Bosch future trends of batteries

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Bosch future trends of batteries

  1. 1. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Dr.-Ing. Horst Muenzel Bosch Research and Technology Center, Palo Alto Baden-Wuerttemberg Forum “E-Mobility” Stanford University October 24, 2011 Research and Technology Center North America1 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Outline  Market Trend and Portfolio for e-mobility  The Battery System is a Key Component  Battery Technology Challenges and Trends  Conclusions Research and Technology Center North America2 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Market for electric-powered vehicles will grow long-term Total market: Total market: 70 M 82 M 103 M 20 19.2 3 -10 units 3.0 15 Units [Million vehicles] and Units [million vehicles] 6.0 EV and PHEV 10 9.4 0.3 Hybrid vehicles (HEV) 1.9 1,9 4.8 Other (FlexFuel, CNG, LPG) 5 0.6 0.002 4.2 7.2 10.2 0 2008 2012 2020*) *) Estimated total production Research and Technology Center North America3 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Our view for 2050  “The future belongs to e-mobility. By 2050 2% or less of power trains will be internal combustion engines” Dr. Bernd Bohr, Robert Bosch Chairman of the Automotive Technology Business Sector 2011 Research and Technology Center North America4 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Bosch is involved in many areas of e-Mobility E-Machines and Battery of SBLimotive Navigation Systems Charger EV and PHEV Power Electronics for A Joint Company of Hybrids and EV Samsung and Bosch Power Train for E-Bikes ABS, ESP, Break-Booster Software for Infra- structure Integration Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles FUTURE Hydraulic Hybrid Systems Starter and Generators Research and Advanced & Industrial Drives for Start/Stop Systems Engineering for future Electric Vehicle Concepts Research and Technology Center North America5 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Battery tailoring for electrified vehicle segments Mild Hybrid Strong Hybrid Plug-In Hybrid Electric VehicleBattery type Medium Power High Power High Energy Power 5 kW – 15 kW 20 kW – 60 kW 40 kW – 80 kW 15 kW – 150 kW Energy 0.6 kWh – 1.8 kWh 5 kWh – 15 kWh > 15 kWh Cell size 5 Ah 20 Ah – 40 Ah 40 Ah – 66 Ah Power Energy Typical car segments: Dedicated battery cells and systems for each vehicle segment required Research and Technology Center North America6 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Battery System Design: Scalable, flexible, modular Cell Subunit Battery System Module Research and Technology Center North America7 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Integrated Engineering along the Value Stream Chemistry Cell Battery System Automotive Integration Aftermarket • Materials for Anode • Electrode- & cell Pack manufacturing: • Layout of electrical system • Spare part supply/logistics Separator, Electrolyte, manufacturing • Thermal Management • Expertise in system tailoring • Diagnostics (software/test Cathode • Prismatic cell design • Electrical components • Strong validation equipment) • Housing • Vehicle integration • Repair & maintenance • Battery assembly • Training for automotive workshops Features  Safe materials  High quality manufacturing  Flexible construction kit  Common specification  Worldwide network  Ceramic layer to prevent  Safety proved cell-design based on modular concept  Aligned system quotations  High quality spare parts inner short circuits  Balancing of electrodes for different customers & • Electrical machine and diagnostics  Shut down function  Clean room conditions applications • Power electronics  Original equipment of separator  Packaging optimized w/ • Battery know-how in all  Flame retardant additives reduced weight & size  Common customer automotive technologies  Active materials with  Lifetime optimized cell approach improved inherent stability bracing, integration of automotive qualified materials & parts  Serviceability Research and Technology Center North America8 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Hardware and Software Integration is important Cells & Modules Cooling System BMS Hardware BMS Software Pack High Power Internal liquid Battery State of Charge Cells/Modules cooling system Management ECU and Health Monitor Cooling System High Energy SCS Units, Safety & Fuse Box Safety Functions Valve, Pump & BMS HW&SW Chiller, Heater Thermo- Wiring harness Relays, Fuses, management Safety plug, Interface to vehicle Degassing Sensors, Cell refrigerant circuit, structure-plugs monitoring or environment Communication & Balancing & OBD System Housing and external interfaces Products & Engineering Services Engineering Services Research and Technology Center North America9 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Battery Research and Development Challenges  A Li-ion battery is a complex chemical and physical system. Optimization takes long and is difficult.  The specific energy needs to be increased to improve the range of the vehicle.  The lifetime of automotive batteries needs to be verified.  The cost needs to be reduced to increase market penetration and customer acceptance. Research and Technology Center North America10 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Example: Li-ion battery cell cross section Cathode materials Li(Ni,Co,Mn)O2, LiFePO4, HV-NCM Anode materials Graphite, soft carbon, hard carbon, Si and Sn alloys Binder & Solvents PVDF variants, NMP, acetone, MEK, DMSO Electrolytes EC, PC, DMC, DEC, EMC, DME, THF, mixtures Conducting salt LiPF6, new salts e.g. LiBOB, LiBF4 Additives SEI improver e.g. VC, overcharge protection, Al- corrosion inhibitor, wetting agents Separator PE, PP, PET, inorganic composite, other Packaging Coating, drying, sealing, process control Cell formationSources: Tiax, Exponent Research and Technology Center North America11 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Challenge: Specific energy needs to be increased Target window 350 for full range EV Tesla Roadster 300 250 Vehicle range (km) 200 150 BMW Mini E 100 50 GM Volt (electric range only) 0 0 100 200 300 400 Battery system weight (kg) Research and Technology Center North America12 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility New Battery Cell Designs: Research ongoingSpecific energy (Wh/kg) Achieved Technology change; need to overcome fundamental barriers Future 800 800 Potential 700 700 600 600 500 Shift to advanced Li-ion 500 anodes and cathodes 400 400 300 300 200 200 100 100 0 0 Lead NiMH Li-Ion Li/Sulfur Li/Air Acid Research and Technology Center North America13 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Li/air research in early stages, but rapid progress Top research challenges  Demonstrate excellent chemical reversibility.  Achieve a high practical capacity.  Determine if it’s necessary to separate oxygen from air; if so, find a way to do so.  Achieve a high energy efficiency.  Accommodate volume changes.  … Research and Technology Center North America14 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Challenge: Lifetime needs to be verified  Complex aging mechanisms  Carefully designed experiments and modeling required for lifetime predictions  Some examples: Aging of standard CE battery cells at Particles can lead to fracture and different temperatures subsequent battery cell capacity loss Li+ Research and Technology Center North America15 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Example: Advanced simulations to predict cell behaviour Goal: Battery performance simulation to determine Goal: temperature distributions within cells Prediction of critical thermal reactions SIMULATED CELL CAN T SIMULATED JELLYROLL T EXPERIMENTAL INFRARED CAN T Model can be used to improve cooling strategy and to improve cell design for longer lifetime Research and Technology Center North America16 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Challenge: Cost of Li-ion batteries needs to be reduced Energy per mass Cost per energy (Wh/kg) ($/kWh) Today’s values: 75 to 130 750 (battery system) (battery system) Nissan Leaf 24 kWh, 150 km range $18k pack (small passenger car) Tesla Roadster 53 kWh, 400 km range $35k pack (performance car) Research and Technology Center North America17 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Cost Trend Battery system cost ($/kWh) 750 750 At this price a 25 kWh pack (150 km range) would cost about $7500 500 500 250 250 Increasing production, increasing energy per mass / volume 0 0 2011 2015 2020Sources: Tiax, Institute of Information Technology, SB Limotive Research and Technology Center North America18 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Future Trends of Batteries for E-Mobility Conclusions  The market for electric powered vehicles grows significantly. However internal combustion engines will still dominate the market for many years.  The battery is the key component in electrical vehicles and is a complex system with many subcomponents.  Batteries for HEV and PHEV have reached series production status. First EV-solutions with limited driving range are enabled by batteries.  Among the top R+D Challenges of batteries are the increase in specific energy, cost reduction, safety aspects and lifetime verification  Li/S and Li/air battery systems are in research focus. They may offer a longer range and lower cost in future. Research and Technology Center North America19 CR/RTC-NA | 10/1/2011 | © 2011 Robert Bosch LLC and affiliates. All rights reserved.

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