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FEASIBILITY OF FORWARD OSMOSIS FOR DESALINATION AND WATER RECLAMATION

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Durante la celebración de la 13º Edición de IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologie Iwa-LET 2016 que se está celebrando estos días en Jerez, Marina Arnaldos y Beatriz Corzo realizaron una ponencia dentro de un taller sobre desalación sostenible.

On occasion of the 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies (IWA-LET 2016), which is being held in Jerez, Marina Arnaldos and Beatriz Corzo presented two papers in a workshop on sustainable desalination.

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FEASIBILITY OF FORWARD OSMOSIS FOR DESALINATION AND WATER RECLAMATION

  1. 1. The 13th IWA Leading Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE MEMBRANE DESALINATION TECHNOLOGY: REVERSING WATER SCARCITY AND FAST FORWARDING TO THE FUTURE FEASIBILITY OF FORWARD OSMOSIS FOR DESALINATION AND WATER RECLAMATION: APPLICATION EXAMPLE AT PILOT SCALE BEATRIZ CORZO
  2. 2. 2 INDEX  Water Scarcity and Wastewater Reuse  Hybrid FO advantages  FO challenges  OFREA Project Design Demonstration plant Cost evaluation  Conclusions  Acknowledgments
  3. 3. 3 WATER SCARCITY AND WASTEWATER REUSE  >3 Billion people will live under water stress in 2025 (Valladares et al., 2014)  Options: ‒ Water desalination ‒ Water reuse ‒ Improve water efficiency Can we compete using FO in water reuse for agricultural purposes? A combination of the three is needed Challenges for water reuse are both technological and economical: technologies that can assure safe water at a competitive price are needed
  4. 4. 4 Water Recycling Guidelines:  Depend on local context  Mainly bacteriological parameters  E.coli  Nematode eggs  Giardia  Criptosporidium  Others:  Nutrients (N and P)  Suspended solids  Turbidity  Dissolved salts  Heavy metals  Boron  Harmful organic substances WASTEWATER REUSE Sand filtration/O3/AC/MBR/ biological treatment/floculation…. MF/UF+RO (one or two passes) F+EDR+Disinfection+AOPs Hybrid FO? What water quality do we need?
  5. 5. 5 HYBRID FO ADVANTAGES  Multibarrier concept ‒ High permeate quality  Low and reversible fouling ‒ Less pretreatment ‒ Less chemical cleaning  Product water customization (e.g. boron removal, fertigation)
  6. 6. 6 FO CHALLENGES  Low flux (ICP & ECP) and expensive elements ‒ Improvements in FO membranes: # Thinner membranes with less tortuosity (S parameter) → less ICP and higher flux # More providers → lower prices  DS recovery is energy intensive. ‒ Diluted DS has more osmotic pressure than feed water  DS replacement costs ‒ Reverse salt diffusion and incomplete DS recovery  Permeate quality ‒ DS content  No real data ‒ Main studies are lab-scale, synthetic feed, short term and batch conditions. Realistic studies are still needed → OFREA PROJECT
  7. 7. 7 OFREA PROJECT  According to a workshop on water reuse: (Optimizing water reuse in EU. Dec 2014) ‒ Water reuse in Spain: 35% ‒ Region of Murcia: 98% of wastewater is reused, mostly in agriculture. The rest presents high salinity Reuse Datebase (CEDEX). R. Iglesias, 2007
  8. 8. 8 OFREA PROJECT FO-NF pilot plant is operating with real feed, continuous and long-term (> 1 year):  Feed water: San Pedro del Pinatar 3 m3/h WWTP effluent – Conductivity: 4-6 mS/cm – Boron: 1.2 ppm – SAR: 10.6  RD 1620/2007 limit: – Conductivity: 3 mS/cm – Boron: 0.5 ppm – SAR: 6
  9. 9. 9 OFREA PROJECT: PREVIOUS DESIGN FO MEMBRANE SELECTION  5 membrane brands tested with different configuration. ‒ TFC membrane showed the best performance. ‒ TFC was the selected for the demonstration plant. Porifera membrane was selected
  10. 10. 10 OFREA PROJECT: PREVIOUS DESIGN DS SELECTION  Different families. Different Van’t Hoff and diffusivity properties. • High osmotic pressure obtained by formate • Conductivity must be carefully used as control variable
  11. 11. 11 OFREA PROJECT: PREVIOUS DESIGN DS SELECTION  Dynamic test. Spiral wound commercial element.  Asymptotic behavior is caused by internal concentration polarization.  For 10 bar no significant differences.  KCOOH the best in terms of flux. Expensive.  Compromise between CAPEX and OPEX.  NF recovery method has been chosen. Draw Solution FO Flux Reversal flux losses DS losses in permeate Cost of product Cost of replacement Recovery method HMWP + - - - - ++ - NF NaCl + + + - - - RO HCOOK ++ + + ++ ++ RO MgSO4 - - - - - NF K4P2O7 + ++ ++ + ++ NF - Low + High
  12. 12. 12 OFREA PROJECT: DEMONSTRATION PLANT The first and largest Hybrid-FO demonstration plant worldwide for reclamation in agricultural purposes. 84 m2 30 m2
  13. 13. 13 OFREA PROJECT: DEMONSTRATION PLANT DATA  Stable operation of the FO (22% of loss of flux the first days)  NF permeability decreased due to fouling: ‒ Using an organic DS. ‒ Using an inorganic DS and increasing permeate flowrate. Silicates and gypsum presence. Specific flux or permeability FO=Flux/(пDS – пfeed) NF=Flux/(NDP)
  14. 14. 14 OFREA PROJECT: PERMEATE QUALITY  Stable permeate quality  Low conductivity except for initial NF membranes  B < 0.4 mg/L (>70% removal)  High quality for agricultural use! A change in NF: savings in chemical consumption but more energy is used
  15. 15. 15 OFREA PROJECT: COST EVALUATION  DS reposition and energy consumption  No chemical cleaning in FO membranes (1) DS price is referred to a small- scale order (2) It is assumed 0.10€/KWh (3) NF Membranes fouled NF HF NF HR
  16. 16. 16 COST EVALUATION AND CONCLUSIONS UF+RO €/m3 FO+NF €/m3 0.35-0.45 0.96 TERTIARY TREATMENT LET’S GO DOWN THE PRICES! We demand:  An improvement in FO membranes permeability.  To find a really cheap DS with ↑Van’t Hoff coefficient.  To regenerate the DS with other systems: MD (waste heat or solar energy) LARGE SCALE PILOT SCALE
  17. 17. 17 CONCLUSIONS  FO-NF operated in the long term with real feed: ‒ NF membrane was fouled with the organic DS and the first inorganic DS. ‒ FO membrane is working with stable permeability. No fouling in the long-term. ‒ High permeate quality (conductivity, SAR and boron are below legislation).  Costs ‒ NF chemical cleaning is related to DS. No cleaning in FO membranes. ‒ No remineralization is needed. ‒ Relevant costs due to low permeability of FO membranes, DS losses and DS reconcentration energy. ‒ To implement our new DS has decreased the prices relevantly. Economic feasibility of hybrid FO is highly dependent on all these factors. IN A NEAR FUTURE COULD BE CHEAPER THAN CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS!
  18. 18. 18 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The research leading to these results has received funding from the LIFE+ Programme of the European Commission (LIFE12/ENV/ES/000632 LIFE OFREA) and from La Generalitat de Catalunya (Industrial PhD program).  All my colleagues from Acciona Agua and Carme Sans from the University of Barcelona.

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