PRINCIPLES OF HIGHQUALITY ASSESSMENT Allan M. Canonigo http://love4mathed.com
PRINCIPLES OF HIGH QUALIT Y ASSESSMENT1. Clarity of learning targets2. (knowledge, reasoning, skills, products, af fects)3. Appropriateness of Assessment Methods4. Validity5. Reliability6. Fairness7. Positive Consequences8. Practicality and Ef ficiency9. Ethics
1. CLARITY OF LEARNING TARGETS (knowledge, reasoning, skills, products,affects)Assessment can be made precise, accurate anddependable only if what are to be achieved areclearly stated and feasible. The learningtargets, involving knowledge, reasoning, skills,products and effects, need to be stated inbehavioral terms which denote somethingwhich can be observed through the behavior ofthe students.
CLARIT Y OF LEARNING TARGETS (CONT)Cognitive TargetsB e n j a m i n B l o o m ( 1 9 5 4 ) p r o p o s e d a h i e r a rc hy o f e d u c a t io n a l o b j e c t i ve s a t t h ec o g ni t i ve l ev e l . T h e s e a r e :• K n o w l e d g e – a c q u i s i t io n o f f a c t s , c o n c e p t s a n d t h e o r i e s• C o m p r e h e n s i o n - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i nv o l v e s c o g ni t i o n o r aw a r e n e s s o f t h e i n te r r e l a t io n s h i p s• A p p l ic a t i o n – t r a n s f e r o f k n o w l e d g e f r o m o n e f i e l d o f s t u d y to a n o t h e r o f f r o m o n e c o n c e p t to a n o t h e r c o n c e p t i n t h e s a m e d i s c i p l in e• A n a l y s i s – b r e a k i n g d o w n o f a c o n c e p t o r i d e a i n to i t s c o m p o n e n t s a n d ex p l a i ni n g g t h e c o n c e p t a s a c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c ep t s• S y n t h e s i s – o p p o s i te o f a n a l y s i s , e n t a i l s p u t t i n g to g et h e r t h e c o m p o n e n t s i n o r d e r to s u m m a r i z e t h e c o n c e p t• E v a l ua t io n a n d R e a s o n in g – v a l ui n g a n d j u d g m e n t o r p u t t i n g t h e “ w o r t h ” o f a c o n c e p t o r p r i n c i p le .
CLARIT Y OF LEARNING TARGETS(CONT)Skills, Competencies and Abilities Targets Skills – specific activities or tasks that a student can proficiently do Competencies – cluster of skills Abilities – made up of relate competencies categorized as: i. Cognitive ii. Af fective iii. PsychomotorProducts, Outputs and Project Targets - tangible and concrete evidence of a student’s ability - need to clearly specify the level of workmanship of projects i. exper t ii. skilled iii. novice
2. APPROPRIATENESS OF ASSESSMENT METHODSa. Written-Response Instruments Objective tests – appropriate for assessing the various levels of hierarchy of educational objectives Essays – can test the students’ grasp of the higher level cognitive skills Checklists – list of several characteristics or activities presented to the subjects of a study, where they will analyze and place a mark opposite to the characteristics.
2. APPROPRIATENESS OF ASSESSMENT M ETHODSb. Product Rating Scales Used to rate products like book reports, maps, charts, diagrams, notebooks, creative endeavors Need to be developed to assess various products over the yearsc. Per formance Tests - Per formance checklist Consists of a list of behaviors that make up a certain type of performance Used to determine whether or not an individual behaves in a certain way when asked to complete a particular task
2. APPROPRIATENESS OF ASSESSMENT M ETHODSd. Oral Questioning – appropriate assessment methodwhen the objectives are to : Assess the students’ stock knowledge and/or Determine the students’ ability to communicate ideas in coherent verbal sentences.e. Observation and Self Reports Useful supplementary methods when used in conjunction with oral questioning and performance tests
3. PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODSValidityReliabilityFairnessPositive ConsequencesPracticality and EfficiencyEthics
3. VALIDIT Y Something valid is something fair. A valid test is one that measures what it is supposed to measure.Types of Validity Face: What do students think of the test? Construct: Am I testing in the way I taught? Content: Am I testing what I taught? Criterion-related: How does this compare with the existing valid test? Tests can be made more valid by making them more subjective (open items).
MORE ON VALIDIT YValidity – appropriateness, correctness, meaningfulness andusefulness of the specific conclusions that a teacher reachesregarding the teaching -learning situation. Content validity – content and format of the instrument i. Students’ adequate experience ii. Coverage of sufficient material iii. Reflect the degree of emphasis Face validity – outward appearance of the test, the lowest form of test validity Criterion-related validity – the test is judge against a specific criterion Construct validity – the test is loaded on a “construct” or factor
RELIABILITY Something reliable is something that works well and that you can trust. A reliable test is a consistent measure of what it is supposed to measure.Questions: Can we trust the results of the test? Would we get the same results if the tests were taken again and scored by a different person? Tests can be made more reliable by making them more objective (controlled items).
Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials.
Equivalency reliability is the extent towhich two items measure identicalconcepts at an identical level ofdifficulty. Equivalency reliability isdetermined by relating two sets of testscores to one another to highlight thedegree of relationship or association.
Stability reliability (sometimes called test, re-test reliability) is the agreement of measuring instruments over time. To determine stability, a measure or test is repeated on the same subjects at a future date.
Internal consistency is the extent to which tests or procedures assess the same characteristic, skill or quality. It is a measure of the precision between the observers or of the measuring instruments used in a study.
Interrater reliability is the extent to which two or more individuals (coders or raters) agree. Interrater reliability addresses the consistency of the implementation of a rating system.
RELIABILIT Y – CONSISTENCY, DEPENDABILIT Y, STABILIT Y WHICH CAN BE ESTIMATED BY Split-half method Calculated using the i. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula ii. Kuder-Richardson – KR 20 and KR21 Consistency of test results when the same test is administered at two different time periods i. Test-retest method ii. Correlating the two test results
5. FAIRNESSThe concept that assessment should be fair covers a number of aspects.Student Knowledge and learning targets of assessmentOpportunity to learnPrerequisite knowledge and skillsAvoiding teacher stereotypeAvoiding bias in assessment tasks and procedures
6. POSITIVE CONSEQUENCESLearning assessments provide students with effective feedback and potentially improve their motivation and/or self-esteem. Moreover, assessments of learning gives students the tools to assess themselves and understand how to improve. - Positive consequence on students, teachers, parents, and other stakeholders
7. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY Something practical is something effective in real situations. A practical test is one which can be practically administered.Questions: Will the test take longer to design than apply? Will the test be easy to mark? Tests can be made more practical by making it more objective (more controlled items)
Teacher Familiarity with the Method Teachers should be Time required familiar with the test, Complexity of - does not require too Administration much time Ease of scoring - implementable Ease of Interpretation Cost
RELIABILITY, VALIDITY & PRACTICALITY The problem: The more reliable a test is, the less valid. The more valid a test is, the less reliable. The more practical a test is, (generally) the less valid. The solution: As in everything, we need a balance (in both exams and exam items)
8. ETHICSInformed consentAnonymity and Confidentiality 1. Gathering data 2. Recording Data 3. Reporting Data
ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT – “RIGHT AND WRONG” Conforming to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group Ethical issues that may be raised i. Possible harm to the participants. ii. Confidentiality. iii. Presence of concealment or deception. iv. Temptation to assist students.