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CSA Symposium 2016 - Dr Elizabeth Johnson, Dr. Teddy Allen, Day 1 Session 2


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Early Warning Systems for the Management of the Coffee Leaf Rust Disease

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CSA Symposium 2016 - Dr Elizabeth Johnson, Dr. Teddy Allen, Day 1 Session 2

  1. 1. Early Warning System for management of Coffee Leaf Rust
  2. 2. The problem: Coffee Leaf Rust in Jamaica • CLR is caused by the fungus Hemieleia vastrix which infects coffee leaves and produce millions of spores. • High levels of infection can kill the leaf which falls off the plant reducing the amount of food available for coffee berries to develop. • Defoliation of coffee plants caused by the CLR fungus reduces coffee yields.
  3. 3. Effects of CLR in Jamaica • Jamaican Coffee Industry lost US$5 million in revenue to CLR disease from the 2012-2013 crop resulting in 30% of farm labour force being laid off. • CLR outbreaks are highly dependent on climatic factors, health of coffee plant and crop phenology. • CLR disease is also influenced by socio-economic factors which influence farmers’ decision to take preventative actions.
  4. 4. THE DISEASE TRIANGLE & PYRAMID For a fourth factor such as humans, vectors and time Source: Francl L. J. (2001). Plant Health Instructor. Plant disease caused by a biotic agent absolutely requires the interaction of a susceptible host, a virulent pathogen, and an environment favorable for disease development. Disease is prevented by elimination of any one of these three components.
  5. 5. Spores deposited Movement Germination Spores germinated Colonies established Penetration in the tissue Spores disseminated Dissemination Spores produced The Rust Life Cycle & some of the most important factors affecting it (Avelino et al., 2004) Rain Wind Fruit load Fruit load Soil humidity Soil humidity Lesions Colonization of tissue Sporulation Leaf area Temperature Temperature Temperature 16-18° C Moisture on leaf Moisture on leaf Sunlight Parasitism Complete resistance
  6. 6. Management of CLR in Jamaica  Arabica typica is most preferred variety in Jamaica for its cup quality  However, A. typica is susceptible to CLR  Coffee rust must be managed as a continuous epidemic on a perennial crop, Any factor that can reduce sporulation, spore dispersal, or infection, even a small amount, can mitigate the epidemic. Good cultural management is paramount, healthy plants are more tolerant to rust but there are no simple rules to follow. The varieties grown, the character of the soils, the amount and distribution of rainfall, and numerous other factors all interact to dictate what is required to manage rust.
  7. 7. Climate Products Towards the Management of CLR in Jamaica 1. Bush Fire Index (KBDI) 2. Improved Rainfall Climatologies 3. Improved Extreme Rainfall Diagnostics / Forecasting 4. Improved Seasonal Rainfall Prediction • All of the above result from feedback from focus study groups and institutional stakeholders
  8. 8. 2. Improved Rainfall Climatologies 15 station 10-year continuous observations (no missing days) 55 stations represented in 10 year record, but with scattered missing days Weather station locations used in analysis Interpolated maps
  9. 9. Modeled high resolution gridded map based on the 55-stations AND elevation. • Custom tailored: contours, colors, regions, etc…
  10. 10. 3. Improved Extreme Rainfall Diagnostics / Forecasting May 25, 2004 June 9, 2002
  11. 11. Hurricane Sandy backward trajectory
  12. 12. 4. Improved Seasonal Rainfall Prediction tradewinds Sea temp gradients Integrate new regional predictors based on weather-scale diagnostics
  13. 13. QUESTIONS?