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ACCIONA Magazine 73: COP25 Special Edition


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In this ACCIONA Magazine edition, we dive into the UN Climate Change Conference, COP25, that has been held in Madrid. ACCIONA has actively participated in this important summit in order to raise climate ambition. Find out how.

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ACCIONA Magazine 73: COP25 Special Edition

  2. 2. 02-03_ROJAS.indd 202-03_ROJAS.indd 2 12/11/19 18:0612/11/19 18:06
  3. 3. C O P 2 5 02-03_ROJAS.indd 302-03_ROJAS.indd 3 12/11/19 18:0612/11/19 18:06
  4. 4. 4 SUMMARY NEWS THE LATEST AT ACCIONA Acquisition of a 3,000 MW PV solar portfolio in the USA,theworld’sbiggest3Dprinter,and expansionoftheLightatHomeprogram. 08 06IN NUMBERS Helping to tackle the major challenge of achieving a fairer, more sustainable world with less poverty. THE UNITED NATIONS SDGS 10SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY It’s one of the world’s most acclaimed multinationals, having won a slew of awards for its cross-cutting sustainability policy. A map of solutions with positive impacts —both social and environmental— in all business areas. TO BE A SOLUTION, IT HAS TO BE SUSTAINABLE Published by: Department of Corporate Image and Global Marketing. ACCIONA, S.A. Avda. de Europa, 18. P. E. La Moraleja. 28108 Alcobendas. Madrid. Tel.: +34 91 663 2287 Email: Elisa Baños: Design and Production: La Factoría, Prisa Revistas. National publication no.: M-35.445-1997. The paper used for this magazine is chlorine-free and comes from sustainable forests. The FSC Certification, awarded by the Forest Stewardship Council, ensures that forests are managed responsibly and that paper is traceable, with a verifiable chain of custody throughout the process of transforming and manufacturing the product. TWITTER FACEBOOK INSTAGRAM YOUTUBE Follow us on 04-05_ACCIONA_Sumario_ENG.indd 404-05_ACCIONA_Sumario_ENG.indd 4 14/11/19 17:3114/11/19 17:31
  5. 5. 5 AMBASSADORS Four prominent professionals committed to sustainable values: Marc Gasol, Karla Souza, Amaro Gómez-Pablos, and David Pocock. JOIN US AND INVEST IN THE PLANET 26 Nº 73 December 2019 BUSINESS ACTIVISM Since 2009, it hasn’t missed a single session of the Conference of the Parties. An overview of proactivity in the form of proposals, commitments and awareness-raising. ACCIONA’S PRESENCE AT THE COP20 04-05_ACCIONA_Sumario_ENG.indd 504-05_ACCIONA_Sumario_ENG.indd 5 14/11/19 17:3114/11/19 17:31
  6. 6. 6 IN NUMBERS How ACCIONA is investing in the planet AccordingtotheUN,businessesmustplay aleadingroleinachievingtheSustainable DevelopmentGoalstofightagainstclimate emergencysituations,extremepoverty, inequalityandinjustice.ACCIONAcontributes directlytotheSDGsthroughitssustainability strategy,itscommitmenttotheeconomic, environmentalandsocialdevelopmentofthe communitiesitserves,andthroughthevalue thatitslinesofbusinessbringtothenew“green economy”(asdescribedintheUnitedNations EnvironmentProgram). Herearesomeindicatorsfrom2018. 13,7M.€ in contributions to communities. 5 M. people have benefited 38%of the company’s global sales and 69%of its EBITDA came from activities related to renewable energy, water and other environmental activities More than Nearly 06_07_ACCIONA_CIFRAS_ENG.indd 606_07_ACCIONA_CIFRAS_ENG.indd 6 14/11/19 17:3814/11/19 17:38
  7. 7. 7 IN NUMBERS ACCESSTOBASIC SERVICES Throughtheacciona.orgFoundation: •50,100 beneficiaries •19 Light at Home centers •12,135 photovoltaic systems Installed in Peru, Mexico, Panama and Ethiopia SOCIALINVESTMENT THROUGH PROJECTS •850,158beneficiaries •584 projects in 22 countries, including Mexico, Chile and Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, South Africa, India, Australia, Norway, Canada, Costa Rica, Portugal, Poland, United Arab Emirates and Denmark •15partnerorganizations VOLUNTEER PROGRAMS •1,536 volunteers in 20 countries •11,433 hours dedicated to community work •44 social projects SPONSORSHIP In health, education and culture: •246,590 beneficiaries •Pro-CNIC Foundation (Spain), WaterAid Foundation (Australia), BEST Foundation (Mexico), Princess of Girona Foundation (Spain), Princess of Asturias Foundation (Spain), among others 06_07_ACCIONA_CIFRAS_ENG.indd 706_07_ACCIONA_CIFRAS_ENG.indd 7 15/11/19 13:3415/11/19 13:34
  8. 8. 8 NEWS ThatistheannualprocessingcapacityoftheNESS Energyplantthatwillbedesigned,built,operatedand maintainedbyACCIONA(overthelifeofa20-year contract)intheScottishcityofAberdeen.Thewaste inquestionisparticularlyhazardous,asitcan’tbe recycledforotheruses.Thevalueoftransformingitinto cleanenergyisthustwofold,offeringtheaddedbenefit ofsustainabilityforthewaste-producingmunicipalities (AberdeenCity,AberdeenshireandMoray).Theproject alsoanticipateslegislationthatwillbanbiodegradable wastefromgoingtolandfillinScotlandfrom2021on. ThisnewWaste-to-Energyprojectbythecompany hasabudgetof400millioneuros. Theacquisitionincludesadevelopmentportfolioof20projects— previouslyownedbyAmericancompanyTenaska—inthestatesof Pennsylvania,Ohio,Kentucky,Illinois,Kansas,OklahomaandMissouri, aswellas1,000MWofbatterystoragewhichwillenableimproved timemanagementandopenthedoortoexploringapotentialmarket ofstorage-relatedtechnologiesandservicesprovidedbyACCIONA. “It’sanexcellentopportunityforACCIONAtoincreaseour commitmenttorenewableenergyandsustainabilityintheUnited Statesthroughphotovoltaicandenergystoragetechnology,afterthe investmentswehavealreadymadeinwindpower,”explainsRafael Esteban,DirectorofEnergybusinessforACCIONAinNorthAmerica. “Weareexcitedtojoinforces,”saysSteveJohnson,seniorvice presidentofthesubsidiaryTenaskaSolarVentures,“pairingour extensiveexpertiseindevelopmentwiththeiroriginationand constructioncapabilities.” ACCIONAexpectseightofthetwentyprojectstobeoperationalbylate 2023,addingroughly1,500MWofpeakcapacity(some1,200ofrated capacity)toitsrenewableenergyportfolioinNorthAmerica,which alreadyincludes1,245MWofwindpowerinstalledandunderconstruction aswellas64MWofsolarthermalpowerunderthecompany’sownership. 150 KILOTONS OF URBAN WASTE TURNED INTO CLEAN ENERGY ACCIONA PLANS TO HAVE 40% OF THIS CAPACITY INSTALLED BY 2023 PURCHASE OF 3,000 MW OF SOLAR PV PROJECTS IN THE USA 08-09_ACCIONA_noticias_ENG.indd 808-09_ACCIONA_noticias_ENG.indd 8 14/11/19 17:4714/11/19 17:47
  9. 9. 9 NEW HIGHWAY OVER ROSKILDE FJORD IN DENMARK Theprojectinvolvedthedesignand constructionofafour-lane,8.2kmtoll highwaywitha1.36kmbridgeoverthe fjord,betweenthetownsofMarbaekvej andTorslevHage.Thestructure,thefirst segmentalbridgebuiltinthecountrysince 1970,has17spansandissupportedby 52pilesupto50meterslong.Ittook34 monthstocomplete,threelongerthan planned.The€133millionprojectwas fundedbyACCIONAanditspartners,Besix andRizzanideEccher,whohadtocomply withexactingsocialandenvironmental criteriaasthehighwayrunsthroughseveral protectedareas,oneofwhichispartofthe EU’sNatura2000network. Since its creation, the foundation has remained committed to its aim: leveraging the group’s expertise to facilitate access to energy, water and sanitation services for very low-income families in rural areas that are remote or cut off from infrastructure, with no plans to extend it to the area. To this end, it contributes to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals in a number of ways. Its Light at Home program has already done so with the installation of state-of-the-art PV solar panels in homes, and by supporting small local businesses which maintain the systems and sell and repair equipment. In addition to enabling families to break free of their dependence on dangerous kerosene lamps, it also provides them with better light for working, reading, and studying at night. It is currently broadening its scope of action to bring electricity to 14,000 people (2,850 homes) who live along rivers such as the Napo and the Ucayali in the Peruvian Amazonian Basin, in small villages in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, and in indigenous Ngäbe and Buglé communities in Panama. By the beginning of 2020, it will benefit 65,000 people in total. THE WORLD’S BIGGEST 3D PRINTER ACCIONA has opened a global 3D printing center in Dubai featuring the world’s largest 3D printer —6x3x2 meters— with Powder Bed additive manufacturing technology, which creates structures by printing successive layers of concrete. Among other advantages, it improves automation of building processes, uses less energy, saves raw material, generates less waste, enables design options that would be impossible with conventional construction methods and can produce exact replicas of art and architectural works. LIGHT AT HOME IN PERU, MEXICO, PANAMA THE FOUNDATION ACCIONA.ORG BRINGS BASIC ELECTRICITY SERVICES TO 65,000 PEOPLE 08-09_ACCIONA_noticias_ENG.indd 908-09_ACCIONA_noticias_ENG.indd 9 14/11/19 17:4714/11/19 17:47
  10. 10. 10 IF THEY ’RE SOLUTIONS 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1010_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 10 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  12. 12. 12 T SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTThe global TTy becomes TTtion must TTo prevent TT” explains TTy business. TTponsibil- TTading the TTcreating a TTtheir pos- TTness in the TTTTnge for the TTformation TTnow been TTal corpo- TTaster Plan TTg philoso- TTconstruc- TTenance, at TTnnovation TTcontinual TTsafety for TThe supply TTsocial and TTthe sector TTTTing target, TTTT Previous photo, page 10: Palomares del Río WWTP (Seville). On the right, El Cortijo wind farm (Mexico). 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1210_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 12 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  13. 13. 13 CHALLENGES SOLUTIONS THE ETERNAL SOURCE Contributing to the transition to an economy fueled by green, inexhaustible, affordable and universally accessible energy sources as one of the pillars of global decarbonization. Constant innovation in engineering, construction, generation, operation, maintenance, and energy management. “Today we are the biggest global energy operator focused exclu- sively on renewable energy,” says Rafael Mateo. “It’s a strategic position, because the wind and solar capacity installed world- wide will increase tenfold by 2050, coming to account for 80% of the electricity sector’s global investment.” The company is launching a specific sustainability-focused inno- vation program called Innovability. “This year alone, we’ll invest 60 million euros in innovation and 2.5 million in social programs with over 70,000 direct beneficiaries and 250,000 indirect beneficiaries,” adds Mikel Ortiz de Latierro, Director of Quality, Safety and Environment in ACCIONA’s Energy division. The solutions are applied throughout the business. For instance, smart maintenance based on big data and machine learning to maximize facilities’ operating life. This great big digital brain, which is active 24/7 at the Renewable Energy Control Center, encompasses the Greenchain 2.0 platform, which uses block- chain technology to certify energy as having renewable origins for customers. The company is also carrying out the world’s first solar/wind hy- brid power pilot project with carbon-based PV panels attached to wind turbine towers. It is also optimizing battery storage to trans- port energy across time and space, and applying technologies that reduce facilities’ acoustic impact, among other initiatives. 1 2 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1310_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 13 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  14. 14. 14 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY SOLUTIONS A comprehensive, overall vision is a framework solution in infras- tructure development, as it “assesses all of the impacts, maximizes the social value created by the money, builds according to stringent environmental standards, minimizes emissions and is integrated into the circular economy,” explains Castilla. For example, systematic planning like that of the Self-Performing Office model applied to highway, bridge, subway, railroad tunnel or hydroelectric dam megaprojects. Analyses are aimed at keeping it all in house, and they optimize processes and the use of resources, wor- kers, and material. We might build a beam launcher, for instance, or manufacture concrete on site to save energy and reduce the budget and emissions. In water management, population growth and concentration and the effects of climate change are threatening the supply of good qua- lity water. Rainy areas like Galicia face restrictions for the first time, and areas of traditional scarcity such as Murcia are seeing severe cyclical floods. With respect to R&D, the company is leading the way in state-of- the-art membranes for desalination by reverse osmosis, in biolo- gical reactors for wastewater treatment, and in supply models that minimize the water required for industrial use and recycle it for the purpose of watering crops. THE FOUNDATION THAT SUSTAINS SUSTAINABILITY According to the UN, at least 7 of every 10 euros invested in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals should be invested in infrastructure. “The paradigm we work in is directly opposed to that which tends toward excess and lacks a vision for the future or real concern for social needs,” says Luis Castilla, CEO of ACCIONA’s Infrastructure division. 1 CHALLENGES 2 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1410_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 14 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  15. 15. 15 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY But the solution with a capital S, according to José Díaz-Caneja, General Manager of ACCIONA’s Water business, is “a big leap in the scale of projects which could enable an inexhaustible supply. This optimizes investment, benefits many more people and fosters our comprehensive management model: capturing water, treating it, distributing it, collecting it after it has been used, purifying it, and returning it to the environment in the best possible state.” “New technologies for digitalization and control of production pro- cesses — says Huberto Moreno, General Manager of the Construc- tion division— enable us to improve their efficiency, incorporate secondary raw materials with lower embodied energy, or create new circular economy models. To this end, we have our own technology center, which meets real business needs.” In-house innovation specializes in the use of lower-impact raw materials, longer-lasting materials with lower maintenance requi- rements to extend structures’ useful life and integrity. It selects machinery that improves processes and their traceability, and prio- ritizes the use of green energy and less polluting machines. Examples of recycling and circular economy include the over 86,000 tons of granite —Padornelo Tunnel, Spain— used for pavement, and the ash from the paper industry that has replaced cement in the PaperChain project, which is part of the Horizon 2020 Program. For his part, Ramón Jiménez, General Manager of ACCIONA’s Indus- trial business, points to the synergy in “renewable energy generation projects to power industrial facilities and the management of solid urban waste, which is of strategic importance given the concentra- tion of the population in cities.” The company is developing pioneering projects like the Ness Ener- gy Project (Scotland) to turn 150 kilotons of non-recyclable urban waste into electricity. On an even larger scale, the Kwinana WTE plant, sister facility to the Ness, will be able to process 400 kilotons of waste per year in Perth, Australia. “The Kathu solar thermal plant (South Africa) is another prime example of a positive social impact,” says Ramón Jiménez. “Six million tons of emissions into the atmosphere prevented each year, over 5,000 direct, indirect, and induced jobs, specialized training to transfer knowledge to local professionals, and training on small- business development and waste recycling.” For its part, Reynosa wind farm in Mexico has focused on protecting biodiversity, and has rescued more than 2,700 and 48,300 specimens of endangered animal and plant species, respectively. Lai Chi Kok Viaduct (Hong Kong). Recycled concrete was used in landfill work. 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1510_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 15 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  16. 16. 16 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY SOLUTIONS CIVIC CIVILIZATION Two of every three humans will live in cities by 2050. This is no surprise. In Europe 7.3 of every 10 already do. Conclusion: the sustainability of our world is synonymous with the sustainability of our cities. Today, the urban and demographic growth of many cities poses a problem, but it could become a solution. First duty in any smart city: clean, shared transportation. ACCIONA’s mobility service has deployed a fleet of zero-emission scooters in Madrid, Barcelona, Seville, Valencia, and Lisbon. This service promotes multimodal transportation and can be coordi- nated with other municipal mobility systems and platforms. “We still need coordination between governments and indus- try, as well as green taxes, but we’re making progress and elec- tric vehicles are essential to achieving full decarbonization of transportation by 2050, with the vital contribution of renewable energy,” explains Isabel Reija, President of the Spanish Business Association for Development and Promotion of Electric Vehicles (AEDIVE). Second duty: sustainable buildings. Extending legislation on emissions to other sectors: water and energy efficiency, biocli- matic architecture, non-polluting materials, recycling and waste management... 1 2 CHALLENGES Eco-efficient office complex in Zaragoza. 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1610_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 16 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  17. 17. 17 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1710_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 17 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  18. 18. 18 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY “We spend all day talking about emissions associated with trans- portation, yet buildings consume 40% of our energy and natural resources, 20% of our water, and emit a third of all greenhouse gases. On average, the sale value of sustainable homes appreciates by 17%, and the retail value by 30%. And they cut maintenance costs by 30%. They are a responsible choice, as well as an inves- tment,” explains Andrés Pan de Soraluce, Director of ACCIONA’s Inmobiliaria business. In short, understanding the city as a human community organized around a community of services. But also, as a carbon sink and an air filter. Specialized urban ecosystem management, use of zero- emission machinery in urban green spaces… all of these solutions are elements of the specialized knowledge that ACCIONA applies to care for cities’ green lungs, like the eight historic parks it looks after in Madrid. URBAN ECOSYSTEMS CAN ACT AS BARRIERS TO DESERTIFICATION, CO2 SINKS, AND AIR FILTERS 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1810_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 18 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  19. 19. 19 SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY 19 PARTOFTHE SOLUTION ACCIONA has garnered recognition for achieving the highest score in the environmental dimension of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, for being one of the 100 most sustainable companies in the world (Corporate Nights), for its top marks in sustainable climate and water management (CDP and Global Water Intelligence), and as the greenest power generation company on the planet (New Energy Top 100 Green Utilities, by Energy Intelligence), in addition to receiving rewards for diversity and inclusion, social and environmental responsibility, good governance, and sustainable infrastructure. 10_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 1910_19_ACCIONA_Soluciones sostenibles_ENG.indd 19 14/11/19 19:0814/11/19 19:08
  20. 20. 20 ENTREVISTA 20 A MULTINATIONAL ATTHE COP 20-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 2020-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 20 14/11/19 17:4614/11/19 17:46
  22. 22. 22 It happened almost fifteen years ago, in 2005, one year after the company’s current CEO, José Manuel Entrecanales, took over. At the time, sustainability was more of a theory than what it has become today: an ethical duty and an excellent business opportunity. ACCIONA blazed a trail again in 2009, as the first Spanish company on the management committee of the Corporate Leaders Group for Climate Change. Since then it has had a presence in all of the major international cli- mate change forums, particularly the sessions of the Conference of the Parties (COP). This participation reflects what Entrecanales calls “the other activism, business activism.” It includes making spe- cific proposals based on scientific studies and internal know-how, which have continually insisted on the need for progress in key areas such as a global decarbonization plan and binding climate agreements, among others. Success has been spotty, with the former enjoying more than the latter, and this very insistence attests to how resistant some are to committing to change. These are some of the milestones along the way. COP15. Copenhagen 2009 The company went to the heart of the matter, calling for agreements to include binding tar- gets with specific tools to cut emissions, as well as scientific targets adapted to individual coun- tries but global in scope, financing, political IWAS THE FIRST COMPANY LISTED IION THE IBEX35 EXCHANGE TO JOIN IIHE WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL IIOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.II ACCIONA’s Chairman and CEO, José Manuel Entrecanales (center), during the COP in Paris. 20-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 2220-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 22 15/11/19 16:1315/11/19 16:13
  23. 23. 23 backing, and dissuasive measures for those in breach. It demanded a credible measurement and verification system, profitability incentives for sustainable projects, and a stable and secure legislative framework to promote private decar- bonization initiatives. In parallel, it set out to raise awareness: it launched the global sustainable development campaign Re_ and amplified the social voice by screening over 1,400 citizen testimonies in mul- timedia venues, offering ideas on how to contain climate change. COP16. Cancun 2010 As part of the Corporate Leaders Group for Climate Change, ACCIONA proposed specif- ic agreements to be fostered with regulations, funding and target plans in key areas: energy efficiency in construction, transport and indus- try, low-carbon energy systems for these same sectors, financial aid for CO2 and other GHG capture and storage technologies (methane, nitrogen oxide, F gases, black carbon, etc.), and agreements on how to reduce emissions in urban and rural land management. COP19. Durban 2011 ACCIONA put its weight behind a manifesto call- ing for joint action issued by 185 major compa- nies: the 2° Challenge Communiqué. “The win- dow to stabilise global warming to less than 2°C has almost closed. Without [a robust] agreement, business lacks the clarity and certainty needed to invest to its fullest potential.” Governments have a duty to foster measures such as effective adaptation programs, aid to companies and con- sumers to encourage them to change, specific laws, R&D funding, and reforestation and con- servation of wooded areas. COP18. Doha 2012 ACCIONA and 99 other companies present- ed the Carbon Price Communiqué, calling on the European Commission to set a clear carbon emission tariff framework that would be part of the EU’s national policy responses. The aim: to gradually extend it to the rest of the global econ- omy, providing sufficient incentives to keep pace with global warming. “We believe that the cer- tainty created by this policy framework and the investment it will unlock offers the prospect of The presence of women in working groups and delegations from develo- ping countries has grown at recent ses- sions of the COP. 20-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 2320-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 23 15/11/19 13:3215/11/19 13:32
  24. 24. 24 BUSINESS ACTIVISM ing. It noted that some of the energy sector was doing its part, having increased renewable energy investment by 27 billion dollars the previous year. “The voice of business is clear; we have the vision, the commitment, and the technology to usher in a new era of low-carbon prosperity,” said José Manuel Entrecanales. COP21. Paris 2015 At the session that gave rise to the Paris Agreement, the company highlighted its progress with invest- ment in renewables, water stress reduction, and clean energy generation in remote areas, as well as its commitment to blazing a trail in all of its sectors by reaching carbon-neutrality. It was among the first companies in the world to take on this chal- lenge, and it achieved its goal the following year. It proposed a minimum requirement plan to cut GHG emissions by 40% to 70%, which included regular country-by-country review mechanisms. Aiming to start a ripple effect, it described the business opportunities opened up by decarboniza- tion. That year it was one of the first in the sector to endorse the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. It sponsored the artistic installation Climatesaurus, a gigantic creature made from plastic caps that trav- elled to several locations in Paris. It also presented the first fully electric car to compete in rallies such as Dakar, and sponsored the Future Energy Forum. COP22. Marrakesh 2016 ACCIONA presented the Sustainability Mas- ter Plan 2020, which aims to improve the social impact of all of its projects and drive investment in climate innovation, integrated water manage- ment, and good governance, in addition to reduc- ing environmental risk in the value chain. In the year between the previous COP and this one, it took part in joint projects with the biggest international sustainability organizations, such as the Carbon Disclosure Project, the Corporate Leaders Group, and Caring for Climate. In the forum, it reaffirmed its commitment to all of the aims of the Paris Agreement, which had just entered into force, and once again offered specific proposals for the establishment of global increased business success and job creation in key sectors including energy, transport, and the built environment,” they said in the Communiqué. COP19. Warsaw 2013 Along with seven other major European energy companies (with sales revenue in excess of 250 billion euros in over 70 countries at the time), ACCIONA called for “an independent, stable and predictable regulatory framework” to ensure a share of renewables in the energy mix of at least 30% by 2030. “It will contribute to competitive- ness, innovation, technological leadership, and job creation in Europe. It will reduce the ener- gy bill, the continent’s energy dependence [53% that year, forecast to rise to 80% by 2035], and contribute to a clean, reliable, low-cost supply of energy for citizens and industries.” COP20. Lima 2014 As a member of ten of the world’s most important business associations, ACCIONA proposed the first medium- and long-term legal, fiscal and finan- cial framework to the G20, to genuinely foster the low-carbon economy and reach zero net emis- sions by the end of the century, and for reviews of national commitments to be performed every 5 years to prevent efforts from coming to noth- Presentation by Leonardo DiCaprio at the COP in the French capital, which gave rise to the Par- is Agreement. The actor was named a UN Messenger of Peace with a special focus on climate change. 20-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 2420-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 24 14/11/19 17:4614/11/19 17:46
  25. 25. 25 BUSINESS ACTIVISM carbon prices, concrete measures to electrify key sectors such as industry and transport, and for gradual elimination of fossil fuel subsidies. It also presented its contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals. COP23. Bonn 2017 The company described how it had achieved car- bon-neutrality with its model of emission reduc- tion and offsetting. “We want the efficiency it has shown to encourage many more companies to join in,” said Joaquín Mollinedo, General Direc- tor of Institutional Relations, Sustainability and Brand. The company reiterated the need to set a dissuasive pricing scheme for CO2 emission rights. It asked the summit to harmonize procedures for evaluating the implementation of the Paris Agree- ment, and presented its experiences with sustain- able roads and infrastructure, aimed at contribut- ing towards these goals in the area of transport. COP24. Katowice 2018 Transparent measurement and control of the Paris Agreement, making its measures more binding, carbon pricing... ACCIONA insisted repeatedly on these aims, which have progressed at an uneven pace from one COP to the next. In light of this, it called for greater participation in civil society by NGOs that would complement political action and bring pressure to bear. It proposed that spe- cific emission reduction targets for 2030 be set in line with the Science Based Targets initiative, and, as part of the Alliance of CEO Climate Leaders, it endorsed business demands such as fostering education and influencing societal demand for low-carbon solutions. It took part in the Ambi- tion Loop Report, providing specific reforestation, electricity, and transport examples to inspire oth- er companies and countries to emulate them. Some 25,000 people are expected to attend the COP25. It will be held in Madrid from December 2-13. ACCIONA BLAZED A TRAIL IN ALL OF ITS SECTORS AS ONE OF THE FIRST COMPANIES IN THE WORLD TO ACHIEVE CARBON- NEUTRALITY COP25. MADRID This year’s COP will push for a reboot on several fronts: emergency adaptation and resilience measures to combat the effects of climate change; stepping up efforts with respect to agreements to contain it, which have so far proved insufficient; and obtaining emission-reduction commitments from more countries. ACCIONA will have a special role at this session. Not only is it headquartered in Spain, it also has projects all over the country, in all of its lines of business. Its presence at the conference in Chile —another of its key markets— was also viewed as strate- gic before the change of venue. Despite this change, the Andean country will retain a central role, as it will still hold the presidency of the COP in Madrid and it is committed to becoming a benchmark for sustainability in Latin America. 20-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 2520-25_ACCIONA_EN_LAS_COPS_ENG.indd 25 14/11/19 17:4614/11/19 17:46
  26. 26. 2726 AMBASSADORS AMBASSADORS Barcelona, 1985. The press sang his praises when he won the 2019 NBA Finals with the Toronto Raptors. With Spain’s national team, Marc has also been a world champion, a two-time European champion and a two-time Olympic silver medalist. His current coach, Nick Nurse, says he loves discussing any topic with him and admires his concern and the empathy he shows through his support for the NGO Proactiva Open Arms and for the environment. His children, Julia (2014) and Luca (2017), have further cemented this commitment. Mexico City, 1985. She studied theater in Paris, Moscow and London while handing out advertising material in the street, working as a waitress and over- coming crises, like when she lost her voice for months. She began on the telenovela circuit, but it was in the movie industry that her sense of comedy and romance truly shone. Not only has she starred in three of her country’s biggest blockbusters, she has also found success in the USA. It’s always been clear to her that helping others and personal growth come first. That explains her activism, whether for causes like the Time’s Up movement against sexual harassment or offering aid to victims of natural disasters. He was born in Madrid in 1967, but has lived in Chile for the past three decades and is one of the country’s most popular TV presenters. He won the King of Spain Inter- national Journalism Award for his report on Guantánamo and the CIA’s secret prisons, and Chilean audiences chose his coverage of the 2010 earthquake the best in the coun- try. He has also covered wars in the Balkans, Afghanistan and Iraq and traveled around the world as a reporter for CNN. All of this experience has led to a firm conviction: the environment and the planet’s health are the most important headlines in his life. Born in Zimbabwe in 1988, he arrived in Australia after his family was forced to leave the farm where they worked. He’s a fighter, and not just as a member of Australia’s national rugby team. Even more of an acti- vist than he is an athlete (“There are things in life more important than chasing a ball,”) he married his best friend but they decided not to register the union until gay marriage had been legalized in the country. He chained himself up for 10 hours in front of a coal mine, and his support for clean and sustainable energy has remained constant. MARC GASOL KARLA SOUZA AMARO GÓMEZ-PABLOS DAVID POCOCK “WATER IS LIFE, WHICH IS WHY FOR YEARS I’VE BEEN COMMITTED TO CARING FOR AND PROTECTING OUR OCEANS. I ALSO HELP INSTALL SOLAR PANELS TO PROVIDE CLEAN AND SUSTAINABLE ENERGY.” “I AM ACTIVELY COMMITTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT. MASS PRODUCTION OF PLASTIC AND CO2 EMISSIONS WORRY ME. THAT’S WHY I HELP RAISE AWARENESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND I SUPPORT RENEWABLE ENERGY.” “ I ’ M W O R R I E D A B O U T T H E P L A N E T, D E F O R E S TAT I O N O F H A B I TAT S , T H E F U T U R E . F O R Y E A R S I ’ V E S U P P O R T E D I N I T I AT I V E S T O C O N S E R V E A N D P R O T E C T T H E E N V I R O N M E N T A N D D E V E L O P L O C A L C O M M U N I T I E S . ” A joint appeal from four film, sports and journalism superstars worried about climate change: “Join us and invest in the planet.” They are ambassadors for ACCIONA’s message of sustainability in countries of strategic importance for the company: Australia, Chile, the United States, Mexico, and Spain. “ W H E N YO U H AV E C H I L D R E N , YO U S TA R T TO T H I N K A B O U T T H E I R F U T U R E A N D YO U R E F L E C T O N W H AT W E ’ R E D O I N G TO L E AV E B E H I N D A P L A N E T F O R T H E M T H AT ’ S T H E S A M E , I F N OT B E T T E R , T H A N T H E O N E W E F O U N D.” #investintheplanet
  27. 27. COUNTDOWN TO SAVE THE PLANET COP 25 01_PORTADA_ACCIONA_73_D_ENG.indd 101_PORTADA_ACCIONA_73_D_ENG.indd 1 12/11/19 22:1212/11/19 22:12
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  30. 30. 4 EDITORI Editorial not wait for the climate emergency to wor- sen to the point that it overcomes our ability to respond. The only positive effect of this emergency, so to speak, is that the level of awareness of and participation in this issue could take a qualitative leap despite forego- ne conclusions. The COP25 will be an occasion to review the measures, objectives and deadlines of major international agreements; to confirm that the effects of global warming are even more severe than science has predicted; that we’re late in this race against time and that the future of our civilization is at stake if selfish- nessendsuptakingprecedenceoverrespon- sibility and common sense. We know the strategy. We’re implemen- ting it and it works, but it must be stren- gthened in order to decarbonize the planet to a greater and better degree. To that end, we must switch to clean energy, invest in sustainable technology, establish a system of carbon prices, make the measures sig- ned in the agreements binding, strengthen national and international legislation, and adapt to climate disasters that are already here and are irreversible. We must stren- gthen the resilience of the most vulnerable communities and make significant chan- ges in our lifestyles. We also need leadership that addresses pla- netary problems rather than local partisans- hip and electoral short-termism; leadership that is receptive to the demands of a growing A t every great crossroads we’re inevitably filled with doubt, even a sense of paralysis as to the magnitude of effort required. But it’s also inevitable to take action when we know that stan- ding still is not an option. At this point, the most critical factor is the level of consensus and determination we can gene- rate before it’s too late. The greatest crossroads we’ve faced never involve this dilemma. Doubts, paralysis, denial in some resistant sectors, but also a determination to act based on the certainty about what needs to be done. Currently, the most important element to tackle climate change with a realistic chance of slowing it down is to make this determination grow and spread with enough speed and intensi- ty to achieve the objectives outlined in the Paris Agreement. The bad news is obvious: the adopted mea- sures are being implemented far too slowly. The good news is that we have the techni- cal, economic and political means to rever- se this trend. We cannot be overcome by resignation if these measures guarantee an enormous opportunity for economic growth and social progress — the transformation towardsacarbon-neutraleconomy—which is necessary to avoid disaster. Here we are standing at the crossroads, at the 25th edition of the United Nations Con- ference of the Parties, insisting that we can- Determined to rise to the challenge 04-05_Especial_Editorial_ENG.indd 404-05_Especial_Editorial_ENG.indd 4 14/11/19 17:5614/11/19 17:56
  31. 31. C O P 2 5 5 RIALpart of society which is increasingly indig- nant towards inaction and which can make a difference through votes, consumer spen- ding and protests. We must take part in this new wave of com- panies, institutions and associations that not only fulfills but exceeds its share of respon- sibility. In this respect, there’s a particular need for business activism: for companies that are the most capable social agents to undertake enormous investments in inno- vation,infrastructureandknowledgemana- gement — and that can mobilize an army of qualified professionals. According to the UN, the world needs between five and seven trillion dollars a year to finance the Sustainable Develo- pment Goals, 72% of which rely on the installment of suitable infrastructures. Such an effort undoubtedly requires the support of society as a whole. However, at the current rate, the investment pro- jected for the next decade shows that we are 25% short of reaching our target. This is a significant shortfall, but it’s attainable if we’re determined enough to take it on. And we can apply this resolve to all clima- te commitments. If we’ve achieved some of the objectives, if we have the resources and technology to do more, if by not doing so we’ll face infinitely more serious consequences — practically suicidal — is there any justifiable reason not to rise to the challenge? SUMMARY This is your home TheplanetEarth.A livinghomethat’s sufferingthefever ofglobalwarming. Tohealitistosave ourselves. 06 25 years of the COP Anoverviewofthe sessionsofthe Conferenceofthe Parties,aspartof thefightagainst climatechange. Theirvictoriesand thebarriersthat hinderafaster,more efficientresponse. Insufficient, perhaps,but indispensable. 08 The climate challenge The big challenge is adapting to the irreversible effects we are already facing, and complying with agreements to prevent them from getting much worse. A look at technological, economic, and political solutions to make it happen. 18 Antarctic expedition One hundred female scientists travel to the white continent to increase women’s leadership in the area of sustainability. Seven of them speak to us about the change of mindset in the fight against climate change. 30 Ambassadors Join us and invest in the planet. Four prominent professionals committed to sustainable values: Marc Gasol, Karla Souza, Amaro Gómez-Pablos, and David Pocock. 34 04-05_Especial_Editorial_ENG.indd 504-05_Especial_Editorial_ENG.indd 5 14/11/19 17:5614/11/19 17:56
  32. 32. 6 This is your home The planet is the epitome of the common good. It’s the only home we have, but it’s in danger of ruin. Its warming is like a fever in a living organism, and to stave off illness we must limit it to 1.5° C by the end of this century 06-07_ACCIONA_PLANETA_ANTES_DESPUES_ENG.indd 606-07_ACCIONA_PLANETA_ANTES_DESPUES_ENG.indd 6 14/11/19 17:5614/11/19 17:56
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  34. 34. 25YEARS OFTHE COP 8 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 808-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 8 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  35. 35. 9 25YEARS OFTHE COP 9 A universal assembly wants to save the Earth From predictions to fait accompli. Climate change can leave us grappling with disasters, but its effects also send us a message: If we don’t step up our efforts, things will soon get much worse. For 25 years, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations has worked to organize and speed up our response to climate change. Insufficient, perhaps, but indispensable. This is an overview of the COP. 25th anniversary of the COP by Ángel Luis Sucasas 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 908-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 9 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  36. 36. 10 25YEARS OFTHE COP 1948, Paris, a milestone for humanity: ratification of the inalienable rights of all members of the human family. At the time, no one suspected that nearly half a century later another declaration would be even broader and more pressing. One to safeguard the rights of the entire planet. 1992 COP1_1995 COP2_1996 Río de Janeiro Thefirstmajormilestone:TheEarth Summitannouncedthecreationofthe UnitedNationsFrameworkConvention onClimateChange.Theorganization acknowledgedaproblemthatagrowing numberofscientistswerewarningabout. Berlin. Established the Berlin Mandate, a framework of instruments to determine how nations would tackle the reduction of greenhouse gases, based on their level of development. Geneva. Called for “binding, quantitative targets” for the reduction of emissions. “THE BALANCE OF EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT THERE IS A DISCERNIBLE HUMAN INFLUENCE ON GLOBAL CLIMATE” BERT BOLIN, Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1008-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 10 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  37. 37. 11 I 25YEARS OFTHE COP COP3_1997 COP4_1998 Kyoto. Approved the Kyoto Protocol, introducing targets for GHG emissions for 37 industrialized countries, to be met in the period from 2008-2012. The USA and China, the two biggest emitters, did not ratify the document. Buenos Aires “IT’S ANOTHER SMALL TURN ON THE RUDDER OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE SUPERTANKER. BUT GOVERNMENTS HAVE MUCH MORE TO DO TO STEER CLEAR OF THE ROCKS” LARS GEORG JENSEN, Policy Coordinator, Climate Change & Sustainability protocols: the 25th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 25), the 15th Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 15), and the 2nd Meeting of the Parties to the Par- is Agreement (CMA 2). It will attempt to bridge the gap between words and actions, to expedite the measures set out in these major agreements so that they can match the pace at which climate change is occurring. The course of the COP history has zig-zagged: promising advanc- es have alternated with frustrating resistance from uncooperative nations, the inertia of an unsustain- able economic model, and denial from televange- lists with the audacity to gainsay the entire scientific community. Further stumbling blocks include a lack of enforcement authority to oblige parties to comply with measures, although this hasn’t stopped a num- ber of trailblazing institutions, countries, companies and citizens from living up to their responsibility and leading the way. t materialized with the first Conference of the Parties (COP), held in Berlin in 1995. The idea was that prevention is better than cure: “The Parties should protect the climate system for the bene- fit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their com- mon but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Par- ties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof.” Today, this universal declaration of intent is even more relevant. It’s been 25 years since that initial effort, a council to preserve the Earth that countries, institutions and companies, including ACCIONA, attend as participants and listeners, and to debate the well-being of the global village. How is the blue planet faring? What can we do to improve its health? This session —in IFEMA – Feria de Madrid from Decem- ber 2-13— will be historic, as it will serve as the meet- ing for all of the major climate change agreements and 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1108-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 11 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  38. 38. 12 25YEARS OFTHE COP Why might the 25th session be one of the most pro- ductive ever? Because of the current situation itself, the two-sided coin of global warming: on one hand, its increasingly aggressive effects are a warning that we’re not doing enough, and on the other, the fact that we’re experiencing real consequences rather than predictions increases the pressure —from the media, politicians, citizens— to act. In comparison to the concerns 25 years ago in Ber- lin, what are the most pressing matters today? Many things, although the COP will focus on the oceans and the cryosphere (collectively, all forms of frozen water on Earth, covering 10% of its land area). This enormous water mass from which life originated plays a key role in regulating the planet’s climate, capturing and redistributing heat and CO2 . And, of course, it acts as a food store and water reservoir for all humanity. The session in Madrid, more than any COP that has gone before it, will demonstrate that climate change is not just a prediction, but a reality. It will thus give priority not just to prevention, but also to adapting to the effects we are already facing by making dras- tic adjustments to our ways of life. The effects we are already suffering are a warm-up for those to come. “We [must] increase our ability to build resilience, and there will be more benefits for sustainable devel- opment,” says Hoesung Lee, chair of the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). All of us have an ethical duty to fulfil this mandate. Just as we did with human rights. Indigenous knowledge One of the most notable aspects of COP25 is its recognition that indigenous and local knowledge will play a central role in healing the planet. According to a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, indigenous knowledge may even be on a par with scientific knowledge when it comes to shedding light on how humans can adapt to the drastic changes already wrought by global warming: “Improving education and scientific knowledge in parallel to local and indigenous knowledge can help develop context-specific solutions that facilitate communities’ adaptation to the inevitable changes and their response to the coming challenges.” COP5_1999 COP6_2000 Bonn La Haya “MAINTAINING THE STATU QUO IS NO LONGER ACCEPTABLE.” BAKARY KANTE, Spokesperson for the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) “LET US RISE UP TO MEET THIS GREAT CHALLENGE. SCIENCE DEMANDS IT; OUR PLANET AND ITS PEOPLE DESERVE IT. SO LET’S GET TO WORK” FRANK E. LOY, Head of the US Delegation COP7_2001 Marrakech. Wrapped up almost all of the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The agreements were called the Marrakesh Accords. 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1208-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 12 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  39. 39. 13 25YEARS OFTHE COP ACCORDING TO THE UNITED NATIONS, THE OBJECTIVEOF THE COP IS TO COP8_2002 COP9_2003 New Delhi Milan “WE DO NOT BELIEVE THAT THE ETHOS OF DEMOCRACY CAN SUPPORT ANY NORM OTHER THAN EQUAL PER- CAPITA RIGHTS TO GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES” ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE, Prime Minister of India “IT IS EVIDENT THAT WE NEED FULL DEPLOYMENT OF EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES, AND, IN ADDITION, ACTIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES” JOKE WALLER-HUNTER, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC HOW IT WORKS COP UNFCCC the inner workings of the COP 197countries meet together as parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which entered into force on the 21st of March 1994. This Convention regulates member states’ commitments to fighting climate change and assesses their compliance. Thedecision-making bodyiscomposedof: • 11delegateswhoarealsoempoweredas representativesattheKyotoProtocoland ParisAgreementmeetings. • Thepresidencyrotatesbetweenthe planet’sfiveregionalgroups:TheAfrican States,AsianStates,WesternEurope, EasternEurope,LatinAmericanand CaribbeanStates,andOtherStates. It is used to set an agenda for the parties, primarily with regard to reports drafted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations, composed of 195delegates (one per country). These exhaustive reports are available to the public. MAIN BODY: 19working groups on areas such as: • Technology • Finance • Developing Countries The COPincludes THE CONVENTION “STABILIZE GREENHOUSE GAS CONCENTRATIONS AT A LEVEL THAT WOULD PREVENT DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC (HUMAN-INDUCED) INTERFERENCE WITH THE CLIMATE SYSTEM” COP10_2004 Buenos Aires Discussions began to decide on the agreements to be implemented after the Kyoto Protocol expired in 2012. 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1308-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 13 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  40. 40. 14 25YEARS OFTHE COP COP11_2005 COP21_2015 COP13_2007 COP14_2008 COP12_2006 Montreal.Createdtwomain meetingsbetweentheparties: theCOPandthenewMeetingof thePartiestotheKyotoProtocol (CMP),devotedwhollytothe agreementsofsaidProtocol. Bali. Recognized the need to speed up plans to contain global warming, and laid the initial foundations of the agreement that would replace the Kyoto Protocol. Poznan. Addressed a crucial issue: transfer of technology to enable developing countries to plan their sustainable infras- tructure without hindering their growth. Nairobi “I WOULD EXPECT HEADS OF STATE TO MAYBE COME TO THE NEXT CLIMATE SUMMIT AND SAY: LET’S GET ON WITH THIS” HANS VEROLME, Director of WWF’s Global Climate Change Program “That future is one that we have the power to change. Right here. Right now” Former President of the United States Barack Obama 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1408-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 14 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  41. 41. 15 25YEARS OFTHE COP “WE HAVE MADE A START. I BELIEVE THAT WHAT WE NEED TO FOLLOW UP ON QUICKLY IS ENSURING A LEGALLY BINDING OUTCOME” GORDON BROWN, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom “CLIMATE CHANGE IS REALLY ABOUT THE WELL-BEING OF PEOPLE. IT IS NOT A VERY VAGUE CONCEPT OR A VAGUE PROBLEM THAT IS OUT OF OUR EVERYDAY LIVES” PATRICIA ESPINOSA, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC “THE NEXT MAJOR WAVE OF DEFORESTATION IS ALREADY HERE AND IT IS HAPPENING IN AFRICA” BOB SCHOLES, Member of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in South Africa COP24_2018 COP15_2009 COP16_2010 COP17_2011 Copenhagen Cancun Durban “We’re almost out of time. It’s not rhetoric— it’s reality. It’s not politics—it’s science” UN Climate Change Executive Secretary Patricia Espinosa 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1508-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 15 15/11/19 13:2415/11/19 13:24
  42. 42. 16 25YEARS OFTHE COP Recognitionofthe problem.Since COP2(Gene- va,1996),allUN MemberStates haveacknowl- edgedthereality ofglobalwarming. Meanwhile,the Intergovernmental PanelonClimate Change(IPCC)has gainedpowerand influencewithits reportsonthesta- tusoftheplanet, aimedatdefining areasthatrequire themosturgent action. International agreementswith adjustabletargets. TheKyotoProtocol (1997)wasfirst,fol- lowedbytheParis Agreement(2015), whichwassigned by195countries. Theirmaingoal:to limittheaverage increaseinthe planet’stempera- tureto1.5°Cto2°C abovepre-indus- triallevels.They markaqualitative leapforwardwith respecttoother climateconfer- ences,duetotheir mediaimpact andbenchmark role.Theydonot, however,havethe powertoinfringeon statesovereignty, althoughtheydo exertgrowingpres- sureonstatesto obtaintheircoop- eration. Althoughthe Americanpres- ident,Donald Trump,announced theUSA’swith- drawalfromthe ParisAgreement, anysuchwith- drawalwouldnot beeffectiveuntil November2020at theearliest,after histermhascon- cluded.Thematter thusdependson thenextelection. 1. Hurdles overcome COP18_2012 COP20_2014 COP21_2015 COP19_2013 Doha. Extended the Kyoto Protocol until 2020, eight years beyond the date it was set to expire. The USA, Russia and Canada did not support the extension. Lima. For the first time, all Member States agreed to develop and share their commitment to reducing greenhouse gases. Paris. A historic commitment was unanimously adopted: to keep global warming to less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. Over 30,000 people took part in the COP. Warsaw “WE NEED TO BE PREPARED FOR NINE BILLION PEOPLE ON THIS PLANET, AS WE ALL DESERVE A DECENT AND SECURE LIFE” MARCINKOROLEK,PolishMinisterofEnvironmentandChairofCOP19 CHALLENGES:past, present, future Since its inception, the COP has had to run a constant obstacle course when it comes to aligning the interests and needs of the most power- ful nations with those of the weakest or least populous. Over the past quarter-century, its sessions have contributed to the development of a series of measures with a goal so clear it can be summed up in three words: saving the planet. However, many mea- sures are still needed to enable debates, protocols and regulations to have the required immediate effect on any environmental disasters that may occur. Read on for an overview. 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1608-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 16 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  43. 43. 17 25YEARS OFTHE COP Legal obligation to comply with trea- ties. The biggest bone of contention still hangs in the balance, despite the fact that the need for binding treaty provisions was highlighted as early as COP2 (1996). However, this is no easy task. There is no supreme global executive author- ity that overrides national sovereign- ty and interests. Nations’ compli- ance is thus moni- tored as a matter of public transparen- cy, but there are no dissuasive penal- ties for those who fail to comply. Effectiveness of agreements. In 2017 the sci- entific journal Nature published a descriptively-titled study, “Prove Paris was more than paper promises,” which drew a cate- gorical conclusion: all industrialized countries were failing to meet the pledges they had made to cut greenhouse-gas emissions. The scientific commu- nity shared some of the criticisms that environmental organizations have leveled against the COP since day one: in the absence of a binding obligation that includes ade- quate sanctions, pledges made aren’t carried out at the level and within the time frame necessary. In other words, there is chasm between what is agreed and what is done. It is of vital importance that we narrow this gap. Genderbalance.The debateongenderand diversityhasmadeits wayintoclimatecon- ferences,andgender balancewasincluded asapriorityareaatthe lasttwosessionsofthe COP,in2017and2018. Atpresent,87ofthe 272membersofits20 constituentbodiesare women.Theirpresence grew32%between 2017and2018. Moreyoungpeople, moreethnicgroups.A specificdayhasbeen devotedtoyoung people,ashaveforums liketheUniversityof Silesia’sConferenceof YouthduringCOP24. Increasingattention isbeingpaidtoyoung people’scriticisms andproposals.“We aretheoneswhowill livewiththeoutcomes ofthisprocess,”said UNEnvoyonYouth JayathmaWickra- manayake. Inaddition,theInterna- tionalIndigenousPeo- ples’ForumonClimate Change,anotherCOP body,hasbeenactive since2015. 3. Remaining challenges 2. Representation of diversity COP23_2017 COP24_2018 COP22_2016 Bonn. A historic agreement was signed concerning agriculture and its sustainability, placing this human activity at the forefront of environmental policies and debate Katowice, Poland. Defined the details of how to implement the Paris Agreement, which enters into force in 2020. A total of 50 countries signed the Solidarity and Just Transition Silesia Declaration, to ensure that the affected workforce would receive aid. Marrakech “I’M OPTIMISTIC. WE’RE GOING TO WIN THIS.” AL GORE, former Vice-President of the USA Public and media mobilization is a tool with growing power that can put pressure on disengaged governments and companies. Sometimes votes and consumption have more sway than diplomatic agreements. 08-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 1708-17_Especial_Balance COPS_ENG.indd 17 14/11/19 17:5514/11/19 17:55
  44. 44. 18 CLIMATE CHANGE... It’s here to stay, but it doesn’t have to be a worst-case scenario. Although the human response is still insufficient, we have the means and the technology to reverse the trend. In this article, we look at the challenges and –in particular– the solutions that will put us on the path to the greatest victory imaginable. 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 1818-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 18 14/11/19 17:5314/11/19 17:53
  45. 45. by Yolanda Colías 19 IT, OR US 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 1918-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 19 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  46. 46. 20 THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE espite decades of warnings from the scientific communi- ty, the agreements brokered by the United Nations (UN), and growing social mobili- zation, measures to stem the climate crisis aren’t going far enough. At the 2019 Climate Action Summit in New York, the UN Secretary-General himself, António Guterres, asked countries for concrete, realistic plans by 2020 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, saying that it was essential to cut them by 45% over the next ten years, and to zero by the mid-century. If we continue on our current path, according to the UN’s analysis of the implementation of the Paris Agreement (2015), rather than having fallen by 2030, emissions will have risen 10.7% above 2016 levels. EVEN AS THE CLIMATE BATTERS THE LAND, SEA, AND AIR, IT ALSO ASSAULTS OUR CONSCIENCES —COLLECTIVELY, AT THE LEVEL OF GOVERNMENTS, INSTITUTIONS, AND COMPANIES, AND INDIVIDUALLY, AT THE LEVEL OF EVERY INHABITANT OF THE EARTH— AS WE ASK OURSELVES THE BIG QUESTION: “WHAT DO I DO, AND WHAT CAN I DO, TO HELP THE PLANET?” The goal continues to be to ensure that the average tem- perature of the planet in 2100 is no more than 1.5°C to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. “We are currently on track for 3 or 4 degrees, which is a very significant cli- mate change, and that means we don’t know exactly what kind of world we’ll be facing,” says Alejandro Caparrós, a researcher at the Institute of Public Goods and Policies of the Spanish Research Council (CSIS) and co-author —of the chapter on international cooper- ation— of the next report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For her part, Christiana Figueres —Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) from 2010 to 2016 and one of the architects of the Paris Agreement— warns, along with many sci- entific authorities, that if we don’t act fast enough, humanity will face an unprecedented level of destruc- tion that exceeds even that of the World Wars. It’s a grim picture, but there’s still time to avoid it. “If we can achieve carbon-neutrality by 2100, the known impacts won’t be reversed, but we will be able to halt even greater ones,” says María José Sanz, scientific director of the Basque Center of Climate Change (BC3). Read on for a discussion of the challenges facing us and possible solutions. D 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2018-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 20 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  47. 47. 21 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2118-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 21 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  48. 48. THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE The average global temperature has risen 1.1°C since the pre-industrial era. In the period from 2015 to 2019, it rose 0.2°C compared to 2011-2015. In the past five years, CO2 emission growth rates were 20% higher than in the previous five years, putting us on a path to the hottest five-year period on record. The last decade alone brought eight of the warmest years ever recorded globally, with 2016 setting a new high. The Arctic also experienced record heat, “with a 3-degree increase since 1990,” says María José Sanz. In fact, accord- ing to the 4th session of the UN Environment Assembly, winter temperatures in the Arctic are set to rise 3° to 5° by 2050. Furthermore, the IPCC’s latest report on global warming and the oceans warns that sea level rise is accel- erating and is now unstoppable due to the melting ice sheets in Greenland and the Antarctic, even if we comply with the Paris Agreement. Even with full compliance, sea levels are expected to rise 43 centimeters by 2100. If we do nothing, however, they will rise by 84 centimeters. There’s no need to stress how dire the consequences will be for a population that’s highly concentrated in coastal areas: almost 1.5 billion people live in the places at greatest risk. Ocean warming is also associated with an increase in extreme weather: storms, cyclones, and floods will occur more often in many of the planet’s regions, including the Mediterranean. 1 _Warming of Mother 22 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2218-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 22 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  49. 49. 23 The oceans absorb over 90% of the excess heat and roughly 25% of the carbon we emit each year, but the high levels of CO2 that remain in the water are chang- ing its acidity at great cost to the environment. Forests and jungles are the other terrestrial ecosystems that are capable of absorbing megatons of carbon emis- sions. This year alone, however, fires have ravaged the Amazon Forest, where the European Space Agency detected nearly 4,000 fires between the 1st and 24th of August. There have been 700,000 so far in 2019. Not only do forest fires reduce the absorption of CO2 , they also release it, along with other pollutants includ- ing particulate matter and toxic gases. According to the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), fires released 255 megatons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere between the 1st and 25th of August. Unprecedented wildfires have also raged across Sibe- ria and parts of the Arctic, Greenland, and Alaska. This poses another problem, as forests and wooded regions regulate rain and maintain the water cycle. 2_Burning lungs THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2318-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 23 15/11/19 13:3115/11/19 13:31
  50. 50. THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE 24 Every year the planet loses 24 billion tons of fertile land. Desertification encom- passes land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. According to the United Nations, 1.8 billion people will be living in areas with absolute water scarcity by 2025, and two-thirds of the population will lack sufficient water resources. Extreme heat waves, long droughts, poor harvests, and floods are already caus- ing an upsurge in migration. In just a quarter of a century, roughly 135 million people could be displaced by desertification. “Several studies —says Alejan- dro Caparrós— show that a significant portion of current African migration to Europe is due to climate change. Agricultural conditions are worsening in Africa, and they will continue to do so.” 3 _Crossing the desert: displaced by thirst 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2418-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 24 15/11/19 16:0815/11/19 16:08
  51. 51. THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE 25 “Humans can develop quick solutions that allow us to adapt, but other species can’t. There are already signs of rapid loss of biodiversity, and climate change has a lot to do with that,” warns Caparrós. “What would happen to species that live at high altitudes if the temperature there rose by 2°C?” Ocean warming, acidification, and oxygen loss take their toll. According to the IPCC, there will unques- tionably be an impact on fishing and communities in vulnerable areas. It also warns of the high risk to some marine species such as coral, which is being bleached due to rising acidity. “It’s highly likely that there’s almost nothing we can do to stop 80% of these organ- isms from disappearing,” says Caparrós. “And that will have consequences for ecosystems and, by extension, economies. We are more dependent on biodiversity than we think.” According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, 26,500 species are in danger of extinction. 4 _Biodiversity 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2518-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 25 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  52. 52. 26 WHAT SHOULD (AND, ABOVE ALL, WHAT CAN) WE DO? Decarbonization “Today, we are emitting 41 gigatons of CO2 . By 2030 we need to hit 20, the following decade we have to cut it to ten and then to five, which is how many gigatons the planet can absorb naturally. It’s not easy, because we’ve been doing the opposite, increasing emis- sions, for 50 years, but it’s entirely possible. And we have funds,” said Christiana Figueres in a recent interview in El País. Achieving this requires a complete transformation of the energy sector, to a model based on renewable sources. “60% to 70% of emissions come from the current model,” says María José Sanz. “There’s technology to do it and it’s not that expensive; in Europe and the USA, we can definitely afford it,” argues Caparrós. “It’s another story in poor and developing countries, which are also the least culpable, as their CO2 emissions are much lower. They will need some sort of compensation, and that’s where international cooperation is key.” How, and how fast? The IPCC estimates that the use of oil and gas must fall 20% by 2030, and 55% by 2050. And we need to forget about coal. The UN marked outthepathinNewYork:inadditiontotransitioningtocleanenergy,we musttransformindustriessuchasoilandgas,steel,chemicals,cement, andIT.Wealsoneednature-basedmeasuresandtomobilizepublicand private funding sources to decarbonize all priority sectors, as well as localactionwithafocusoneco-efficientbuildings,publictransportation, sustainableinfrastructure,andsmartcities.Allofthismustoccurwithin thecontextofafairtransitionthatdoesn’taddtoinequality. Countries must do their bit Almost 70 countries have pledged to review their emission plans for 2020, and 77 in the longer term —they have committed to reaching carbon-neutrality by 2050—. Furthermore, 12 will make contribu- tions to the Green Climate Fund, which finances projects in devel- oping countries. The contributors include Spain, which will pay 150 million euros into the fund over four years. European Commission president-elect Ursula von der Leyen hopes to launch a Green Deal to help coal-dependent countries like Poland. The EU estimates that 32% of all final energy consumption will come from renewable sources by the end of 2030, compared to 17% at present, and that at least 25% of its next budget will be allocated to fighting climate change. “Europe seems set to achieve compliance quickly. But it’s very important for that to happen in the USA and Brazil, and in Russia, China, and India, which haven’t been very ambitious in their commitments,” explains Caparrós. Together, the EU and these major nations are responsible for over 60% of global emissions. 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2618-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 26 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  54. 54. 28 THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE NATURE AS A SOLUTION The common good of private initiative Nature-based solutions capitalize on terrestrial ecosystems like for- ests, jungles and fertile land to capture CO2 and act as carbon sinks. That’s why reforestation, forestry, sustainable land use, and integrat- ed water management are vital. One of the proposals is the Great Green Wall for Cities, which will create 500,000 hectares of new urban forests in cities in the Sahel and Central Asia by 2030, in addition to protecting 300,000 hectares of existing forests. “These are very positive large-scale remedies which complement, but cannot replace, other more urgent measures such as changing the energy model,” says María José Sanz. “Their effect isn’t imme- diate. They are biological systems, which means they are also very vulnerable to climate change,” she explains. According to the UN, the green economy could create over 23 trillion euros worth of business opportunities by 2030. And a group of com- panies on the front line not only understand it, they’re championing it. At the last Climate Action Summit in New York, 87 major corporations —withdirectannualemissionsequivalentto73coal-firedpowerplants— pledged to achieve carbon-neutrality by 2050, and to align their busi- nesses with the sustainable economy. Days earlier, Amazon president andfounderJeffBezospledgedtoreachzeroemissionsby2040. In addition, 130 banks around the world have made a commitment, via the Principles for Responsible Banking, to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and complying with the Paris Agreement. Some 230 international investment funds with a combined USD 16 trillion in assets under management have asked the governments of Brazil and BoliviaforeffectivemeasurestostopdeforestationintheAmazon.They havealsowarnedbusinessesthatmaybecomplicitindeforestation. “The battle on climate change will be won by citizens, with their votes and their consumption decisions,” says Alejandro Caparrós. This phenomenon doubtless extends to engaging with companies that are part of the solution, not the problem. “Young people are making it crystal clear in the protests they are staging; they’re sending a mes- sage about the planet they want.” 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2818-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 28 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  55. 55. THE CLIMATE CHALLENGE 29 18-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 2918-29_ACCIONA_RETOS_CAMBIO_CLIMATICO_ENG.indd 29 14/11/19 17:5414/11/19 17:54
  56. 56. 30 Expedition to a Change of MindsetTheyarefemalescientists,engineers,mathematicians,doctors,biologists,sciencecommunicators…and expeditionersonatriptoAntarcticathatwillincreasefemaleleadershipinthefightagainstclimatechange. 30-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 3030-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 30 14/11/19 17:5214/11/19 17:52
  57. 57. 31 THEY HAVE SET OUT ON THE FOURTH EXPEDITION ORGANIZED BY THE PROGRAM HOMEWARD BOUND, A GLOBAL INITIATIVE FOR PROFESSIONALS IN STEMM FIELDS. THEIR MISSION: TO INCREASE WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND BUILD A NETWORK OF 1,000 WOMEN TO WORK ON JOINT PROJECTS. ON THEIR TRIP TO THE WHITE CONTINENT – SUPPORTED BY ACCIONA– THEY WILL OBSERVE THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING AND MEET THE SCIENTIFIC TEAMS TRYING TO MITIGATE THEM. SEVEN OF THE WOMEN TALK ABOUT TWO CHANGES: ONE IN THE CLIMATE, AND ONE IN MENTALITY. by Patricia Alcorta HILARY A. McMANUS_USA Associate Professor of Biological and Environmental Science. “It’s easy to become paralyzed by the enormity of the issue, not knowing where to start because we can’t entirely change the way we are living overnight.” “We need action at the individual level, the community level, and globally; an all- hands-on-deck approach and a drastic shift away from conducting business as usual. Investment in solutions is a must, as is shifting funds from the fossil fuel industry to ecosystem restoration, green energy technology, regenerative agricul- ture, and research.” “Understanding species diversity and the roles individual organisms play in our ecosystems is integral to the devel- opment of conservation policies. As an educator, I guide young adults in gaining an appreciation for the role humans play in environmental degradation. We connect the dots between environmental health, social justice, and human health.” “I imagine a world in which there is equal representation at the leadership table, that’s thriving because collaborative, inclusive leadership challenged the statu quo and made decisions that considered the health of the planet.” ••• NATALIE UNTERSTELL_Brazil Co-founder of Talanoa, a climate change adaptation think-and-do tank. Firms, governments, and billions of people around the world have much to gain from low-carbon consumption and technolo- gies, yet risk-management is precarious in many societies.” “TheFourthIndustrialRevolution,drivenby artificialintelligence,istransformingevery- one’slivesinthismuchwarmerworld.Itis concerning,butitalsomakesmehopeful thatthistransformationwillbetowards aresilientandzero-carbonfutureforall, especiallythemostvulnerable.” “The traditional model of leadership reflects a fixed mindset. It ignores nature’s carrying capacity, taking for granted that the Earth will take care of negative externalities. A new leader- ship model with an adaptive mindset is required, one that enables action as opposed to reaction.” “Heat waves in Río de Janeiro, droughts and extreme flooding in the Amazon, which risks becoming a savannah... Cli- mate change is accelerating. We need the public and private sectors moving at the right pace.” A photo from the 2018 expedition. This year is the fourth of ten that Homeward Bound plans to organize. 100 women from 33 different countries are taking part. 30-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 3130-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 31 14/11/19 17:5214/11/19 17:52
  58. 58. 32 From left to right: HILARY A. McMANUS NATALIE UNTERSTELL MARGA GUAL MÓNICA ARAYA SANDRA GUZMÁN LINH DO LINH DO_Australia Asia and Pacific Lead, Climate Reality Projecta. “We have the technological know-how to have a just transition towards renewable energy. We know how economic systems could be adapted. We must act and rec- ognize that we’re here on this planet as guests and not owners.” “It’s such an enormous issue that peo- ple go through different emotional and rational states as they process it, from denial to grief to paralysis, where many end up stuck. The first step in any journey is always the hardest.” “It’s a long-term problem; something that happened decades ago can have directly correlated impacts in the future. Citizens are well and truly aware, but our current leadership is confined to local institutions and short electoral cycles that don’t fac- tor in these broad timelines. The private sector is not averse to moving, but with- out the necessary government policies, changes don’t occur fast enough.” MARGA GUAL SOLER_Spain Expert on Scientific Diplomacy and Scientific Policy Advisor to the European Commission. “It’s been demonstrated that diverse work teams make better decisions and find more creative solutions to major challenges. The participation of women is good for the planet!” “After completing my PhD in biology, I swapped my lab for the UN. There, I became aware of the deep divide between the scientific and diplomatic communities, and I decided to devote my career to building bridges between them. Collaborative, inclusive, science-based diplomacy is needed to align govern- ments, academia, the private sector, NGOs and civil society, and national and global interests, so that we can tackle challenges together.” “In 2090 the Iberian Peninsula could look like the Sahara. The Mediterranean, where I am from, is highly vulnerable due to population concentration in coastal areas and impacts on the agricultural, industrial, tourism and maritime sectors. But more and more governments are declaring a climate emergency and pass- ing legislation, and companies are moving toward a business model based on sus- tainability, the energy transition, and the Sustainable Development Goals.” ••• MÓNICA ARAYA_Costa Rica Founder of Costa Rica Limpia, an NGO that fosters renewable energy and e-Mobility “We are distracted, we’ve forgotten our natural world. We need to return to the basics, to reconnect with nature.” “I’m an economist with environmental management training, and I became a sustainability ‘translator’ when I dis- covered the power of stories. I want to inspire others to engage in concrete actions. I love when someone says that something I wrote moved them to action.” “All of Latin America is highly vulnerable to the climate impacts that are harming our gorgeous ecosystems, and we are losing species. But my country, Costa Rica, is not the problem. We have a decarbonization plan up to 2050, over 98% of our electricity comes from renewables, and we have stopped deforestation while growing the econo- my and the population.” “One of the first measures I would take is to end fossil fuel subsidies. It’s unacceptable to use public money to subsidize energy sources that warm the planet.” SANDRA GUZMÁN_Mexico Social Scientist and climate activist. “Apathy is the main cause of inaction.” “It’snotpossibletogovernanemptyworld. Andthere’snoroomforeconomicgrowth withoutenvironmentaljustice.Society needstoprepareforanewformofdemoc- racy,becausegovernmentscan’tendthe climatecrisiswithouttheparticipationofa largernumberofstakeholders.Theyhave anobligationtoestablishtherightcondi- tionsforaction.” “We need a model that eschews self-in- terest, that seeks the common good and not the good of a few, that’s driven by a sense of community. If humanity isn’t able to collaborate, we will lead our race to extinction.” “Some political leaders are becoming aware and trying to change our path, but others only see what they want to see, not what is really happening. They live in their bubbles, obstructing action and denying climate change.” Scientii sstts sst takkinnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg pppppppppaaaaaaarrrrrttriiiinnnnnntttthhhheee eeeeeeeeeeeeexxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxeeepeditio n• 30-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 3230-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 32 14/11/19 17:5214/11/19 17:52
  59. 59. 33 MUSIMBI KANYORO_Kenia Human rights advocate and President of the Global Fund for Women. “Greed, nearsightedness, stupidity, selfishness... these are the causes of inaction. Those in power and those who pollute the most are all too content with their immediate benefits. They refuse to make changes that they will not profit from in their lifetime. But the young voices that are now being heard will change the future.” “Anewgenerationofleadershipis emergingamongpeoplewholack authority,youth,boysandgirls,with thenewstrengthofwomenandthe indigenouscommunitiesthathave beenonthefrontlineforyearsdefen- dingourforests,riversandland.” “Social movements are more effective than individuals in bringing about change. But we still need good individual leaders everywhe- re: in organizations, businesses, reli- gious institutions and governments. In the face of the climate challenge, we are all needed; there is never a reason to exclude anyone.” “Andpleaserememberthatpeople inruralareas,thepoorandthose whohavenotbeeneducatedwith Westernbooksarenotfools.Not includingthemindecisionsisdetri- mentaltohumandevelopment.” “ I N T H E FAC E O F T H E C L I M AT E C H A L L E N G E , W E A R E A L L N E E D E D. A N D P L E AS E R E M E M B E R T H AT P E O P L E I N R U R A L A R E AS A N D T H E P O O R A R E N OT FO O L S ; N OT I N C LU D I N G T H E M I N D E C I S I O N S I S D E T R I M E N TA L TO H U M A N D E V E LO P M E N T ” Musimbi Kanyoro The expedition will visit various sites in the Antarctic to observe the effects of climate change on biodiversity, glacial retreat, ice distribu- tion, and the decline in precipitation. Speciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaallllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll ggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggguuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuueeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeessssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssttttttttttttttttttttttt ooooooooooooooooooooooonnnnnntttttttttttttttttttttttttthhhhhhhheeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeexxxxxx ppppppppedition • 30-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 3330-33_Especial_EXPEDICION_MUJERES_CIENTIFICAS_ENG.indd 33 14/11/19 17:5214/11/19 17:52
  61. 61. ASUSTAINABLE FUTURE? 1994 Spain’sfirstwindfarm ConstructionofthefirstphaseofElPerdónwindfarm(Navarra),witha capacityof20MW,whichwaslaterincorporatedintoACCIONA’sEnergy Division.ApioneeringfacilityinSpain,itmarkedthebeginningofaperiodof enormousdevelopmentinthemanufactureofwindgenerationequipment. Injust10years,Spain’sinstalledwindcapacitygrewto8,440MW.Today,it is23,484MW.Intheyear2000,theglobalenergymixwasstillamonopoly ofoil,gasandcoal.25gigatonsofCO2 wereemittedeachyear.Withrespect totheUSAandEurope,Chinastillplayedasecondaryroleintermsofemis- sions,andrenewableenergywasanemergingphenomenonlimitedtoEuro- peandNorthAmerica. 2016 Nomorethan2ºCelsius TheaimoftheParisAgreement:ensurethattheincreaseinglobaltem- peratureswithrespecttopre-industrialtimesdoesnotexceedthislimit. However,theagreementstillhasnotbeenfullyimplementedanditsfiner detailscontinuetobediscussedinthesessionsoftheCOP. 2019 Majorcitiesbattling climatechange ClimateLeadershipGroupMayorsSummit.ThemajorcitiesoftheWest react.30ofthe94citiesinthisgrouparealreadycuttingtheiremissions, includingMadridandBarcelona.Copenhagenistheworldleader.82have implementedbikerentalschemes(comparedto13in2009),theyhave acombinedtotalofover66,000electricbuses(100tenyearsago),and 18havebannedorrestrictednon-recyclableorsingle-useplastic(2had donesoonedecadeago). Polluterspay TheWorldBankestimatesthatjust20%ofemissionstodayare subjecttoaCO2pricingmechanism;it’sstillcheaptopollute. Moreover,theIMFinsiststhatsuchpricingisthemostpowerfultoolin theenergytransition’sarsenal.Itsrecommendation,ifwewanttocut emissionstothelevelrequiredbytheclimateemergency:75dollars pertonofCO2 by2030.Today,theglobalaverageis2dollars. 2040 Electricflighttakesoff Today,airtrafficisresponsiblefor2.6%ofallCO2 emissions. Althoughit’sstillinitsinfancy,electricflightpresentsan alternative.Norwayplansforallofitsdomesticflightstobe poweredbyelectricityby2040.Beforethen,wecouldsee helicoptersasmobilitysolutionsinlargemetropolitanareas suchasLondonandLosAngeles. 2010 Artificialintelligenceandbigdata inenergymanagement Anexampleofapplicationatthegloballevel:ACCIONA’sRenewableEnergy ControlCenter(CECOER),operationalsince2007.Itsbraincaptures, analyzesandprocessesdatafrom400renewableenergyfacilitiesin 19countries,andmanagesitinrealtime.Itinstantlyimplementsthe instructionsitreceivesfromtheSystemOperator,enablingaleapforward inoperationandmaintenanceaswellasimprovedproduction. 2018 Certifiedgreenenergy Progressiveincreaseinenvironmentalawareness.Totalreliabilityand competitivenessofrenewableenergy.Increaseddemandforclean energyfromcompanies.ThankstoitsGreenchainproject,ACCIONAisthe firstcompanytouseblockchaintocertifythetraceabilityofthepower fedintothegrid,whichis100%renewable. 2020 Cheaperthanconventionalpower Thetechnologicalrevolutioninrenewableenergyhasenabledadrastic reductionincosts:70%inwindand89%inPVsolarincomparisonto2010 .AccordingtoBNEF,it’snowcheapertoopenanewrenewablefacility thantostartupafossilfuelplantintheUSA,China,BrazilandAustralia, whicharehometoover2/3oftheworld’spopulation. 2023 Aqualitativeleap instorage Itisexpectedthatwithinthenextfouryearswewillbe abletocompensateforoneofthemainshortfallsof renewablesources:theirintermittence.Thiswillimprove large-scalesupplycontinuity.AccordingtoIHSMarkit, annualbatteryenergystorageinstallationswentfrom lessthan500MWin2014to3.5GWin2018,anumber whichwillhavedoubledby2020,andagainby2023. 2025 Fossilfuelgluttony Themostoptimisticthinktanksexpectglobaldemandtopeakoverthe nextdecade.ShellSkyScenarioexpectsittohappenin2025,andDNVGl andMcKinseyin2028.Moreconservativeprojectionsexpectfossilfuel demandtocontinuetogrowuntil2040.Expertsbelieveitisessentialfor ittogrindtoahaltifwearetoachievethetargetof2ºC. 2030 Oneineverythreevehicles, electric? Electricvehiclesareoneofthekeystotheplanet’ssustainabilityin general,andforgrowingurbanareasinparticular.Promisingprojections: 30%oftheworld’svehicleswillbeelectricby2030.Deloitteestimatesa valueof33%by2050.Zero-emissionmobilitywillbeshapedbyimproved batterytechnologyandbyeverycarpotentiallyservingasanenergy storageanddistributionmicronetworknode. 2050 Aneconomythat’sfinally decarbonized? TheUNwarnsthattheworldmustachievenet-zeroemissions: emissionsaslowaspossiblethatareoffsetbytheplantingof forestsorbycarboncaptureandstoragetechnologies.Atthelast ClimateSummitinNewYork,77countriespledgedtoachievethis by2050.TheEUaspirestoleadthisenergytransitionprocess. Oneexample:theGreenNewDealproposedbytheEuropean Commission’spresident-elect,UrsulavonderLeyen. 19countries,andmanagesitinrealtime.Itinstan instructionsitreceivesfromtheSystemOperator,ena inoperationandmaintenanceaswellasim CCCCCCeeeerrtttttttiiiiiiiiififififififififieeeddddggggrreeee Progressiveincreaseinenvironmentalawareness competitivenessofrenewableenergy.Increase fiThktitGhioj lsius hattheincreaseinglobaltem-ensureth ustrialtim notbeen ntheses tlliinnnggggg sSummit.ThemajorcitiesoftheWest ldttithiii hattheincreaseinglobaltem mesdoesnotexceedthislimit. nfullyimplementedanditsfiner ssionsoftheCOP. andMcKinseyin2028.Moreconservativeprojectionsexpectfossilfu demandtocontinuetogrowuntil2040.Expertsbelieveitisessentialf ittogrinddtotaahhhhalalalalalalaattttififwwearetoachievethetargetof2º Oneineverythreevehicles electric Artificialintelligenceandb inenergymanag TextbyTomásLópezMorales ygp( oonedecadeago). DESPEGABLE_NUEVO_ENG.indd26DESPEGABLE_NUEVO_ENG.indd2614/11/1916:3214/11/1916:32