Middle Passage 2


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  • Middle Passage 2

    1. 1. The Middle Passage
    2. 2. Slavery in the Americas, A Form of Genocide <ul><li>What is genocide? </li></ul><ul><li>Brief history of the slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>How was the slave trade a form of genocide? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Triangular Trade Middle Passage
    4. 4. Life During the Middle Passage
    5. 5. Slave Caravan <ul><li>Journey to the coast to board slave ships </li></ul><ul><li>Weak slaves left to die on trail </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent whippings for those who could not keep up the pace </li></ul>
    6. 6. Inside a Slave Holding Fort <ul><li>Elmina Castle </li></ul><ul><li>Along the Coast of Central Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>First point of contact with Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Trading post to protect from possible attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Base of Christopher Columbus on his mission to “discover” the New World </li></ul>
    7. 7. Inside a Slave Holding Fort <ul><li>The Dungeon </li></ul><ul><li>Ground floor dungeons held up to 1000 slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Held for up to three months before slave ship arrival </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal ventilation and food </li></ul><ul><li>Men chained and branded for identification </li></ul>
    8. 8. Inside a Slave Holding Fort <ul><li>Condemned Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellious Africans who resisted their enslavement </li></ul><ul><li>No escape </li></ul><ul><li>Starved until death </li></ul>
    9. 10. Slave Ships
    10. 11. <ul><li>Good Weather </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed to roam on deck </li></ul><ul><li>Fed two small meals: </li></ul><ul><li>Boiled rice, millet, or cornmeal and a daily ration of a half-pint of water in a “pannikin” </li></ul><ul><li>Horse beans, the cheapest food available </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Had to be in acceptable physical condition to maximize profit </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dancing”: Men were forced to jump up and down to the beat of a drum until their ankles bled from their chains </li></ul><ul><li>Crew members whipped slaves who refused to dance </li></ul>&quot;At the savage Captain’s beck, Now like brutes they make us prance Smack the cat about the Deck And in scorn they bid us dance&quot;
    12. 13. <ul><li>Bad Weather </li></ul><ul><li>The worst time of the Middle Passage </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves remained below deck all day and night </li></ul><ul><li>These “tween decks” were filled with slaves (live and dead), blood, vomit, urine, and human waste </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves not fed as usual- forced to scrounge for crumbs </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>“ Bedwarming” </li></ul><ul><li>Crew member or captain took slave women from the tween decks at night </li></ul><ul><li>Physically and sexually abused </li></ul><ul><li>This practice demonstrated the figurative and literal rape of the African-American culture by the slave traders of the Middle Passage </li></ul>
    14. 15. Revolts and Punishments <ul><li>Made weapons of chains and shackles to attempt to kill crew </li></ul><ul><li>Uprisings usually put down quickly by crew  Most Africans who attempted to revolt were killed in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Africans harmed themselves to threaten cargo (suicide, starvation)  Crew force fed slaves </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>One of the few successful slave mutinies </li></ul><ul><li>A group of Africans led by Congolese chief Cinque killed captain and most of crew on the Amistad </li></ul><ul><li>Long legal battle  Supreme Court ruled the Africans to be free </li></ul>
    16. 17. Death Toll <ul><li>Extreme overcrowding, deplorable conditions caused many to die </li></ul><ul><li>Dysentery, smallpox, ophthalmia, malaria, yellow fever, scurvy </li></ul><ul><li>Gone mad  flogged or clubbed to death and thrown overboard </li></ul><ul><li>Sick  starved </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious  thrown overboard so as not to infect others </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide, death from revolting </li></ul>
    17. 18. Legacy <ul><li>10-15 million Africans estimated to arrive in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly as many estimated to die during the voyage  20-30 million victims total </li></ul><ul><li>Paramount example of inhumanity, suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Set precedent for horror of slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt dignity and culture of Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Led to discrimination against a new group: African-Americans </li></ul>
    18. 19. Preparation for Sale <ul><li>Focus: reduce obvious effects of journey </li></ul><ul><li>Exercised, shaved, oiled </li></ul><ul><li>Auctioned to American slave owners </li></ul>
    19. 20. The End