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Taxonomy 101


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Presentation given on March 12, 2013 by Marjorie M.K. Hlava of Access Innovations, Inc. as a webinar for the San Francisco chapter of the Special Libraries Association.

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Taxonomy 101

  1. 1. Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-998-0800 Marjorie M.K. Hlava President and Chief Scientist Access Innovations, Inc.Taxonomy 101
  2. 2. Overview of the Presentation Why build a taxonomy? What is a taxonomy? What are the standards? Where are taxonomies used? What are the parts of a taxonomy? How do you build one? How do you implement one? Review
  3. 3. Why build a taxonomy? Leverage your data Search, precision, and recall Websites Discoverability and findability Data mashups Data trends and visualization Repackaging and repurposing data Author and entity disambiguation
  4. 4. Heart of the Big Dataproduction process
  5. 5. Taxonomy
  6. 6. From theproduction sideto the websitedisplay carry thetaxonomydescriptors foruse in precisionsearch
  7. 7. What is a Taxonomy? ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 controlled“A collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a Yes! hierarchical structure.”Missing:equivalence, homographic, and associative relationshipsand notes Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  8. 8. A taxonomy is a knowledge organization system Uncontrolled list Not complex Name authority file Synonym set/ring Controlled vocabulary Taxonomy Thesaurus Ontology Semantic network Highly complex Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  9. 9. A Thesaurus is a Knowledge Organization System Controlled vocabulary KOS Focus on conceptual classes, not specifics Hierarchy – implicit if not displayed  Parent-child relationships Various display formats may be available Network of relationships between terms guides user to find information Long  Cousins, friends, aliases Scope notes, term history established More elaborate and informative standards Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  10. 10. Thesaurus defined – ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005“A controlled vocabulary arranged in a known order and structured so that the various [equivalence, homographic, hierarchical, and associative] relationships among terms are displayed clearly and identified by standardized relationship indicators. Relationship indicators should be employed reciprocally.“Its purpose is to promote consistency in the indexing of content objects, especially for postcoordinated information storage and retrieval systems, and to facilitate browsing and searching by linking entry terms with terms. Thesauri may also facilitate the retrieval of content objects in free text searching.” Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  11. 11. Structure of controlled vocabulariesLists Synonyms Taxonomy Thesaurus Ontology INCREASING COMPLEXITY and CONTROLAmbiguity Ambiguity Ambiguity Synonym Synonym Synonym Hierarchy Hierarchy Hierarchy Relationships Additional kinds of relationships Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  12. 12. Taxonomy? Thesaurus? Often used interchangeably Thesaurus is a taxonomy with extras  Related Terms  Non-preferred Terms (USE/Used for)  Scope Notes  more Use the word your audience understands  Avoid confusion with Roget’s Thesaurus Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  13. 13. Where can I get taxonomy standards?  Z39.19 (2010) Controlled Vocabularies www.ISO.ce  ISO 25964 parts 1 and 2
  14. 14. Web Ontology Language OWL W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004 Continuing updates Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  15. 15. Taxonomy Thesaurus view Term Record view Copyright © 2005 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  16. 16. Where are taxonomies used?• In “indexing” or categorizing, as subject metadata• In search• In content management systems• In SharePoint• In mashups• In social networking sites• In author tagging• In filtering data – e.g., spam filters and RSS feeds• In web crawlers
  17. 17. Why the excitement? Makes information findable!  Cut search time by 50% - The Weather Channel Organizes web sites Provides better online help  Customer support 30x more costly than web self-service (Forrester Research "Tier Zero Customer Support" 1999)
  18. 18. Taxonomies in business“The High Cost of Not Finding Information” Time wasted searching Confusion about same information by different name Similar/overlapping activities, products, uses (Susan Feldman, KMWorld, March 2004)With a unified taxonomy and consistent indexing: Better searching or browsing to locate information More efficient content management Focused content collection through web spidering Personalized content delivery Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  19. 19. Good Search must have…metadata Inverted Searchable Index File Index TaxonomyHierarchical Display Thesaurus Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  20. 20. Metadata The fields The elements  Class codes  Title  Author  Plaintiff  Product  subject / topic Meta Name Keywords in HTML Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  21. 21. Copyright © 2005 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  22. 22. Basic taxonomy / thesaurus features• Hierarchy structure – Broader Terms = more general concepts – Narrower Terms = more specific concepts• Related Terms = conceptual cousins• Term equivalents = synonyms• Classification options• Scope notes• Other elements as needed Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  23. 23. What are the parts? The term record = subject term, heading, node, category, descriptor, class Main Term (MT) Top Term (TT) TAXONOMY Broader Terms (BT) Narrower Terms (NT) ONTOLOGY Related Terms (RT) THESAURUS  See also (SA) Non-Preferred Term (NP)  Used for (UF), See (S) Scope Note (SN) History (H) Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  24. 24. How do you build one? From scratch? Adoption of existing  Term registries  Taxonomy Warehouse  Other resources Combination
  25. 25. Define subject field Review representative collection of content Determine:  Core areas  Peripheral topics Sociology Psychology Education Law  Scope can be modified later Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  26. 26. Before you go on: Build or buy?• Survey existing thesaurus/taxonomy resources for your domain• Test for – Scope – Depth • Make-or-break terms – Cost Don’t reinvent the wheel! Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  27. 27. Build a taxonomy – simple steps• Get paper and pencil – Sharpen pencil• Define subject field• Collect terms• Organize terms• Fill in gaps• Flesh out and interrelate terms You’re done! Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  28. 28. Your taxonomy / thesaurus end product• Reflects – scope of your concern – degree of precision you need• Facilitates – data storage and retrieval by vocabulary control – discovery of ideas• Promotes learning – preferred terminology – relationships among concepts – organized guide to your field Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  29. 29. How do you choose terms? Importance in the subject area Use in the literature, by the organization or community Necessary degree of specificity or detail Relationship with other controlled vocabularies Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  30. 30. Vocabulary control – why?“Eliminating ambiguity and compensating for synonymy through vocabulary control assures that each term has only one meaning and that only one term can be used to represent a given concept or entity. … Ambiguity occurs in natural language when a word or phrase (a homograph or polyseme) has more than one meaning. ” (ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005) Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  31. 31. One term / one concept “Terms in a thesaurus should represent simple or unitary concepts…” (ISO standard) “Each term included in a controlled vocabulary should represent a single concept (or unit of thought). A single concept is frequently expressed by a single-word term but in many cases a multiword term is required to represent the concept.” (ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005) Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  32. 32. Vocabulary control – how? Use unambiguous terms, clear to the user group Distinguish between terms that appear similar Use Scope Notes when necessary Use terms as elements that can be coordinated in a flexible manner Create compound terms if necessary Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  33. 33. A “term” synonym ring TermDescriptor Node Category Subject heading Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  34. 34. So what’s a concept?• “A unit of thought, formed by mentally combining some or all of the characteristics of a concrete or abstract, real or imaginary object. Concepts exist in the mind as abstract entities independent of terms used to express them.”• Three main categories – Abstract concepts – Concrete entities – Proper nouns Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  35. 35. Concrete entities as terms• Things and their physical parts – primates • head – buildings • floors• Materials – cement – wood – lead Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  36. 36. Abstract concepts as terms• Actions and events – evolution, skating, management, ceremonies• Abstract entities – law, theory• Properties of things, materials, and actions – strength, efficiency• Disciplines and sciences – physics, meteorology, mathematics• Units of measurement – pounds, kilograms, miles, meters, nanoseconds Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  37. 37. Proper nouns as terms Individual entities – “classes of one” – expressed as proper nouns  San Francisco, Lake Michigan Thesaurus standards exclude proper names, persons, and trade names  authority files. Taxonomies include them as final nodes. Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  38. 38. Collect terms Your documents and databases Departmental terminology Text books and their indexes Book tables of contents and indexes Journal quarterly indexes Encyclopedias Lexicons, glossaries on the topic Web resources Users and experts Search logs Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  39. 39. Gather terms from search logs“Beyond the Spider: The Accidental Thesaurus” (Richard Wiggins in Information Today, Oct 2002)Top ~100 search terms from search logsMatch to web site with appropriate answerBasis for favorites or best bets, presented at the top of results list.(AKA behavior-based taxonomy)Not a thesaurus or taxonomy, but still a useful source of terms. Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  40. 40. Organize terms – roughly Sort terms into several major categories – logical groups of similar concepts as Top Terms  Identify core areas and peripheral topics  10 – 20 to start  Consider moving proper names to authority files Result: loose collection of terms under several main headings  Rough and tentative – see how it fits as you go  Initial gap analysis  Add / modify / delete as needed Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  41. 41. Usefulness of a term – the “duh” factor• Some terms are so basic for a domain that they have little or no value – “Sports” in Sports Illustrated – “Technology” in Technology Review – “Golf” in Golf Magazine – “Information science” and “Information technology”• How useful will the term be for indexing? – Does the term apply to everything in the domain? – Does the term distinguish important concepts? – If term is needed, specify limited use conditions in Scope Note Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  42. 42. Hierarchy structures – variations on a theme• Not pre-determined – Subcategorize wines first by type, variety, region, then cost? Or first by cost and then type?• Varies by user group and needs – May have multiple views of same content – Standard alpha view or customized notation• Affects information architecture, i.e., how web site functions Copyright © 2005 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  43. 43. How do terms relate? Hierarchical relationships -- Parents and their children TAXONOMY Equivalence relationships THESAURUS -- Aliases Associative relationships -- Cousins Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  44. 44. Hierarchical relationships Broader Term represents the class, whole, or genus Narrower Term is a member, part, or species  Generic relationship  Whole-part relationship  Instance relationship BTs/NTs have a reciprocal relationship Hyponym - Hypernym Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  45. 45. Broader to Narrower TermsPolitics Elections Presidential elections Gubernatorial elections Mayoral elections Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  46. 46. Hierarchy – Generic (genus-species) relationship Inheritance or inclusion – what’s true of the parent (BT) is true for all children (NTs) Applies to entities, actions, properties, agents – not just biological taxonomiesValue Thinking Heat treatmentCultural value Contemplation AnnealingEconomic value Divergent thinking DecarburizationMoral value Lateral thinking HardeningSocial value Reasoning Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc. Tempering
  47. 47. Generic relationship test – 1• Both terms in same fundamental category• “All-and-some” test Rodents SOME ALL Squirrels Pests SOME NOT ALL Squirrels Consider concepts of marketing and advertising Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  48. 48. Generic relationship test – 2Rodents Squirrels Pests  ALL squirrels are rodents x NOT ALL squirrels are pests x NOT ALL pests are rodents Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  49. 49. Hierarchy – Whole-part relationship• Also known as meronymy or partonymy• Four types allowed in thesaurus standards – Body systems and organs • Ear  Middle ear – Geographical locations • Bernalillo County  Albuquerque – Fields of study • Geology  Physical geology – Hierarchical social structures • Ontario  Manitoulin District Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  50. 50. Hierarchy – Instance relationship General category (common noun) as BT, with individual example (proper noun) as NTSeas French cathedrals Baltic Sea Chartres Cathedral Caspian Sea Rheims Cathedral Mediterranean Sea Rouen CathedralEssentially identical to “final node” in taxonomies Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  51. 51. Polyhierarchical relationship• Term can logically fit under more than one Broader Term – can have Multiple Broader Terms (MBT)• Part of ISO standards, new to ANSI/NISO Spoons Forks Sporks Sporks Nurses Health administrators Nurse administrators Nurse administrators Finance Careers Accounting Accounting Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  52. 52. Equivalence relationship• Preferred Term – Thesaurus term and valid for indexing – Thesaurus notation: USE• Non-Preferred Term – Not valid for indexing – An alias or imposter – Entry point, directs user to Preferred Term – Thesaurus notation: UF or NPT Spiders Plant pathology UF Arachnids USE Phytopathology Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  53. 53. Equivalence – when to use Synonyms, slang, quasi-synonyms Scientific and trade names  Ibubrofen UF Motrin™ Lexical variants  Fiber optics UF Fibre optics  Mouse UF Mice Upward posting of narrow concepts not specified in taxonomy or thesaurus  Social class UF Elite, Middle class, Working classGet equivalent terms from search logs, brainstorming… Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  54. 54. Associative relationship Related Terms (RTs) – cousins “…terms related conceptually but not hierarchically, and are not part of an equivalence set” (i.e. not synonyms) Both terms are valid thesaurus terms for indexing, and have reciprocal relationship Expands user’s awareness, reflects thesaurus coverage of unanticipated areas Standards describe specific types (see Appendix) Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  55. 55. Sibling rivalry and facets Format and sense of sibling Narrower Terms should be consistent If siblings don’t coexist well, separate them Subdivide large groups of terms into facets, mutually exclusive subcategories Growing demand with faceted navigation Facet examples  Properties, Materials, Agents, Actions, Influence  Objects, Styles and periods, Color, Shape (Art & Architecture Thesaurus) Copyright © 2009- Access Innovations, Inc.
  56. 56. Scope Notes (SN) Indicate meaning of the term in the context of this thesaurus, for this audience  Stress – Metal, Psychological, Physiological Indicate any restriction in meaning Indicate range of topics covered Provide direction for indexers; for terms often confused, may suggest an alternative term Use only as needed – not for every term Establish and stick with consistent format Be concise Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  57. 57. Talk about terms• Term format• Grammatical issues• Singular and plural forms• Spelling• Abbreviations and acronyms• Capitalization• Other punctuation• Consistency Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  58. 58. Term format• KISS – Keep it short and simple – 1-2-3 words • Effect on search • Factoring, Postcoordination (coming)• Grammatical issues – Nouns and noun phrases – Verbish things – Adjectives – Adverbs – Initial articles Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  59. 59. Most terms are nouns Nouns or simple noun phrases  Adj + Noun – Art history (ANSI/NISO standard)  Noun + Prep + Noun – History of art (ISO standard)  Exceptions – Burden of proof, Coats of arms, Prisoners of war, Birds of prey, etc. Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  60. 60. Compound and Factored Terms “Terms in a thesaurus should represent simple or unitary concepts…” (ISO standard) “Compound terms should be factored (split) into simple elements…” (ANSI/NISO standard) Nice in theory… often unworkable Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  61. 61. **Compound terms are precoordinated** Elements are put together to specify a concept at the indexing stage Can’t change the parts Water pollution Library science Television influence on preschoolers Chicken dinner with turnips and rutabagas – no substitutions of menu items! Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  62. 62. Precoordination positives User expectations – Rapid transit  Occurs commonly in data, splitting would be odd  Reflects a single concept for the audience Better accuracy – captures specific concepts precisely Fewer false drops Term information is retained (Related Terms, NonPreferred Terms, Scope Notes, etc.) Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  63. 63. Precoordination negatives Poorer total recall Term proliferation  Combinations and permutations increase thesaurus size Higher cost Limited flexibility in expressing new concepts Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  64. 64. Postcoordination pros and cons Higher recall Lower cost Greater flexibility – enables expression of new concepts through novel combinations Lower accuracy, some false drops  Library science NOT = Library + Science  Art museums NOT = Art + Museums Postcoordination is implicit in most searches Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  65. 65. About “and” Avoid “and” in terms – not a single concept Instead of: Children and television Factor and postcoordinate USE Media influence + Television + Children And is not in the standard In real life—need for granularity may dictate your choice Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  66. 66. So far you’ve got• Hierarchy• Complete term records – Broader and Narrower Terms • Polyhierarchies when needed – Preferred/Non-Preferred Terms (equivalence relationships) – Related Terms (associative relationships) – Scope Notes – Correct term format – Compound terms when needed Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  67. 67. Notation• Symbols (numerals, letters, hyphens, colons, etc.) – 1: Apples • 1.1: Granny Smith • 1.2: Winesap• Adjunct to verbal expression of term• May represent another kind of ordering of sibling terms (non-alphabetic) – Chronological, positional, numeric sequence, or other logical sequence for user group – Same terms presented differently for different user groups, different purposes• Secondary to verbal concept organization Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  68. 68. Review, edit, test, edit, use, edit, and maintain, i.e. edit  Review  Edit and maintain  Users  Add term  Expert reviewers  Change existing term  Test  Change term status  Index 500+ documents  Delete term (more for variable writing  Add term relationship style; fewer for strict  Delete term relationship style)  Add/modify Scope Note  Monitor search log  Change overall structureConsider automated / assisted indexing software Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  69. 69. When do you add more terms? On demand  When usage changes  Stewardess – flight attendant As the field evolves  8 changes to 64 colors In Use  Don’t freeze waiting for perfection Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  70. 70. Methodology and Workflow Enrich Content Build and maintain via Thesaurus Data Harmony (Software and Services) Enhanced M.A.I. Documents:Source Material Tagged XML Choose theVocabularies Terms Subjects Documents PeopleContent PlacesFull Text Style and Articles Etc.HTML, PDF, Spelling ProceedingsData Feeds,Search logs Web Pagesetc. Conference Craft Hierarchical Abstracts Etc. Additional Structure Databases: Non-hierarchical Authors Relationships: Experts Synonyms Etc. Related Terms Refine the Evaluate and Manage Thesaurus Rulebase
  71. 71. How do I implement a taxonomy? In search In a web site In indexing In other ways
  72. 72. Taxonomy and System Integrations Document Search repository SEARCH PresentationFull CMS Perfect Search Layertext, HTML, P Lucene, MarkLogi Documentum c WebsiteDF, data feeds SharePoint SQL etc. Oracle MarkLogic Metadata Client Inline Extractor Taxonomy Tagging M.A.I. Rule Base Thesaurus Master
  73. 73. Parts of Search Search software  Inverted Index  Search algorithms Presentation layer  Search box  Autocompletion  Related and narrower terms  Hierarchical display
  74. 74. Outline of Presentation 1 Define key terminologyCreating 2 Thesaurus toolsan  FeaturesInverted  FunctionsFile 3 CostsIndex  Thesaurus construction  Thesaurus tools 4 Why & when? Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  75. 75. Simple Inverted File Index& key1 of2 outline3 presentation4 terminologyconstruction thesauruscosts toolsdefine whenfeatures whyfunctions Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  76. 76. Complex Inverted File Index Example 1 key - L2, P2, H& - Stop of - Stop1 - Stop outline - L1, P1, T2 - Stop presentation - L1, P3, T3 - Stop terminology - L2, P3, H4 - Stop thesaurus - (1) - L3, P1, Hconstruction - L7, P2, SH (2) - L7, P1, SHcosts - L6, P1, H (3) - L8, P1, SHdefine - L2, P1, H tools - (1) - L3, P2, Hfeatures - L4, P1, SH (2) - L8, P2, SHfunctions - L5, P1, SH when - L9, P3, H why - L9, P1, H Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  77. 77. The Portal View - MediaSleuth Use all options for search Traditional Search Taxonomy Rule Base
  78. 78. NavTree View MAIQuery
  79. 79. Taxonomy Thesaurus view Term Record view
  80. 80. Search Presentation Layer Automatic completion And type ahead from Thesaurus
  81. 81. Search Presentation Layer Related Narrower
  82. 82. Search Presentation Layer The Hierarchical view of the thesaurus is also a browse able view of the content. The numbers include the number of hits 1. For the term 2. For the branch
  83. 83. Taxonomy Thesaurus view Term Record view
  84. 84. Web Taxonomies – Changing faces ….and how the information is delivered From current site To new version  Depends on TAXONOMY Personalization Feeding ads Consistent information
  85. 85. Use the taxonomy here HTML Headers META NAME KEYWORD
  86. 86. To personalize or profile
  87. 87. Improve Search: www.mediasleuth.comAutocompletion Using theTaxonomy Guide the User Navigate the full Taxonomy “Indispensable for anyone trying to identify “Tree” instructional media for teaching.” – CHOICE Magazine
  88. 88. Link to Society Resources CME Upcoming Other Activity on Conference Journal Topic A on Topic AArticles on Topic A Job Posting Journal for Expert Article on on Topic A Topic A Grant Available Podcast Interviewfor Researchers with Researcher Working on Working on Topic A Topic A CONFIDENTIAL
  89. 89. AuthorSubmissionModule The author pastes the data to the document template, attaching images, graphs, as necessary:
  90. 90. Author connections
  91. 91. Authors at a placeMASHUP locations to aGPS grid of an area
  92. 92. Watch Crime in action
  93. 93. More Like This - RecommenderCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Related Press Releases •How What and How Much We Eat (And Drink) Affects OurVol. 12, 161-164, Risk of CancerFebruary 2003 •Novel COX-2 Combination Treatment May Reduce Colon© 2003 American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Risk Combination Regimen of COX-2 Inhibitor and Fish Oil Causes Cell DeathShort Communications •COX-2 Levels Are Elevated in SmokersAlcohol, Folate, Methionine, and Risk of Incident Breast Cancer in theAmerican Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II NutritionRelated AACR Workshops and Conferences CohortHeather Spencer Feigelson 1, Carolyn R. Jonas, Andreas S. •Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research •ContinuingRobertson, Marjorie L. McCullough, Michael J. Thun and Eugenia E. CalleMedical Education (CME) •Molecular Targets and Cancer TherapeuticsDepartment of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American CancerSociety, National Home Office, Atlanta, Georgia 30329-4251 Related Meeting Abstracts •Association between dietary folate intake, alcohol intake, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298CRecent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated polymorphisms and subsequent breastwith alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate •Folate, folate cofactor, and alcohol intakes and risk for intake. Weexamined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the adenoma colorectalAmerican Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition•Dietary folate intake and risk of prostate cancer in a large Cohort. prospective cohort studyRelated Working Groups Think Tank Report•Finance Related Think Tank Report Related Education Book Content•Charter Content Oral Contraceptives, Postmenopausal•Molecular Epidemiology Hormones, and Breast Cancer Physical Activity and Cancer Webcasts Hormonal Interventions: From Adjuvant Therapy to Related Webcasts Breast Cancer PreventionRelated Awards•AACR-GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Cancer Research Scholar Awards•ACS Award•Weinstein Distinguished Lecture
  94. 94. Thesaurus Resources• American Society for Information Science and Technology –• ANSI/NISO Standard Z39.19-1993 –• Australian Society of Indexers –• Data Harmony – International Society for Knowledge Organization  Networked Knowledge Organization Systems • SLA Taxonomy Division – SLA Taxonomy and Metadata (• Taxonomy Community of Practice Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  95. 95. Readings – Thesaurus Construction Thesaurus Construction and Use a Practical Manual. Fourth edition has taxonomy information son%2C%20Jean%20Gilchrist%2C Aitchison, Jean - Gilchrist, Alan - Bawden, David NISO Z39.19 (2005) standard NOT the 2003 American Society for Indexers - a good practical approach Books about the process also include the ones listed here There is also a series of white papers and other information on the web site at SLA Taxonomy Division Copyright © 2009 - Access Innovations, Inc.
  96. 96. Review Why build a taxonomy? What is a taxonomy? What are the standards? Where are taxonomies used? What are the parts of a taxonomy? How do you build one? How do you implement one?
  97. 97. Talks upcoming “Data Visualization” workshop at Computers in Libraries – April 11 SLA Taxonomy Division workshop “How to build a taxonomy” June 8 Session “How to Apply Your Taxonomy to Your Content” Monday June 10
  98. 98. Thank you! Marjorie M.K. Hlava* President and Chief Scientist Access Innovations, Inc. 505-998-0800* Our team of 37 has built over 200 taxonomies and implemented more than600 for enterprises, governments and not for profits. We built tools to dothe work as well and are glad to share them with you for your projects