphasis on money as a motivator A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–15
  16. 16. • Structure Defines the formal relationship and use of people in organizations. Effective coordination of work Create complex problems of cooperation, negotiation and decision making • Technology Provides he resources with which people work and affects the tasks they perform Benefit of technology – does more and better work however it restricts people in various ways OB’s challenge is to maintain the delicate balance between technical and social systems.
  17. 17. • Environment Internal or external Organizations are part of a larger system and factors influence them like: – Citizens expect organizations to be socially responsible –New products and competition for customers come from around the globe (globalization) –The direct impact of unions diminishes –Dramatic pace of change in society. The external environment influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions, and provides competitions for resources and power. 1–17
  18. 18. Fundamental Concepts of OB  Nature of people Individual differences –Nature vs. nurture Perception –The unique way in which each person sees, organizes and interprets things. –Selective perception cause misinterpretation A whole person –We employ the whole person not just their brains or skills –Ergonomics is the science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population
  19. 19. Motivated behavior –A path towards increased need fulfillment is a better approach Desire for involvement –Hunger for a change to chare what they know and to learn from the experience. –Organizations need to provide opportunities for meaningful involvement – employee empowerment Value of the person –Worth before the word –meal before the message –they want to be treated differently from other factors of production 1–19
  20. 20. Nature of organization Social systems – or social structure in general refer to entities or groups in definite relation to each other, to relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationship within social systems, or to social institutions and norms becoming embedded into social systems in such a way that they shape the behavior of actors within those social systems. Social systems can be said to be the patterns of behavior of a group of people possessing similar characteristics due to their existence in same society. –Formal and informal social systems –The idea of a social system provides a framework for analyzing organizational behavior issues. It helps make OB problems understandable and manageable
  21. 21. Mutual interest –Symbiotic relationship between organizations and people –Provides a superordinate goal – one that can attained only through the integral effort of individuals and their employers. Ethics –Treatment of employees in an ethical fashion –Establish code of ethics, publicized statements of wthical values, provide ethics trainings, reward employees for notable ethical behaviors, set up internal procedure to handle misconduct. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–21
  22. 22. Key Developments in OB History The Hawthorne Studies at Western Electric  Originally intended as a study of the effects of environmental changes on productivity.  The Hawthorne Effect— the tendency of people to behave differently (perform better) when they receive attention.  Key Findings 1. Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed. 2. Dealing with human problems is complicated and challenging. 3. Leadership practices and work-group pressures strongly influence productivity, satisfaction, and performance. 4. Personal problems influence worker productivity. 5. Effective communication is critical to success. 6. Factors embedded in the social system influence behavior. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–22
  23. 23. Key Developments in OB History The Human Relations Movement  Based on belief that managerial practices, morale, and productivity are strongly linked and that the proper working environment enhances worker capabilities.  Douglas McGregor Theory X – Managers assume people dislike work, avoid responsibility, lack ambition, and need close supervision. Theory Y – Managers assume people enjoy work, accept responsibility, are innovative, and are self-controlling. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–23
  24. 24. Key Developments in OB History The Contingency Approach  Emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage people. Different situations require managers to make decisions about which managerial methods and approaches to use in a specific instance.  Knowledge of organizational behavior and management is essential to the examination of individual and situational differences before deciding a course of action. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–24
  25. 25. 1–25 Key Managerial Practices of Successful Organizations 1. Employment security. 2. High standards in selecting personnel. 3. Extensive use of self-managed teams and decentralized decision making. 4. Comparatively high compensation based on performance. 5. Extensive employee training. 6. Reduction of status differences between higher management and other employees. 7. Information sharing among managers and other workers. 8. Promotion from within.
  26. 26. 26 What other knowledge help us understand OB?
  27. 27. Contributing Disciplines Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.  Unit of Analysis: Individual Contributions to OB: Learning, motivation, personality, emotions, perception Training, leadership effectiveness, job satisfaction Individual decision making, performance appraisal, attitude measurement Employee selection, work design, and work stress
  28. 28. Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field
  29. 29. Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.  Unit of Analysis: Group  Contributions to OB: Behavioral change Attitude change Communication Group processes Group decision making
  30. 30. – Unit of Analysis: Organizational System –Group Contributions to OB:  Group dynamics  Work teams  Communication  Power  Conflict  Intergroup behavior  Formal organization theory  Organizational technology  Organizational change  Organizational culture 1-31 • Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
  31. 31. Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Unit of Analysis: Organizational System Group Contributions to OB:  Organizational culture  Organizational environment •Comparative values •Comparative attitudes •Cross-cultural analysis
  32. 32. SIGNIFICANCE OF OB Road map to our lives in organizations Helps us understand and predict organizational life Influences events in organizations Helps understand self and others better Helps a manager get things done better Helps maintain cordial relations Highly useful in the field of marketing Helps in career planning and development
  33. 33. Limitations of OB Knowledge about OB does not help an individual manage personal life better Qualities of OB are mysterious Has become a fad with managers Is selfish and exploitative Managers expect quick-fix solutions-not possible Principles and practices may not work in the events of declining fortunes Cannot eliminate totally conflict and frustration
  34. 34. Challenges & Opportunities for OB Responding to Globalization Managing Workforce Diversity Improving Quality and Productivity Improving Customer Service Improving People Skills Stimulating Innovation and Change Coping with “Temporariness” Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts Creating a Positive Work Environment Improving Ethical Behavior 1-38
  35. 35. 39 Managing Diversity Workforce diversity - organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation
  36. 36. Diversity  Diversity enhances creativity and innovation (Adler, 1997;Jackson et al., 1992), and  Produces competitive advantages(Coleman, 2002; Jackson et al., 1992).  Diverse teams make it possible to enhance flexibility (Fleury, 1999) and  Rapid response and adaptation to change (Adler, 1997; Jackson et al., 1992.
  37. 37. 41 Diversity Implications Managers have to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity.
  38. 38. 42 OB Insights Improving People Skills Improving Customer Service Empowering People Working in Networked Organizations Stimulating Innovation and Change Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Declining Employee Loyalty Improving Ethical Behavior
  39. 39. Lesson 2. Models of Organizational Behaviour A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–43
  40. 40. Organizational Behavior System
  41. 41. Philosphy of Organizational Behavior The Philosophy of organizational behaviour held by engagement consists of integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are somewhat explicit and occasionally implicit in the minds of the manager. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–45
  42. 42. 2 Sources of Philosophy of Organizational Behanvior 1. Fact premise – are acquired through direct and indirect lifelong learning and are very useful in guiding our behaviour. 2. Value premise – represents our views of the desirability of certain goals and activities. Value premises are variable beliefs we hold and are therefore under our control. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–46
  43. 43. VALUES 1. The rules by which we make our decisions about right and wrong, should and should not, good and bad. 2. They also tell us which are more or less important which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–47
  44. 44. VISION It represents a challenging portrait of the organization and its members can be – a possible and desirable future. Leaders need to create exciting projections about organization should go and what major changes lie ahead. Once the vision is established, persistent and enthusiastic communication is required to sell it to through out the ranks of employees so they will embrace it with commitment. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–48
  45. 45. MISSION 1. Identifies the business it is in, the market niches it tries to serve, the types of customer it is likely to have, and the reason for its existence. 2. Consists of a brief listing of the competitive advantages or strengths that the organization believes in. 3. It is more descriptive and less future-oriented than vision. 4. Need to be converted to goal to become operational and useful. A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–49
  46. 46. GOALS Goals are relatively concrete formulation of achievements the organization is aiming for within set periods of time, such as one to five years. Goal setting is complex process for top management's goals need to be merged with those of employees, who bring their psychological, social an economic needs with them to an organization A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–50
  47. 47. Integration of Educational Philosophy to DepEd’s Vision - Mission
  48. 48. DepEd Vision
  49. 49. “…whose values and competencies enable them to realize their full potential…” Rousseau’s Philosophy We prepare the child to live life by attainment of fullest natural growth leading to balanced, harmonious and useful life. The focus of Émile is upon the individual tuition of a boy/young man in line with the principles of ‘natural education’. ‘Make the citizen good by training’, Jean-Jacques Rousseau writes, ‘and everything else will follow’.
  50. 50. “…and contribute meaningfully to building the nation.” Plato’s Philosophy This aim, on the other hand, doesn’t focus on personal growth but the service of the state, which is a guarantor of the happiness of its citizens, for as long as they allow it to be the embodiment of justice.
  51. 51. DepEd Mission
  52. 52. Students learn in a child-friendly, gender-sensitive, safe, and motivating environment. Epicureanism Primary purpose of this philosophy was to attain happy and tranquil life. All societies are based solely on an agreement of men not to harm each other— a mutual advantage.
  53. 53. Students learn in a child-friendly, gender-sensitive, safe, and motivating environment. Plato’s Philosophy Motivation and interest plays a vital role in learning. He was against the use of force of education.
  54. 54. Teachers facilitate learning and constantly nurture every learner. Plato’s Philosophy The educator is considered to have great importance, thus he is the constant guide of the students.
  55. 55. Administrators and staff, as stewards of the Institution, ensure an enabling and supportive environment for effective learning to happen. Epicureanism Goodness: Such an existence in the company of a few like-minded friends will provide the reassurance and good fellowship necessary for peace of mind, ataraxia.
  56. 56. Administrators and staff, as stewards of the Institution, ensure an enabling and supportive environment for effective learning to happen. Plato’s Philosophy An educator is like a torch bearer who leads students from dark cave of innocence into the bright light of knowledge.
  57. 57. DepEd Core Values Maka-Diyos Makatao Makabayan Makakalikasan
  58. 58. Strategic Priorities Governance Strengthened School-Based Management (SBM) Principals with strong leadership skills Uniformed metrics on school performance System for policy and leadership continuation established
  59. 59. Targets and Reforms Reforms effectively implemented Reforms institutionalized Backlog on education inputs addressed Ten Point Education Agenda accomplished DepEd budget appropriately and efficiently utilized
  60. 60. Culture, Systems & Processes Education map for the entire system DepEd culture transformed (shared vision, highly motivated and stronger) Ratplan in full swing Processes required by the schools, divisions, regions in place Assessment system revolutionized
  61. 61. Technology DepEd dashboard made accessible DepEd data and other information are consistent All schools connected Online educational system (going global) Online enrolment Learning Materials digitized
  62. 62. Learner-centered and Inclusive Education Children at the center of basic education Education services responsive to student and family choice Students are offered options on the delivery mode Safer DepEd (child protection, disaster-resilient schools, etc.) IPEd institutionalized (and moving forward to the 21st century) More readers, better readers Children’s hunger addressed
  63. 63. Curriculum Implementation 21st century Philippine basic education K to 12 curriculum implemented Smooth implementation of SHs (1st batch of SHS going to SHS ready schools, voucher in place, etc.) Teachers prepared for K to 12 Curriculum for multigrade schools available
  64. 64. External Relationships Restored people’s trust in public education and in DepEd Government and private sector partnerships more acceptable Stronger and more engaged external public All school boards active and engaged
  65. 65. MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The Autocratic Model The Custodial Model The Supportive Model The Collegial Model The System Model
  66. 66. MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The Autocratic Model- Depends on power. “You do this - or else” In the autocratic environment the managerial orientation is formal, official authority The employee orientation is obedience to a boss The employee psychological results is dependence on their boss Employee needs met is subsistence Performance results is minimum
  67. 67. MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The Custodial Model Depends on economic resources The managerial orientation is money The employee orientation is security and benefits The employee psychological results is dependence on organization Employee needs met is security Performance results is passive cooperation
  68. 68. MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The Supportive Model- Depends on leadership The managerial orientation is to support The employee orientation is job performance The employee psychological results is a feeling of participation and tasks involvement in the organization Employee status and recognition needs are better met Performance results is awakened drives
  69. 69. MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The Collegial Model- Depends on partnership The managerial orientation is teamwork The employee orientation is responsible behavior The employee psychological results is self discipline Employee needs met is self actualization Performance results is moderate enthusiasm
  70. 70. MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The System Model - Depends on trust, community and meaning the managerial orientation is caring and compassion The employee orientation is psychological ownership The employee psychological results is self motivation Employee needs are met are wide range Performance results is passion and commitment to organizational goal
  71. 71. Models of OB
  72. 72. Lesson 3 : Managing Communications A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–76
  73. 73. Communication The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding. 16-77
  74. 74. The Communication Process 16-79 Figure 16.1
  75. 75. Ideation It is the conception of an idea or thought by a person, group or an organization.
  76. 76. Encoding when an idea or thought is translated into symbols, verbal or non-verbal, that are understood by others.
  77. 77. Transmission This takes place when the idea or thought which has been places into some transmittable language is passed through one or more available channels (five senses) and through some medium.
  78. 78. Decoding simply interpretation of the message.
  79. 79. Understanding mean that the receiver grasps the essentials of the message.
  80. 80. Acceptance and Action Acceptance implies a willingness on the part of the receiver to comply with message and the action phase entails implementation of the communiqué or message.
  81. 81. Noise interference in the communication process.
  82. 82. Feedback returned message from the receiver to the sender.
  83. 83. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
  84. 84. Communication Networks Communication Networks  The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization. 16-89
  85. 85. Communication Networks Type of communication network depends on:  The nature of the group’s tasks  The extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals. 16-90
  86. 86. Commun ication Networks in Groups and Teams 16-91 Figure 16.3
  87. 87. Communication Networks in Groups and Teams 16-92 Type of Network Wheel Network Information flows to and from one central member. Chain Network Members communicate only with the people next to them in the sequence. Wheel and chain networks provide little interaction. Circle Network Members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, experience, and location. All-Channel Network Networks found in teams with high levels of communications between each member and all others.
  88. 88. FORMAL SMALL – GROUP NETWORKS CRITERIA WHEEL CHAIN ALL CHANNEL SPEED FAST MODERATE FAST ACCURACY HIGH HIGH MODERATE EMERGENCE OF A LEADER HIGH MODERATE NONE MEMBER SATISFACTION MODERATE MODERATE HIGH
  89. 89. THE GRAPEVINE An organization’s informal communication network. 3 CHARACTERS 1. It is not controlled by the management. 2. It is perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top management. 3. It is largely used to serve the self – interest of the people within it.
  90. 90. CHOICE OF COMMUNICATION CHANNEL Formal Reports, Bulletins Memos, Letters Pre recorded Speeches Electronic Mail Online Discussion groups, groupware Voice Mail Live Speeches Telephone Conversati on Video Conferenc e High Channel Richness Face – to - Face Conversati on Low Channel Richness
  91. 91. Organization Communication Networks Organization Chart Summarizes the formal reporting channels in an organization. Communication in an organization flows through formal and informal pathways Vertical communications flow up and down the corporate hierarchy. 16-96
  92. 92. Organization Communication Networks Organization Chart Horizontal communications flow between employees of the same level. Informal communications can span levels and departments—the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial information throughout the firm. 16-97
  93. 93. Formal and Informal Communication Networks in an Organization
  94. 94. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Filtering - Refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen favourably by the receiver. Selective Perception - The receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.
  95. 95. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Information Overload - A condition which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity. Emotions - How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication influences how he or she interprets it.
  96. 96. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Language - Even when were communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different people. Communication Apprehension - People who suffer from it experience undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written communication or both.
  97. 97. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Gender differences - are sometimes a barrier to effective communication. Men tend to use talk to emphasize status, whereas women tend to use it to create connections. Political Correct Communication - there are also situations in which our desire to avoid offense blocks communication (by keeping us from saying what’s really on our mind) or alters our communication in such a way as to make it unclear.
  98. 98. GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS Cultural Barriers  Barriers caused by word connotations. Barriers cause by differences among perceptions. Barrier caused by semantics. Barriers caused by tone differences
  99. 99. GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS Cultural Context Low – context cultures - They rely heavily on non verbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others. High – context cultures - They rely essentially on words to convey meaning.
  100. 100. Communication Skills For Managers as Receivers Pay attention to what is sent as a message. Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Ask questions to clarify your understanding. Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication. 16-105
  101. 101. LISTENING IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  102. 102. What is listening? Listening…. the psychological process of receiving, attending to, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken or nonverbal messages Hearing = physiological Listening = psychological
  103. 103. Listening V/S Hearing Hearing- physical process; natural; passive Listening- physical & mental process; active; learned process; a skill Listening is hard! You must choose to participate in the process of listening.
  104. 104. 85% of what we know is from listening 45%of our time is spent on listening A person recalls 50%of what they just heard ….only 20%of it is remembered long term
  105. 105. Listening is learned first and used most, but taught least. Learned Used Taught Listening 1st Most (45%) Least Speaking 2nd Next most (35%) Next least Reading 3rd Next least (16%) Next most Writing 4th Least (9%) Most
  106. 106. How Important is listening ?
  107. 107. Listening is the most powerful form of acknowledgment …a way of saying, “You are important.”
  108. 108. Listening builds stronger relationships …creates a desire to cooperate among people because they feel accepted and acknowledged.
  109. 109. Listening creates acceptance and openness …conveys the message that “I am not judging you.”
  110. 110. Listening leads to learning …openness encourages personal growth and learning
  111. 111. Listening reduces stress and tension …minimizes confusion and misunderstanding, eliminating related stress and tension
  112. 112. Listening is CRITICAL in conflict resolution …much conflict comes from the need to be heard. Successful resolution depends on being a non-anxious presence.
  113. 113. Why Be A Good Listener? To be recognized and remembered To feel valued To feel appreciated To feel respected To feel understood To feel comfortable about a want or need
  114. 114. Listening promotes being heard ‘Seek first to understand, then be understood’ - Stephen Covey
  115. 115. LISTENING AND EDUCATION Students do not have a clear concept of listening as an active process that they can control. Students find it easier to criticize the speaker as opposed to the speaker’s message (Imhof, 1998).
  116. 116. LISTENING AND LEADERS Listening is tied to effective leadership (Bechler & Johnson, 1995;Johnson & Bechler, 1998). Leaders listen with an open mind by not becoming emotional or defensive (Orick, 2002).
  117. 117. Process of listening Understanding Learning Remembering Recalling Evaluating Judging Receiving Hearing Responding Answering
  118. 118. Receiving It refers to the response caused by sound waves stimulating the sensory receptors of the ear; it is physical response. Understanding It is the stage at which you learn what the speaker means-the thoughts and emotional tone.
  119. 119. Remembering It is important listening process because it means that an individual has not only received and interpreted a message but has also added it to the mind's storage bank. But just as our attention is selective, so too is our memory- what is remembered may be quite different from what was originally seen or heard.
  120. 120. Evaluating  It consists of judging the messages in some way. At times, you may try to evaluate the speaker’s underlying intentions or motives. Often this evaluation process goes on without much conscious awareness. Responding  This stage requires that the receiver complete the process through verbal and/or nonverbal feedback; because the speaker has no other way to determine if a message has been received .  This stage becomes the only overt means by which the sender may determine the degree of success in transmitting the message.
  121. 121. STYLES OF EFFECTIVE LISTENING
  122. 122. STYLES OF EFFECTIVE LISTENING Participatory-Passive listening Empathic-Objective listening Non judgmental- Critical listening Surface-Depth listening Active-Inactive listening
  123. 123. Participatory-Passive listening Active participation Physically & mentally engage in the sharing of meaning Elements Non-Verbal: Eye contact, facial expressions Verbal: questions, back channeling cues such as “I see” “yes” “uh-huh” etc
  124. 124. Participatory-Passive listening Listening without talking Powerful means of communicating acceptance Passive listener: suspends judgment and just listens Who accepts, not evaluate. Who supports, not intrude
  125. 125. Empathic-Objective listening To listen empathically Feel with them See the world as they see Feel what they feel It helps you understand what a person means & what the person is feeling
  126. 126. Empathic-Objective listening Listen with objectivity and detachment See beyond other person sees Example: A teacher & student (Empathic) (1+1 = 11) (Objective) (1+1 = 2)
  127. 127. Non judgmental- Critical listening Listen with open mind Avoid distorting messages Avoid filtering out unpleasant or undesirable message Recognize your own ethnic, national, or religious biases, (it may increase or minimize importance because it confirms or contradicts your biases)
  128. 128. Non judgmental- Critical listening Name calling- involves giving an idea e.g. (“atheist” “neo-Nazi” “cult”) to make you accept things you value high, like (“democracy” “free speech” “academic freedom”) Testimonial- use image associated to with person to gain approval, (if you respect the person) to gain rejection (if you disrespect the person) e.g. advertisement: use person dressed like doctors, use phrase “dentists advice” Bandwagon- used to persuade to accept or reject an idea because “everybody is doing it” e.g. “draw Mohammad day” & “switch to Pakbuk”
  129. 129. Surface-Depth listening Obvious/surface/literal meaning (Surface level communication) What they are saying?
  130. 130. Surface-Depth listening Hidden, deep meaning (In depth communication) Why they are saying? E.g.: “The patient is very serious”
  131. 131. Purpose of Active listening “Active, effective listening is a habit, as well as the foundation of effective communication.”
  132. 132. ACTIVE LISTENING “Active listening is the process of sending back the speaker what the listener thinks the speaker meant.” It is a process of putting into some meaningful whole your understanding of the speaker’s total message
  133. 133. Purpose: Active listening serves a number of important purposes: It shows that you are listening. Check how accurately you have understood what the speaker said and meant. Express acceptance of speaker’s feelings. To prompt the speaker to further explore his or her feelings or thoughts.
  134. 134. “TECHNIQUES OF EFFECTIVE LISTENING” Active listening intentionally focuses on who you are listening to, whether in a group or one-on-one, in order to understand what he or she is saying.
  135. 135. Techniques: Paraphrase the speaker’s meaning. Express understanding of the speaker’s feeling. Ask questions to ensure that you are on a right track. Focus your attention on the subject Avoid distractions Set aside your prejudices, your opinions. When interacting with the speaker, keep an eye contact and do not argue.
  136. 136. Quick flashback Listening and hearing are two different entities. The listening process requires five pre-requisites if it has to be listening. Cultural differences and gender differences play an important role in the listening process. The general key to effective listening in interpersonal situations is ‘’Active participation”.
  137. 137. Contd.. We need to listen empathically to make sure that we understand what the speaker is actually going through. Effective listening involves listening non-judgmentally to help you understand and help you critically.

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  • JoannaMarieCereza

    Jun. 11, 2015
  • SiLENTPRiNCESS18

    Nov. 16, 2015
  • adelareyno

    Aug. 22, 2017

Human Behavior in Organization Course at PCLU.

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