Legal History


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Created for a class on Legal History Sources in 2011 in the Bodleian Law Library

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  • A word of warning with ER on HeinOnline: Sometimes it fails to understand perfectly legitimate Nominative citation eg 4 Leo. You can use HeinOnline’s Index Chart to find the full name of the report and put that in the search box or – drill down via the English Report Link under Browse, then scroll down and click on the Index of Cases and find the case name there. (Once you have chosen volume remember to click in left had panel to open Table of Contents so you can go to initial letter a bit quicker.)
  • Legal History

    1. 1. English Legal History Elizabeth Wells Bodleian Law Library November 2011
    2. 2. PERIOD OF EVOLUTION & TRANSITION c560 – 1180sNew project – started October 2009 – to provide new editions andtranslations of all English legal codes, edicts and treatises produced upto 1215. Likely to become the premier site …. At present uses – printedsource finder & bibliography?
    3. 3. ORB: Online Reference Book: Medieval Legal History
    4. 4. Anglo-Saxon Charters?
    5. 5. Also on OxLIP+ Dictionary of Old English based on records written in English between 600 and 1150 A.D. No search facility Just browse alphabetically.
    6. 6. Legal language 1066 – oral debates were in Norman French (Law French) Latin remained the language of court records 1650 use of both Latin & law French banned – but not fully abandoned till c1700
    7. 7. Law French Baker’s Manual of Law French (2nd ed., 1990) KL44.BAK 1990 Anglo-Norman Online Hub
    8. 8. Earliest Glimpse c1118 Legal Hist H521a (trans) EEBO (image 416)
    9. 9. SS (Selden Society) Learned society & publisher 1 – 120 (2003) available via HeinOnline Legal Hist S464.4a Centenary Guide (HeinOnline/print) + SS web pages to see coverage
    10. 10. Citations on PageHighlights all citations. If the cited material is Print icon also in HeinOnline, it’s a hyperlink to that page downloads pdf - Toggle ON/OFF. easier reading?
    11. 11. Dawn of the Common law Henry II (1154-1189) Ultimate authority from the King A coherent legal system England- wide Stationary royal court, independent of King’s presence Treatise “Glanvill(e)”
    12. 12. HeinOnline has both text (1604) & translation (1818), butrecommend Hall’s 1965 translation Legal Hist G546a965
    13. 13. Case law sourcesCommonBench akaCommonPleasc.1460 InnerTemple Ms
    14. 14. Year books c1250-c1535 1280s form established Divided by legal sessions (terms) Anglo-French dialect of the Court Absence of reasoned judgments Fade out temp. H7/H8 – growing judicial positivism?
    15. 15. Year book citations Include these elementsTerm - Regnal Year – Folio (if printed) – Placitum (case # within the term)Trin 3 Hen VII, fo.10, pl.33 Hen 7, T. f.10, pl. 3TT H7, f.10, pl.3Modern commentaries & histories should specify which printed editions they have used (see prelims or bibliography)
    16. 16. Year books printed by 1610 1-10 Edw. III  1-20 Hen. VI 17-39 Edw. III  21-39 Hen. VI 40-50 Edw. III  Edw. IV (Quadragesms)  Long Quinto (5 Liber assisarum Edw. IV) Edw. III (assizes &  Edw. V, Ric. circuit cases) III, Hen.VII & Hen. Hen. IV & V VIII
    17. 17. EEBO Early English Books Online digital facsimile page images 1473 to 1700 “virtually every” work printed in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Br.N.America works in English printed elsewhere
    18. 18. If you’regoing to use EEBO a lot, having STC # is quickest
    19. 19. In EEBOSearch box type STC and 9650
    20. 20. Year books printed in (17th Edw II ed. Maynard (1678), 1679- 1680 reprint of 1610 canon became the standard text, but is the least accurate Browse all titles Under Y & Click on + to expand
    21. 21. Year books printed (19th on Selden Society Ames Foundation (Ric.II) Available via Hein (latest SS only in print)
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Scrolldown – 40CustomSearchboxes in total
    24. 24. Result Screen - Search Oxford as Place Printed version Vol. 111 SeldenClick on SocietySeipp #for a lot more detail!
    25. 25. Alwaysscroll to footbecause …
    26. 26. Do Keepscrolling right to foot …
    27. 27. Useful stuff at foot!Eng.Legal Mss Project
    28. 28. Manuscript Year books Nicholson’s Register of manuscripts of year books extant Legal Hist S464.4d See English Legal Mss guides at Ref Bibl. B168a-b Microfiche can be ordered to the Law Library via Request You may also have to travel to Record Offices and other Libraries
    29. 29. King’s Bench c.1460 Inner Temple Ms
    30. 30. Nominate Reports YB gradually morphed into reports c1450 case notes increasingly associated with name of “reporter” Gradually more discussion of substantive law – not necessarily reasoned decisions (eg Slade’s Case (1602)) Bulk of pre-1660 reports are “casual gleanings from dead men’s studies” per Baker, IELH (4th ed.,2002) at p183
    31. 31. Citations for cases pre-1866 Either ER citation or a (weird) abbreviation or both (1551) 1 Plow. 1, 75 E.R. 1 (1797) 1 Bos. & Pul. 41 (1865) 46 E.R. 574, 3 De G.J. & S. 97 (1856) 6 Moo. Ind. App. 426, 19 E.R. 160
    32. 32.  With ER citation  Without ER citation English Reports  FIRST try citation in electronic db or Exact reprint of original Nominate  check panel (Main RR) reports is it convertible into ER citation?Main Reading Room No? Cw UK 120 E50 AND via electronic  Try [1940] 7 CLJ databases 261  Nominate reports in Cw UK 100 A10 – 100 Y25  Others in Cw UK 120
    33. 33. English Reports viaSubscription databases (OXLIP+ SSO) Westlaw UK HeinOnline Justis UK CD-Rom Via CommonLII – free, anywhere Search via party names, browse by year – not yet by citation
    34. 34. WestlawUK – English Reports OK = Case Monopolies Either citation form No need for date Don’t use and/& 2 M W 519
    35. 35. Despite highlight, Case Analysis rarely useful unless result screen shows a small C to left of party names. This indicates “Judicial consideration or case history available”
    36. 36. ER in HeinOnline If entering a citation remember to select either English Report Citation or “Nominative” (sic) Citation before clicking Locate
    37. 37. Chart Tool Possible to Sort eg by period to find out all volumes for a period
    38. 38. State Trials on Justis Within OU network just click Continue to Justis Outside network Log In to OXLIP+ first, find Justis, then Continue
    39. 39. Step One Step Two Step Three
    40. 40. Beyond the E.R. There are other pre 1866 printed reports not in ER see Guide to the Law Reports & Statutes (4th ed.,1962) Ref Bibl Cw UK S974c4 SS publications
    41. 41. Early Reporters of Repute Plowden’s Commentaries(2v) ER 75 KB 1550-1580 Coke’s Reports (13v) ER 76-77 KB 1572-1616 Bulstrode’s Reports (3v) ER 80-81 KB 1610-1625
    42. 42. Later Printed Reports 1650 – 1750 inferior collections 1750- KB reporters Burrow, Cowper, Douglas are high quality By end of 18th century periodical series commissioned for publication Durnford & East (KB), Blackstone (CP), Vesey Junior (Ch), Anstruther (Exch) 1865/6 Council of Law Reporting “modern era”
    43. 43. Opening of thePleas RollsM 1 Hen VIICP40/894
    44. 44. aka
    45. 45.
    46. 46. How to read a roll tutorial:
    47. 47. Crown in Parliament Edward I
    48. 48. Early Legislation Early enactments various names/forms eg Magna Carta Assizes H2, R1, J Provisions H3 Statuta (1270s) Edw1 By 1407 established procedure: debate of 2 houses of parliament, agreement, royal assent
    49. 49. Statutes of the Realm “Best” (by royal command Geo3) but incomplete & contains apocrypha Only to 1713HeinOnlineMaking of the Modern World (MOML)
    50. 50. Printicon
    51. 51. Other Sources for Acts Justis has Statutes at Large (Ruffhead) EEBO (printed pre 1700) ECCO (Eighteenth Century Collections Online)Last resort: visit to House of Lords RO complete from 1497 including those never printed
    52. 52. Titles of all Acts from 1497-1999 To restrict search to Public Acts only put HL/PO/PU/I In RefNo field To restrict search to Local, Personal or Private put HL/PO/PB/1
    53. 53. Local & Personal Acts Chronological Tables of Local Acts and of Private and Personal Acts 26,000 Local Acts passed 1797 - 1973 and the 11,000 Private, later described as Personal, Acts passed 1539- 1973. tables/chron-index BOPCRIS C18th Official Parliamentary Publications Portal for some texts 1702-1834
    54. 54. Results of Browse option thendrilling down
    55. 55. Royal Proclamations/Orders inCouncil
    56. 56. Treatises Glanvill c.1187-1189
    57. 57. HeinOnline Legal Classics Pro – often with translations Con – not necessarily best editioneg Doctor & Student – SS is better! Bracton Littleton’s Institutes Coke’s Institutes Blackstone’s Commentaries (US ed) Also Beale’s Bibliography of EE Law Books
    58. 58. Bracton Online (8 SS = select passages) De legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae c1220s
    59. 59. Britton (ed Nichols) Black Book of the Admiralty (ed Twiss) Page by page viewing
    60. 60. USA Academic web pagesMedieval Sourcebook ok2.htmlYale’s Avalon Project: documents in law history and diplomacy
    61. 61. Viner’s Abridgment “one of the first recourses for lawyers searching into pre-1800 law” per Prof Sir J.H. Baker Viner, Charles – A general abridgment of law & equity etc etc - 18th Century Collections Online (ECCO) or HeinOnline
    62. 62. MOMW The Making of the Modern World 1450-1850 digital facsimiles of 61,000 works Focus is on economic matters, commerce, business, financ e, social conditions, politics, trade and transport.
    63. 63. MOML Making of Modern Law Legal Treatises published 1800-1926 Can include editions of earlier works
    64. 64. Legal History Journals American Journal of legal history AJLH Criminal Justice History CJH Journal of Legal History JLH Law and History Review LHR Legal history (formerly Australian Journal of Legal History) LH Tijdschrift voor rechtsgeschiedenis Tijds Rgeschied or Leg.Hist.Rev. Revue historique de droit francais et etranger RHD
    65. 65. Another facet to HeinOnline
    66. 66. Finding journal articles Index to Legal Periodicals Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals Bibliography of British & Irish History International Medieval Bibliography
    67. 67. BBIH Bibliography of British & Irish History bibliography of books, articles in books, articles in over 600 history
    68. 68.
    69. 69. Everywhere & all ages! Spelling Problems! Eg colour = 2 hits; color = 26 hits But Not overlapping! Using wildcard * (colo*r) = 40 hits Also in print at Ref 103