LIS3353 SP 12 Week 2a

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LIS3353 SP 12 Week 2a

  1. 1. New TechnologiesLIS 3353 – 1/9/12
  2. 2. New TechnologiesWhat does the future look like? 1969 1984 1995 – the Internet The first iPad? The current iPad Now what?
  3. 3. Terminology
  4. 4. Computing Basics Computers over time (museum)(timeline) ◦ Mainframes (1960’s) ◦ Minicomputers (1970’s) ◦ Personal computers (1980’s) ◦ Networked computers (1990’s) ◦ Wireless computers (2000’s) ◦ ?? (2010’s)  Embedded in humans  Worldnet  Biometrics
  5. 5. Computing BasicsThe First Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers (1945 - 1953) – Atanasoff Berry Computer (1937 - 1938) • solved systems of linear equations • John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry of Iowa State University. – Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), 1946
  6. 6. Computing BasicsThe Second Generation: Transistorized Computers (1954 -1965) – IBM 7094 (scientific) and 1401 (business) – Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-1 – Univac 1100 - video – Control Data Corporation 1604.
  7. 7. Computing Basics Von Neumann model – Input (Keyboard, mouse, memory, microphone, camera, …) – Operation (Add, subtract, multiply, etc.) – Output (Display, speaker, printer, robot controls, memory…) RAM CPU Processor
  8. 8. Computing Basics On early computers, programming was done at the digital logic level. Programming the computer involved moving plugs and wires. A different hardware configuration was needed to solve every unique problem type. Stored-program computers have become known as von Neumann Architecture systems. Today’s stored-program computers have the following characteristics: – Three hardware systems: • A central processing unit (CPU), A main memory system, An I/O system – The capacity to carry out sequential instruction processing. A single data path between the CPU and main memory. – This single path is known as the von Neumann bottleneck.
  9. 9. Computing Basics Non - Von Neumann model – Newer computers now go beyond the VN model by including specialized buses, floating-point units, and cache memories. – Adding processors is one approach to increasing processing power. – Multiple Processors • In the late 1960s, high-performance computer systems were equipped with dual processors to increase computational throughput. • In the 1970s supercomputer systems were introduced with 32 processors. • Supercomputers with 1,000 processors were built in the 1980s. • In 1999, IBM announced its Blue Gene system containing over 1 million processors. – Parallel processing is only one method of providing increased computational power.
  10. 10. “1” and “0” Towards the end of the 19th century, a mathematician (George Boole) suggested that logical thought could be represented through mathematical equations. Computers, as we know them today, are implementations of Boole’s Laws of Thought. Boolean algebra is a mathematical system for the manipulation of variables that can have one of two values. – In formal logic, these values are “true” and “false.” – In digital systems, these values are “on” and “off,” 1 and 0, or “high” and “low.” Boolean expressions are created by performing operations on Boolean variables. – Common Boolean operators include AND, OR, and NOT.
  11. 11. “1” and “0” The three simplest gates are the AND, OR, and NOT gates. They correspond directly to their respective Boolean operations, as you can see by their truth tables.
  12. 12. “1” and “0” Combinational logic circuits give us many useful devices. One of the simplest is the half adder, which finds the sum of two bits. We can gain some insight as to the construction of a half adder by looking at its truth table, shown at the right.
  13. 13. “1” and “0” Moving on to the full adder
  14. 14. “1” and “0” – in summary Basic unit is a bit (1,0) Computers are implementations of Boolean logic. Boolean functions are completely described by truth tables. Logic gates are small circuits that implement Boolean operators. The basic gates are AND, OR, and NOT. The “universal gates” are NOR, and NAND. Computer circuits consist of combinational logic circuits and sequential logic circuits. To learn more – take a computer engineering course 
  15. 15. “1” and “0” Decimal Numbers are based on the digits systems using powers of 10 (base 10) ◦ 853 = 8*100 + 5*10 + 3*1 ◦ 853 = 8*10^2 + 5*10^1 + 3*10^0 Computers use a binary system – powers of 2 (base 2) ◦ Cheaper and easier ◦ 1101 = 1 * 23+ 1 * 22 + 0 * 21 + 1 * 20  = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 13 ◦ 1001010  (1 * 26) + (0 * 25) + (0 * 24) + (1 * 23) + (0 * 22) + (1 * 21) + (0 * 20)  64 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 74 ◦ What does 111 (base2) represent? ◦ How about 101 (base2)? 11101110111 (base2)?
  16. 16. “1” and “0” With 8 bits in a byte, you can represent 256 values ranging from 0 to 255, as shown here: – 0 = 00000000 – 1 = 00000001 – 2 = 00000010 – 254 = 11111110 – 255 = 11111111 ASCII – Uses 7 bits – In the ASCII character set, each binary value between 0 and 127 is given a specific character. – Most computers extend the ASCII character set to use the full range of 256 characters available in a byte. – The upper 128 characters handle special things like accented characters from common foreign languages. – Besides decimal, and binary, there’s hexadecimal (base 16)
  17. 17. “1” and “0”Hexadecimal notation is simple. Just use digits for 0 through 9, and A through F for 10 through 15. The following table shows all of the combinations. Binary Decimal Hexadecimal Binary Decimal Hexadecimal 0000 00 0 1000 08 8 0001 01  Hexadecimal notation is simple. Just use digits 1 1001 09 9 0010 02 2 1010 10 A 0011 03 for 0 through 9, and A through F for 10 through 3 1011 11 B 0100 04 15. The following table 4 shows all of the 1100 12 C 0101 05 5 1101 13 D combinations. 0110 06 6 1110 14 E 0111 07 7 1111 15 F  Convert 73 to hexadecimal  Convert aa to decimal? To binary?
  18. 18. Storage Media – Tape (actual tape) – Floppy Drives – Hard Drives (30GB, 120GB, 250GB) – Zip Drives – Pen or USB drives – How many movies (assume a typical DVD stores 4.7GB per movie) can I store on my 40GB laptop hard drive? Unit Abbreviation Size (bytes) bit b 1/8 byte B 1 kilobyte KB 210 = 1024 megabyte MB 220 = 1,048,576 gigabyte GB 230 = 1,073,741,824 terabyte TB 240 = 1,099,511,627,776 petabyte PB 250 = 1,125,899,906,842,624
  19. 19. Evaluating Resources How do you know if a source is legitimate? – Offline – Online What is literacy? – Information literacy – Financial literacy – Health literacy – Technology literacy
  20. 20. Evaluating Resources Information Literacy – “The ability to conduct searches, evaluate, and create new ideas” – Cynthia Bowman, 2000 – The ability to “recognize when information is needed” and “locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information…. a survival skill in the Information Age.” – ALA Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. 1989
  21. 21. Evaluating Resources Once you search: – Did you find it? – How long did it take? – Were you satisfied with the answer? – Are there other possible answers? – What makes a resource credible?
  22. 22. Evaluating Resources
  23. 23. Evaluating Resources PRINT: – Ask the following questions: • Current edition? • Journals peer-reviewed? • Revision and editing process? ONLINE: – Ask the following questions: • Are your online sources reliable? • Credible domain names, such as .org, .gov., or .edu? • Biased domain names, such as .com or .net? • Who is the author? Professional writer, organization, government agency, blogger, amateur writer, fringe group, 12 year old school kid?
  24. 24. Evaluating Resources Objectivity Issues – Do sources reflect the question at hand or are they writing about a related topic? – Are they objective in presenting both sides of the story? – Do they provide a context for their information? – What do you know about the author or agency putting out [responsible for] the source(s)?
  25. 25. Evaluating Resources -Balance Information-Seeking Skills – Finding information – Evaluating information – Using information ethically – Emphasis on critical discernment Information Technology Skills – Word processing – Presentation software – Spreadsheet software – Database software – ???? What else?
  26. 26. What does this mean? Write a 15-page paper about a topic of your choice. Write a 15-page term paper about FSU. Find answers to the following questions in the library reference collection: – Who was Jim Morrison? – Who is Anthony Scott Flippen? Find a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article about some aspect of toddler skills development. (use print resources)
  27. 27. What does this mean? Read the articles on taxes that are posted on Blackboard (this is hypothetical – there are no articles). Explain why some writers believe taxes should be abolished, while others believe taxes to be useful. Evaluate both perspectives and give your own opinion in a 5-page paper. Research the topic of capital punishment from the perspective of three different disciplines. Find a scholarly journal article written by: – a psychologist (PsycINFO) – a sociologist (Sociological Abstracts) – a political scientist (International Political Sci. Abstracts) – Identify each author’s credentials. – Compare and contrast the three different perspectives in a 3-page paper. – Use APA style to cite sources.
  28. 28. Growing Needs Each task is increasingly difficult. Each task requires increased literacy skills. Relate this to technology: – Purchase a hard drive. – Purchase a laptop. – Purchase a system to track parking tags wirelessly. – Purchase a system to boost inventory tracking, improve output, reduce employees, and manage the Web site. – Due diligence is the key. 
  29. 29. Where to turn? Technology – Pronto – C|net – mySimon – Amazon (customer reviews) – Ebay (customer reviews) – Technology magazines – Industry (early adopters) – look for benchmarks – TimeKiller – TimeKiller 2
  30. 30. Questions?

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