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Pidgins and creoles


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this slides show about the origin of ancient language i term sociolinguistics.

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Pidgins and creoles

  2. 2. definition
  3. 3. PIDGIN  A pidgin is a language with no native speakers: it is no one’s first language but is a contact language.
  4. 4. Based on KBBI (2008) pidgin (pijin)adalah pemakaian dua bahasa atau lebih yang dipermudah sebagai alat komunikasi antara pendatang dengan penduduk asli.
  5. 5. PIDGIN  The process of pidginization probabaly requires a situation that involves at least three languages, one of which is clearly dominant over others.
  6. 6. creole  A creole is often define as a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speakers.
  7. 7.  Contoh kalimat sehari-hari bahasa kreol Portugis Tugu di kampung Tugu. · Yo kere ning kere. ‘Saya suka atau tidak suka.’ · Santai! ‘Duduklah!’ · Parki bas cura? ‘Mengapa engkau menangis?’ · Anda undi bas? ‘Akan ke mana engkau?’ · Yo nungku catu ‘Saya tidak bingung.’ · Yo ja sabe. ‘Saya belum tahu.’
  9. 9.  Pidgin and creole languages are distributed mainly, though not exclusively, in the equatorial belt around the world, usually in places with direct or easy access to the ocean
  10. 10.  The Caribbean area is of particular interest to creolists because of the many varieties of language found there.
  12. 12. Phonology The sounds of a pidgin or creole are likely to be fewer and less complicated than those of related languages — Tok Pisin has only five basic vowels, unlike the dozen or so found in English Morphology • Pidgins have very little morphophonemic variation, that is, the type of variation found in the final sounds in Cats and boxes • In pidgins and creoles, there is almost a complete lack of inflection in nouns, pronouns, verbs,
  13. 13. • Noun – are not marked for number and gender Pronoun – will not be distinguished for case, so there will be no I - Me, he - him. - In Tok Pisin me is either I or me - Yumi ( I and you) - em ( he, she, it ) - ol ( they or them) - wanpela man ( one man) Verb Go – went good – better
  14. 14. Syntax Sentences are likely to be uncomplicated in clausal structures. It’s quiet different standart language. This usually includes a continuous marker of some sort, cf. de in English based creoles, ape in French-based creoles, and ka in Portuguese-based creoles. a de go wok ‘I’m going to work’ Krio i pa tro difisil ‘its not to difficult’ Louisiana French e ka nda ‘He’s going’ St. Thomas
  15. 15. Vocabulary The vocabulary is quite similar to the standard language with which it is associated, although there may be considerable morphological and phonological simplification. • Reduplication is often used to indicate, among other things, habituality, and so on. dry– drydry (unpalatable) san (sun) – sansan (sand) talk – talktalk (chatter) • Pidgins and creoles often draw their vocabulary from more than one language.
  16. 16. The Origin
  17. 17. Etymology & Terminology  Etymology The origin of the word pidgin is uncertain. Pidgin first appeared in print in 1850. The most widely accepted etymology is from the Chinese pronunciation of the English word business.  Terminology The word pidgin, formerly also spelled pigion, originally used to refer to Chinese pidgin English, Pidgin may also be used as the specific name for local pidgins or creole, For example, the name of the creole language Tok Pisin derives from the English words talk pidgin.
  18. 18. Why did pidgins arise ? Because the people among whom they are found lack the ability to learn the standard languages with which the pidgins are associated. Who did use pidgins ? Pidgins are far less frequently used between Europeans and non- Europeans than among non- Europeans. Background
  19. 19. Theories of origin 1. The baby-talk theory 2. Independent parallel development theory 3. Nautical jargon theory 4. Relexification theory 5. Universalist theory
  20. 20. The baby-talk theory There were many similarities with the speech of children such as the following features: 1. High percentage of content words and low number of function words 2. Little morphological marking 3. Word classes more flexible (free conversion)
  21. 21. Independent parallel development theory  This view maintains that the obvious similarities between the world’s pidgins and creoles arose on independent but parallel lines.
  22. 22. Nautical jargon theory  As early as 1938 the American linguist John Reinecke noted the possible influence of nautical jargon on pidgins.  It is obvious that on many of the original journey of discovery to the developing world many nationalities were represented among the crews of the ships.
  23. 23. Relexification theory  the grammatical structure of pidgins would not have been effected by the switch in vocabulary  Lingua franca was used to communicate among the Crusaders and traders in the Mediterranean area.
  24. 24. Universalist theory  This is the most recent view on the origin of pidgins and has elements in common with the other theories. However, the distinguishing mark of this theory is that it sees the similarities as due to universal tendencies among humans to create languages of a similar type.
  25. 25. Other theories 1. Polygenesis theory Pidgins and creoles have a variety of origin; any similarities among them arise from the shared circumstances of their origins. 1. Monogenetic theory The similarities can be accounted, contact language provided the development across atlantic. 1. Relexification theory Attempt to offer such an explanation, a lingua franca called Sabir used n the Mediterranean n the Middle Ages