Managing for seagrass
resilience: feedbacks and
scales
Paul Maxwell
Kate O’Brien, Angus Ferguson, James Udy, Gary Kendrick...
Ecosystems are complex
Sudden shifts occur in many ecosystems
AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
Ecosystems are complex
Sudden shifts occur in many ecosystems
Coral Reefs (Hughes et al 2010, TREE)
AMSA Conference, 10th ...
AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
Ecosystems are complex
Sudden shifts occur in many ecosystems
Rangelands (Walker et al 198...
Seagrass collapse – Dutch Wadden Sea
Source: de Jonge et al 1993
1920’s 1950’s 1972 1988
Biomass (gCm-2)
Area (km2)
Seagra...
Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales
AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales
Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse)
AMS...
Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales
Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse)
Cha...
Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales
Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse)
Cha...
Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales
Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse)
Cha...
No recovery
AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
No recovery
No significant recovery despite:
• 120 million Euros spent in past 20 years
• Eelgrass recovered in much of th...
No recovery
No significant recovery despite:
• 120 million Euros spent in past 20 years
• Eelgrass recovered in much of th...
Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
Alternate RegimeRegime 1
Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
Seagrass
response
Impact below threshold
Alternate RegimeRegime 1
Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
Seagrass
response
Feedback
Processes
Impact below threshold
Alternate RegimeRegime 1
Feedback processes control resistance...
Seagrass
response
Feedback
Processes
Impact below threshold
Alternate RegimeRegime 1
Feedback processes control resistance...
Seagrass
response
Threshold
Feedback
Processes
Impact above thresholdImpact below threshold
Alternate RegimeRegime 1
Feedb...
Seagrass
response
Threshold
Feedback
Processes
Feedback
Processes
Impact above thresholdImpact below threshold
Alternate R...
Seagrass
response
Threshold
Feedback
Processes
Feedback
Processes
Impact above thresholdImpact below threshold
Alternate R...
Trajectories between states are complicated
Seagrass present
Seagrass absent
Loss
trajectory
Stressor increasing
AMSA Conf...
Trajectories between states are complicated
Seagrass present
Seagrass absent
Loss
trajectory
Stressor increasing
AMSA Conf...
Trajectories between states are complicated
Seagrass present
Seagrass absent
Loss
trajectory
Stressor increasing
Changed
h...
Trajectories between states are complicated
Seagrass present
Seagrass absent
Loss
trajectory
Recovery
trajectory
Stressor ...
Trajectories between states are complicated
Seagrass present
Seagrass absent
Loss
trajectory
Recovery
trajectory
Stressor ...
Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light
Stressors and pressures Seagrass responses
(McMahon et al 2013)
Feedbac...
Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light
Cloud shading
Sediment
resuspension
Water clarity
Water depth
Self-shad...
Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light
Cloud shading
Sediment
resuspension
Water clarity
Water depth
Self-shad...
Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light
Cloud shading
Sediment
resuspension
Water clarity
Water depth
Self-shad...
Outcome 1: Scale provides order
ETRmax
Shoot C:N
Rhizome
carbohydrates
Shoot
production
Root
extension
Shoot density
Chlor...
Outcome 1: Scale provides order
ETRmax
Shoot C:N
Rhizome
carbohydrates
Shoot
production
Root
extension
Shoot density
Chlor...
Outcome 1: Scale provides order
ETRmax
Shoot C:N
Rhizome
carbohydrates
Shoot
production
Root
extension
Shoot density
Chlor...
Outcome 1: Scale provides order
ETRmax
Shoot C:N
Rhizome
carbohydrates
Shoot
production
Root
extension
Shoot density
Chlor...
Outcome 1: Scale provides order
ETRmax
Shoot C:N
Rhizome
carbohydrates
Shoot
production
Root
extension
Shoot density
Chlor...
Outcome 1: Scale provides order
ETRmax
Shoot C:N
Rhizome
carbohydrates
Shoot
production
Root
extension
Shoot density
Chlor...
second
10000
km
1 mm
10 m
10 cm
1km
100 km
minute
hour
day
month
week
year
century
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale...
Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery
Speed of recovery
(event recurrence time/species recovery tim...
Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery
OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES
EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO S...
Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery
OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES
EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO S...
Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery
OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES
EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO S...
Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery
OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES
EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO S...
Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery
OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES
EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO S...
Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes
Time
Seagrassresponse
DISTURBANCE
(Shootdensity,biomass)
AMSA Conference, 10th...
Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes
Time
Seagrassresponse
DISTURBANCE
(Shootdensity,biomass)
AMSA Conference, 10th...
Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes
Time
Seagrassresponse
DISTURBANCE
Threshold for
feedback efficiency
(Shootdens...
Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes
Time
Seagrassresponse
DISTURBANCE
Recovery from
disturbance
Threshold for
feed...
Time
DISTURBANCE
Poorer
conditions
Better
conditions
Seagrassresponse
(Shootdensity,biomass)
Outcome 3: Thresholds of feed...
Time
DISTURBANCE
Seagrassresponse
(Shootdensity,biomass)
- sedimentation
- tidal regime
(wasting disease)
Poorer
condition...
Time
DISTURBANCE
Seagrassresponse
(Shootdensity,biomass)
- sedimentation
- tidal regime
(wasting disease)
Poorer
condition...
Time
DISTURBANCE
Change of state
possible
Seagrassresponse
(Shootdensity,biomass)
- sedimentation
- tidal regime
(wasting ...
Time
DISTURBANCE
Change of state
possible
Manage to keep seagrass units at each scale above threshold
Seagrassresponse
(Sh...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES
MONITORING STRAT...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
Facilitate seagrass
recovery
MANAGEMEN...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
Facilitate seagrass
recovery
MANAGEMEN...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
Facilitate seagrass
recovery
MANAGEMEN...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
Facilitate seagrass
recovery
MANAGEMEN...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
Facilitate seagrass
recovery
MANAGEMEN...
Implications for management
Physiological
scale
Morphological
scale
Landscape
scale
Facilitate seagrass
recovery
MANAGEMEN...
Thank you
AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
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Paul Maxwell, AMSA 2013. Managing Seagrass Resilience: feedbacks and scales

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"I’m a phd student from Griffith University. Today I’m presenting the outcomes of a workshop I was lucky enough to attend which was funded by ACEAS, the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. I’m presenting on behalf of a host of co-authors who are listed here. I thank them for the opportunity to present on their behalf." -Paul Maxwell

The aim of the ACEAS workshop was to generate a framework that outlines how a sea grasses response to impact operates on multiple scales and how understanding that scale is vital for understanding how seagrass ecosystems develop, maintain and enhance their resilience to disturbances.

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  • I’m a phd student from Griffith University. Today I’m presenting the outcomes of a workshop I was lucky enough to attend which was funded by ACEAS, the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. I’m presenting on behalf of a host of co-authors who are listed here. I thank them for the opportunity to present on their behalf. The aim of the ACEAs workshop was to generate a framework that outlines how a seagrasses response to impact operates on multiple scales and how understanding that scale is vital for understanding how seagrass ecosystems develop, maintain and enhance their resilience to disturbances.
  • Paul Maxwell, AMSA 2013. Managing Seagrass Resilience: feedbacks and scales

    1. 1. Managing for seagrass resilience: feedbacks and scales Paul Maxwell Kate O’Brien, Angus Ferguson, James Udy, Gary Kendrick, Peter Scanes, Kieryn Kilminster, Michelle Waycott, Bill Dennison, Len McKenzie, Matt Adams, Jimena Samper-Villarreal, Kathryn McMahon, Mitch Lyons, Vanessa Lucieer, Lynda Radke AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    2. 2. Ecosystems are complex Sudden shifts occur in many ecosystems AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    3. 3. Ecosystems are complex Sudden shifts occur in many ecosystems Coral Reefs (Hughes et al 2010, TREE) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    4. 4. AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013 Ecosystems are complex Sudden shifts occur in many ecosystems Rangelands (Walker et al 1981, Ecology) Coral Reefs (Hughes et al 2010, TREE)
    5. 5. Seagrass collapse – Dutch Wadden Sea Source: de Jonge et al 1993 1920’s 1950’s 1972 1988 Biomass (gCm-2) Area (km2) Seagrass collapsed in 1930’s 200 0 100 50 150 AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    6. 6. Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    7. 7. Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    8. 8. Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse) Change in tidal regime over course of three centuries (de Jonge et al 1993) “Afsluitdijk” AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    9. 9. Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse) Change in tidal regime over course of three centuries (de Jonge et al 1993) 100 120 140 160 180 200 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Tidalrange(cm) “Afsluitdijk” AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    10. 10. Seagrass collapse – Multiple stressors, multiple scales Wasting disease – Cellular scale (ultimate source of collapse) Change in tidal regime over course of three centuries (de Jonge et al 1993) 100 120 140 160 180 200 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 Tidalrange(cm) Coupled with decadal increases in sedimentation (de Jonge et al 1993) “Afsluitdijk” 0 50 100 150 200 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 TSS(mg/l) Site 1 Site 2 AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    11. 11. No recovery AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    12. 12. No recovery No significant recovery despite: • 120 million Euros spent in past 20 years • Eelgrass recovered in much of the North Atlantic range AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    13. 13. No recovery No significant recovery despite: • 120 million Euros spent in past 20 years • Eelgrass recovered in much of the North Atlantic range Why haven’t things improved? AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    14. 14. Feedback processes control resistance and recovery AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    15. 15. Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    16. 16. Seagrass response Impact below threshold Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    17. 17. Seagrass response Feedback Processes Impact below threshold Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    18. 18. Seagrass response Feedback Processes Impact below threshold Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    19. 19. Seagrass response Threshold Feedback Processes Impact above thresholdImpact below threshold Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    20. 20. Seagrass response Threshold Feedback Processes Feedback Processes Impact above thresholdImpact below threshold Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    21. 21. Seagrass response Threshold Feedback Processes Feedback Processes Impact above thresholdImpact below threshold Alternate RegimeRegime 1 Feedback processes control resistance and recovery
    22. 22. Trajectories between states are complicated Seagrass present Seagrass absent Loss trajectory Stressor increasing AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    23. 23. Trajectories between states are complicated Seagrass present Seagrass absent Loss trajectory Stressor increasing AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    24. 24. Trajectories between states are complicated Seagrass present Seagrass absent Loss trajectory Stressor increasing Changed hydrology Increased sedimentation Wasting disease AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    25. 25. Trajectories between states are complicated Seagrass present Seagrass absent Loss trajectory Recovery trajectory Stressor increasing Changed hydrology Increased sedimentation Wasting disease AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    26. 26. Trajectories between states are complicated Seagrass present Seagrass absent Loss trajectory Recovery trajectory Stressor increasing Changed hydrology Increased sedimentation Wasting disease Sediment resuspension Change current speed AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    27. 27. Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light Stressors and pressures Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) Feedback processes (strategies for resistance and recovery) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    28. 28. Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light Cloud shading Sediment resuspension Water clarity Water depth Self-shading Sediment runoff Climatic fluctuations Planetary and solar fluctuations Stressors and pressures Local disturbance (boat anchors) Dredging Point source nutrients Algal blooms Floods Trawling Catchment clearing Atmospheric light attenuation (e.g. smog) Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) Feedback processes (strategies for resistance and recovery) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    29. 29. Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light Cloud shading Sediment resuspension Water clarity Water depth Self-shading Sediment runoff Climatic fluctuations Planetary and solar fluctuations Stressors and pressures Local disturbance (boat anchors) Dredging Point source nutrients Algal blooms Floods Trawling Catchment clearing Atmospheric light attenuation (e.g. smog) Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Meadow area Feedback processes (strategies for resistance and recovery) Regional seagrass extent AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    30. 30. Stressors, pressures and feedbacks affecting light Cloud shading Sediment resuspension Water clarity Water depth Self-shading Sediment runoff Climatic fluctuations Planetary and solar fluctuations Stressors and pressures Local disturbance (boat anchors) Dredging Point source nutrients Algal blooms Floods Trawling Catchment clearing Atmospheric light attenuation (e.g. smog) Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Meadow area Feedback processes (strategies for resistance and recovery) Algal grazing rates Regional seagrass extent Seagrass grazing rates Genetic variability Trapping of sediments Nutrient filtration Reduced water velocity Sediment stabilisation Seagrass succession Flowering intensity AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    31. 31. Outcome 1: Scale provides order ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Flowering intensity Meadow area Regional seagrass extent second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) 100 km minute hour day month week year century millennium AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    32. 32. Outcome 1: Scale provides order ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Flowering intensity Meadow area Regional seagrass extent second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) 100 km minute hour day month week year century millennium AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    33. 33. Outcome 1: Scale provides order ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Flowering intensity Meadow area Regional seagrass extent second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) 100 km minute hour day month week year century millennium AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    34. 34. Outcome 1: Scale provides order ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Flowering intensity Meadow area Regional seagrass extent second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) 100 km minute hour day month week year century millennium Physiological scale AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    35. 35. Outcome 1: Scale provides order ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Flowering intensity Meadow area Regional seagrass extent second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) 100 km minute hour day month week year century millennium Physiological scale Morphological scale AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    36. 36. Outcome 1: Scale provides order ETRmax Shoot C:N Rhizome carbohydrates Shoot production Root extension Shoot density Chlorophyll content Leaf extension Leaf area Above ground biomass Below ground biomass Percent cover Flowering intensity Meadow area Regional seagrass extent second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km Seagrass responses (McMahon et al 2013) 100 km minute hour day month week year century millennium Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    37. 37. second 10000 km 1 mm 10 m 10 cm 1km 100 km minute hour day month week year century Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale millennium First outcome: Managing and monitoring seagrass ecosystems, need to understand scale of stressor and response Outcome 1: Scale provides order AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    38. 38. Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery Speed of recovery (event recurrence time/species recovery time) Resistancetodisturbance (survivaltime/eventduration) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    39. 39. Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO SEAGRASS Speed of recovery (event recurrence time/species recovery time) Resistancetodisturbance (survivaltime/eventduration) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    40. 40. Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO SEAGRASS Speed of recovery (event recurrence time/species recovery time) Resistancetodisturbance (survivaltime/eventduration) P. australis (east) Enhalus acoroides P. sinuosa Thalassia spp. AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    41. 41. Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO SEAGRASS Speed of recovery (event recurrence time/species recovery time) Resistancetodisturbance (survivaltime/eventduration) P. australis (east) Enhalus acoroides P. sinuosa Thalassia spp. Syringodium spp. H. spinuosa Halodule spp. Ruppia spp. H. ovalis H. decipiens AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    42. 42. Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO SEAGRASS Speed of recovery (event recurrence time/species recovery time) Resistancetodisturbance (survivaltime/eventduration) P. australis (east) Enhalus acoroides P. sinuosa Thalassodendron spp. Thalassia spp. P. corriacea P. australis (west) Cymodocea spp. Zostera spp. Amphibolis spp. Syringodium spp. H. spinuosa Halodule spp. Ruppia spp. H. ovalis H. decipiens AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    43. 43. Outcome 2: Species specific modes of resistance and recovery OPPORTUNISTIC SPECIESPERSISTENT SPECIES EPHEMERAL SPECIESNO SEAGRASS Speed of recovery (event recurrence time/species recovery time) Resistancetodisturbance (survivaltime/eventduration) P. australis (east) Enhalus acoroides P. sinuosa Thalassodendron spp. Thalassia spp. P. corriacea P. australis (west) Cymodocea spp. Zostera spp. Amphibolis spp. Syringodium spp. H. spinuosa Halodule spp. Ruppia spp. H. ovalis H. decipiens AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    44. 44. Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes Time Seagrassresponse DISTURBANCE (Shootdensity,biomass) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    45. 45. Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes Time Seagrassresponse DISTURBANCE (Shootdensity,biomass) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    46. 46. Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes Time Seagrassresponse DISTURBANCE Threshold for feedback efficiency (Shootdensity,biomass) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    47. 47. Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes Time Seagrassresponse DISTURBANCE Recovery from disturbance Threshold for feedback efficiency (Shootdensity,biomass) AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    48. 48. Time DISTURBANCE Poorer conditions Better conditions Seagrassresponse (Shootdensity,biomass) Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    49. 49. Time DISTURBANCE Seagrassresponse (Shootdensity,biomass) - sedimentation - tidal regime (wasting disease) Poorer conditions Better conditions Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    50. 50. Time DISTURBANCE Seagrassresponse (Shootdensity,biomass) - sedimentation - tidal regime (wasting disease) Poorer conditions Better conditions Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    51. 51. Time DISTURBANCE Change of state possible Seagrassresponse (Shootdensity,biomass) - sedimentation - tidal regime (wasting disease) Poorer conditions Better conditions Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    52. 52. Time DISTURBANCE Change of state possible Manage to keep seagrass units at each scale above threshold Seagrassresponse (Shootdensity,biomass) - sedimentation - tidal regime (wasting disease) Poorer conditions Better conditions Outcome 3: Thresholds of feedback processes
    53. 53. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIESAMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    54. 54. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale Facilitate seagrass recovery MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIES - reduce plant stress - maximise seed dispersal - improve conditions to maximise photo efficiency AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013
    55. 55. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale Facilitate seagrass recovery MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIES - reduce plant stress - maximise seed dispersal - improve conditions to maximise photo efficiency Investigatory monitoring - physiological indicators of stress - reproductive output - physiological feedback processes
    56. 56. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale Facilitate seagrass recovery MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIES - reduce plant stress - maximise seed dispersal - improve conditions to maximise photo efficiency Investigatory monitoring - physiological indicators of stress - reproductive output - physiological feedback processes Manage environmental conditions - regional management of water quality - catchment management - reduce sedimentation - reduce nutrient loading
    57. 57. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale Facilitate seagrass recovery MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIES - reduce plant stress - maximise seed dispersal - improve conditions to maximise photo efficiency Investigatory monitoring - physiological indicators of stress - reproductive output - physiological feedback processes Manage environmental conditions - regional management of water quality - catchment management - reduce sedimentation - reduce nutrient loading Seasonal or annual monitoring - mapping meadow change - patch dynamics - species distribution - seagrass biomass - morphological feedback processes
    58. 58. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale Facilitate seagrass recovery MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIES - reduce plant stress - maximise seed dispersal - improve conditions to maximise photo efficiency Investigatory monitoring - physiological indicators of stress - reproductive output - physiological feedback processes Manage environmental conditions - regional management of water quality - catchment management - reduce sedimentation - reduce nutrient loading Seasonal or annual monitoring - mapping meadow change - patch dynamics - species distribution - seagrass biomass - morphological feedback processes Manage ecosystem integrity - habitat protection (MPA’s) - habitat and species connectivity
    59. 59. Implications for management Physiological scale Morphological scale Landscape scale Facilitate seagrass recovery MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES MONITORING STRATEGIES - reduce plant stress - maximise seed dispersal - improve conditions to maximise photo efficiency Investigatory monitoring - physiological indicators of stress - reproductive output - physiological feedback processes Manage environmental conditions - regional management of water quality - catchment management - reduce sedimentation - reduce nutrient loading Seasonal or annual monitoring - mapping meadow change - patch dynamics - species distribution - seagrass biomass - morphological feedback processes Manage ecosystem integrity - habitat protection (MPA’s) - habitat and species connectivity Periodic monitoring - broad scale and long term assessments - remote sensing - ecosystem models - landscape feedback processes
    60. 60. Thank you AMSA Conference, 10th July 2013

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