Intended learning outcomesBy the end of the session, participants attending and engaging in the session will have had the opportunity to:• discuss and critically evaluate own design process and approaches used• explore innovative student-centred methods and active learning approaches when planning lectures, seminars, workshops and tutorials to maximise engagement• develop a better understanding of technology-enhanced curriculum design processes and explore applications in own context
Decide• What are the 3 most important ingredients you need to take into account when planning a session/programme?
planning a session: collaborativemindmap• http://www.text2mindmap.com/
Planning a session• Your learners• Group size• Title• Time/duration• Day/date, location• Aims and Learning Outcomes• Structure and Content• Methods/Activities• Aids and Resources• Assessment• Differentiation• Reflection/Evaluation• “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail!”
What is a good aim?• “A teaching aim is couched in terms of what the teaching is trying to do, grounded in what the subject demands” Laurillard (1993:184)• "...expressed in terms of what you, the teacher, will be presenting to the learner.“ Rowntree (1990:44)
Intended Learning Outcomes• Describe what learners will know and be able to do when they have completed a session, module or programme.• “What a learner knows or can do as a result of learning” Otter (1992:i)• “Descriptors of the ways that students will be expected to demonstrate the results of their learning.” Race (2000:10)
A well-written learning outcomestatement should:• Contain an active verb, an object and a qualifying clause or phrase that provides a context or condition• Be written in the future tense• Identify important learning requirements: knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes at each appropriate level• Be achievable and measurable• Use clear language, understandable by students• Relate to explicit statements of achievement
Learning outcomes, minimumrequirements nice could should essential Butcher et al (2006) Designing Learning. From Module outline to effective teaching, Oxon: Routledge. p. 59
The 4 domains Domain Target Focus Cognitive Knowledge, Mind/ intellectual/mental skills Knowledge Affective Attitudes, interests, feelings Spirit/ and emotions, values, Attitude adjustments Psychomotor Manual or physical skills, Body/ Motor and manipulations Skills skills Interpersonal People interacting with each Spirit/Attitude/ other Skills
The Cognitive Domain and Bloom’s Taxonomy evaluation creating synthesis evaluating analysis analysing application applying comprehension understanding knowledge remembering Bloom’s Taxonomoy (1956) Anderson and Krathwohl Revision (2001)Educational Psychology Interactive: The Cognitive Domain
What words should (not) be used and why?created at http://wordle.net
use words likeavoid/use State... Describe... Explain... avoid words like List... Know... Evaluate... Understand... Identify... Really know... Distinguish between... Really understand... Analyse... Be familiar with... Outline... Become acquainted with... Summarize... Have a good grasp of... Represent graphically... Appreciate... Compare... Be interested in... Apply... Acquire a feeling for... Assess... Be aware of... Give examples of... Believe... Suggest reasons why... Have information about... Realize the significance of... Learn the basics of... Obtain working knowledge of...
Constructive alignment (Prof. John Biggs, 1999) outcomes outcomes outcomesdesigned to meet learning designed to meet learning designed to meet learning Learning Intended Assessment and Learning Method Teaching Outcomes activities •Students construct meaning from what they do to learn. •The teacher aligns the planned learning activities with the learning outcomes.
Assessment• Research shows that inclusive assessment achieves higher levels of student satisfaction, provides increased opportunities for discussion and leads to improvements in student marks and grades.• Inclusive Assessments are built into course design and meet the assessment needs of the majority of students. Inclusive assessments are assessment concerned with equality of opportunity. It is an for learning approach that recognises that students have different learning styles and offers a range of assessment methods necessary to assess the different ways in which students can demonstrate the achievement of the learning assessment outcomes. of learning
Snowballing: I want my students to…we want our students to...• Interact• Engage• Feel challenged• Feel motivated• Stretched• Feel a sense of achievement• Work autonomously and in groups• …• Remember! We are all different!
How can I do it???• Know my students• Build-in variety• Active approaches• Assessment for learning• Acknowledge contributions• Be creative and flexible "What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle
Designing sessions for…• Small group• Large groups advantages• Online delivery• Face-to-face delivery• Blended delivery challenges
Technology-enhanced approaches• Gadgets you have with you today: How and when do you use them?What about teaching and learning?• Face-to-face settings• Blended• Fully online
Task: Designing a session for learningModule: Introduction to English cookery (1st yearundergraduates, 100 students, 10 weeks, kitchen,lecture theatre, seminar rooms, VLE)session: English Breakfast • Learners • Intended learning outcomes • Learning environment Designing for • Learning activity learning • Approach taken http://www.elearning.ac. • Inclusion uk/effprac/html/design_ • Assessment model.htm • Available technologyActivity based on JISC resource available at http://www.elearning.ac.uk/effprac/html/planner.htm
Curriculum design: what is it?“A curriculum is an artefact, constructed within aframe. It has form and structure. It has dimensionsof time and space. It is experienced. The framing isimportant … what to place inside the frame andwhat to exclude. The critical decision thenconcerns how the contents within the frame arecomposed in relation to each other in order tocreate an integral and harmonious entity.”(Paul Kleiman, 2002. P.3) What is missing?
Creative Curriculum … is a creative act but it usually focuses on… •norm •core knowledge of discipline •assessment •orientation internally and externally •informal adjustments ongoing •crammed?
Creative Curriculum… is a creative act that focuses … is a creative act but it usuallyon… focuses on…•spaces •norm•flexibility •core knowledge of discipline•originality •assessment•personalisation •orientation internally and•collaboration externally •informal adjustments ongoing •crammed? Key factor: Is creativity valued by students, the department, influential academics?
Discussion• Discuss within your groups.• What should be included in the module guide/ programme outline?• Check the module guides/programme outlines you brought with you. Compare!• Present findings
Influences• Institutional & Beyond ▫ Professional Bodies ▫ Resourcing ▫ Skills Agenda ▫ Employability• Students ▫ Widening Participation ▫ Technology• Research ▫ Learning Theory ▫ Student Experience
Threshold Concepts?• Certain concepts are held to be central to the mastery of a subject• They have the following features: ▫ Transformative: Once understood, a threshold concept changes the way in which the student views the discipline. ▫ Troublesome: Threshold concepts are likely to be troublesome for the student. e.g when it is counter−intuitive. ▫ Irreversible: They are difficult to unlearn. ▫ Integrative: Threshold concepts, once learned, are likely to bring together different aspects of the subject that previously did not appear, to the student, to be related. ▫ Bounded: A threshold concept will probably delineate a particular conceptual space, serving a specific and limited purpose. ▫ Discursive: Crossing of a threshold will incorporate an enhanced and extended use of language.
Curriculum design modelsmodular approach• Lego (scaffolded modules)• Satellite (free standing modules)• Jigsaw (connected modules)fitting it all together, approachespyramidspiral
Procedures• Quality Assurance - AQA handbook http://www.governance.salford.ac.uk/page/aqa_handbook• consistent, rigorous, transparent and reliable systems of assessment;• equality of opportunity ... to demonstrate ability and achievement;• the provision of reliable information and guidance.• Annual programme monitoring & enhancement• Periodic programme review & reapproval• New Academic Regulations for Taught Programmes 2010/11http://www.governance.salford.ac.uk/page/ARTP_2010-11
National bodies• Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) ▫ Frameworks for HE qualifications (FHEQ)- describe the achievement represented by higher education qualifications. ▫ Subject Benchmark statements for U/G ▫ Masters Degree Characteristics
References• Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University SRHE/OUP• Bloom, B.S. et al, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain New York: McKay• Bourner, T & Flowers, S (1998) Teaching and Learning Methods in Higher Education: A Glimpse of the Future. Reflections on HE, pp. 77-102.• Butcher, Davies & Highton (2006) Designing Learning: From Module Outline to Effective Teaching, Abingdon: Routledge• Hussey, T. and Smith, P. (2002) The Trouble with Learning Outcomes, Active Learning 3 (3) 220-233• Hussey, T. and Smith, P. (2003) The Uses of Learning Outcomes, Teaching in Higher Education 8 (3) 357-368• Hussey, T. and Smith, P. (2008) Learning Outcomes: a conceptual analysis, Teaching in Higher Education 13 (1) 107- 115• Knight, P. (2002) Being a Teacher in Higher Education Buckingham: SRHE/OUP• Knight, P. (2001) ‘Complexity and curriculum: a process approach to curriculum making’ in Teaching in HE Vol 6 No 3 pp369-381.• Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology London: Routledge• Light, G. and Cox, R. (2001) Learning and Teaching in Higher Education London: PCP publishing• Nixon, J. (2001) Not without dust and heat: the moral bases of the new academic professionalism, British Journal of Educational Studies, 49, 2. 173-186.• Ramsden, P. (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education London: Routledge.• Schon D. A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action New York: Basic Books.• Shulman, L.S. (1987) ‘Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform’ in Harvard Educational Review February 57 (1) pp.1-22.• Steeples, C, Jones, CR & Goodyear, P (2002) Beyond e-learning: a future for networked learning. In C Steeples and CR Jones (Eds) Networked learning : principles and perspectives. London: Springer• Trigwell, K. (2001) Professionalism in the practice of teaching: the role of research ILT Conference - Keynote address University of York• Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., and Taylor, P. (1994) Qualitative differences in approaches to teaching first year university science, Higher Education 27,• pp75-84.• Universities UK (2004) Towards a Framework of Professional Teaching Standards: Consultation Document.• http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/consultations/UniversitiesUK/
Resources:• Guide for Busy Academics: Using Learning Outcomes to Design a Course and Assess Learninghttp://www.itslifejimbutnotasweknowit.org.uk/fil es/CPLHE/Learnng%20outcomes%20for%20bu sy%20academics.rtf
looking back and next weekToday• What did we do? What are you taking away?• Collect reflective diariesNext week• Using and experimenting• Where? You decide!!!
DesigningUniversity of SalfordAcademic Development UnitChrissi Nerantzi firstname.lastname@example.orgNeil Currant email@example.com