Advising is Not a      Profession…or is it?         Josh Larson, Anna Adams,Jason Barkemeyer, Sharon Aiken-Wisniewski     ...
Test Your Clicker – What state are you                 from?1.   Alaska2.   Oregon3.   Washington4.   Yukon Territory5.   ...
How many years have you been               advising?A.   Less than 3B.   3-6C.   7-10D.   11-15E.   16-29F.   30+
Are you a full time or part time                advisor?1. Full time (30 hrs +)2. Part time
What is your highest education level?1.   No degree2.   Associate’s3.   Certificate4.   Bachelor’s5.   Master’s6.   Doctor...
Is Academic Advising a profession?1. Yes2. No
Do you think advising should be      considered a profession?1. Yes2. No3. Not Sure
Objectives For Our Presentation     Consider the historical development and     current state of the field of advising.   ...
Advising Timeline Highlights                                    1600’s   (1636) Harvard College is founded with the presid...
Mid 1900’s(1930s) “Student personnel work” was         (1932) University of Chicagocoined. Advising was rooted under this ...
1972Crookston & O’Banion establish student development theories in advising, in                     separate, independent ...
1981                      First NACADA Journal published                                  1999         The Mentor: An Acad...
What is a profession?                        Sole                    jurisdiction                                      Edu...
What is a profession?                        Sole                    jurisdiction                                      Edu...
Tertiary Education• Long, tertiary education with theoretical learning   – Education is based in theory - Not step by step...
Educational Programs• NACADA Clearinghouse currently lists 29 institutions  with graduate programs that mention academic  ...
Why is that all?• Need research to offer a degree.• Need a theory of advising to guide research,  education, and practice ...
Do you think the Advising Occupation   warrants a long-tertiary education?1. Yes2. No
What is a profession?                        Sole                    jurisdiction                                      Edu...
Self Regulation• Create a Professional organization that advocates  for profession and provides professional guidelines  o...
Are you aware of NACADA or CAS            standards?1. Yes2. No3. Not sure
Do we currently self-regulate?                                            NACADA“The NATIONAL ACADEMIC ADVISING ASSOCIATIO...
CAS“The Mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher   Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement ...
Scope of practice: Common Advisor                 Responsibilities registration materials                             Prep...
Advisor roles (2000): Advising at theMillennium  • Results reported from a survey to NACADA members  • Generalizability is...
Reported areas of advising responsibilities (byinstitution type)    100     90     80     70     60     50     40     30  ...
Circled responsibilities are most consistent withgraduate level education?  100   90   80   70   60   50   40   30        ...
What is a profession?                        Sole                    jurisdiction                                      Edu...
Public Service• The service is needed by individuals• The client is vulnerable, an expert is needed  and great trust is pl...
Vulnerable Population?• Only 30% of the US population will earn a bachelor  degree or higher.   – 40% of the population do...
Academic Advising as a Necessary Public Service                                                     1980                 E...
What is a profession?                        Sole                    jurisdiction                                      Edu...
Sole Jurisdiction– Legally recognized sole jurisdiction over profession  • No one else creates the rules, laws, or standar...
Who else practices as an advisor?1.   Students2.   Faculty3.   Any one available (AA, Chair, etc.)4.   Other offices1. No ...
Impact on advising?                                             Sole                                                      ...
Get your clickers    ready….!
I _____ that advisors should be involved with these types of these                            activities:                 ...
I _____ that advisors should be involved with these types of                          activities:                         ...
If the occupation of advising required advisors to conduct     research and assessment, publish scholarly articles, partic...
Advisors provide a necessary public service to avulnerable population who relies heavily on the               advising exp...
The occupation of advising (the duties,        norms, and skills) should:1. Be relatively consistent   nationally2. Be det...
Are you willing to forgo 9-5 norms (guaranteed hours, schedules, sleep) to become a profession?1. Yes2. No3. Maybe
Last TwoQuestions
Is Academic Advising a Profession?1. Yes2. No
Should Academic Advising become a            profession?1. Yes2. No3. No, but career   opportunities need to   be provided
THANK YOU!• Anna Adams – anna.adams@utah.edu• Jason Barkemeyer – jason.barkemeyer@utah.edu• Josh Larson – joshua.larson@he...
ReferencesAnalytic Quality Glossary. www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary/profession/htm.Bahr, P.R. (2007). Cooli...
Crookston, B.B. A Developmental View of Academic Advising As Teaching. Journal of College    Student Personnel. Vol 13, Ja...
References continuedHale, M., Graham, D., Johnson, D. & Donald, M. (2009). Are Students More Satisfied with    Academic Ad...
References continuedO*Net Online Help. www.onetonline.org/help/online/zones,   www.onetonline.org/help/online/scales.O’Ban...
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Advising is not a profession...or is it? slideshare version

  1. 1. Advising is Not a Profession…or is it? Josh Larson, Anna Adams,Jason Barkemeyer, Sharon Aiken-Wisniewski University of Utah
  2. 2. Test Your Clicker – What state are you from?1. Alaska2. Oregon3. Washington4. Yukon Territory5. Montana6. Idaho7. Alberta8. Outside Region 89. (British Colombia)
  3. 3. How many years have you been advising?A. Less than 3B. 3-6C. 7-10D. 11-15E. 16-29F. 30+
  4. 4. Are you a full time or part time advisor?1. Full time (30 hrs +)2. Part time
  5. 5. What is your highest education level?1. No degree2. Associate’s3. Certificate4. Bachelor’s5. Master’s6. Doctorate
  6. 6. Is Academic Advising a profession?1. Yes2. No
  7. 7. Do you think advising should be considered a profession?1. Yes2. No3. Not Sure
  8. 8. Objectives For Our Presentation Consider the historical development and current state of the field of advising. Discuss the term “Profession” and how it relates to the occupation of advising. Discuss how advising might change if it obtained the status of a profession.
  9. 9. Advising Timeline Highlights 1600’s (1636) Harvard College is founded with the president responsible for advising students. 1800’s(1841) Kenyon College introduces the (1876) John Hopkins University first known formal system of advising establishes a faculty advising system Early 1900’s (1906) Universities begin using (1920) Duties begin to be split amongadvisor systems to supervise selection entities on campus and away from of courses faculty
  10. 10. Mid 1900’s(1930s) “Student personnel work” was (1932) University of Chicagocoined. Advising was rooted under this implements faculty departmental term counselors 1940-1960 (1941) A call goes out to end the (1959) Faculty advisors still recognizedperpetual tension between faculty and as primary academic advisor for professional advisors students 1961-1972 (1972) Carnegie Commission on Higher(1961) Terms “advising” & “counseling” Ed recommends an enhanced emphasis differentiated on advising
  11. 11. 1972Crookston & O’Banion establish student development theories in advising, in separate, independent articles 1976 First statewide academic advising conference held in California Late 1970’s (1977) First national academic (1979) NACADA established with theadvising conference held in Vermont purpose of professionalization
  12. 12. 1981 First NACADA Journal published 1999 The Mentor: An Academic Advising Journal, first published 2000’s(2003) Kansas State offers Graduate (2008) Kansas State offers M.S. in Certificate in Academic Advising Academic Advising
  13. 13. What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  14. 14. What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  15. 15. Tertiary Education• Long, tertiary education with theoretical learning – Education is based in theory - Not step by step or prescriptive – Cannot just be learned on the job – Usually PhD but could be MS/MA
  16. 16. Educational Programs• NACADA Clearinghouse currently lists 29 institutions with graduate programs that mention academic advising in their profile.• Certificate – Kansas State University (2003) – Sam Houston State University (2008) – Eastern Michigan University (2010)• Graduate Degree – Kansas State University (2008) THAT’S ABOUT IT…
  17. 17. Why is that all?• Need research to offer a degree.• Need a theory of advising to guide research, education, and practice McGillin (2000) states in her chapter in Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook, “We must first clarify what advising is and is not by generating a theory of academic advising.”
  18. 18. Do you think the Advising Occupation warrants a long-tertiary education?1. Yes2. No
  19. 19. What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  20. 20. Self Regulation• Create a Professional organization that advocates for profession and provides professional guidelines or standards• No managers, other colleagues monitor• Determine the scope of practice and responsibilities• Other Advisors enforce standards and practices – remove professional title when necessary
  21. 21. Are you aware of NACADA or CAS standards?1. Yes2. No3. Not sure
  22. 22. Do we currently self-regulate? NACADA“The NATIONAL ACADEMIC ADVISING ASSOCIATION (NACADA), promotes and supports quality academic advising in institutions of higher education to enhance the educational development of students. NACADA provides a forum for discussion, debate, and the exchange of ideas pertaining to academic advising through numerous activities and publications.” ~Retrieved electronically May 12, 2011 from http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/AboutNACADA/index.htm
  23. 23. CAS“The Mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage self-assessment.”“The primary purpose of Academic Advising Programs (AAP) is to assist students in the development of meaningful educational plans.”Retrieved electronically April 18, 2011 from http://www.cas.edu/getpdf.cfm?PDF=E864D2C4-D655-8F74-2E647CDECD29B7D0.
  24. 24. Scope of practice: Common Advisor Responsibilities registration materials Prepare Evaluate transfer credit Monitor degree audits 1/3 ofprograms Coordinate orientation programs Train advisors campus-wide 1/2 of Develop advising handbooksprograms Participate in academic policy committees Allprograms General education guidance Liaison to academic 0 50 100 departments/schools Maintaining academic records
  25. 25. Advisor roles (2000): Advising at theMillennium • Results reported from a survey to NACADA members • Generalizability is limited.• Survey Demographics (n=2,597)  76% Female  61% advising 1-10 years  62% master’s degrees  89% FT advising appointment  40% from public research institution
  26. 26. Reported areas of advising responsibilities (byinstitution type) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 public 20 private 10 2 year 0 total
  27. 27. Circled responsibilities are most consistent withgraduate level education? 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 public 20 private 10 0 2 year total
  28. 28. What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  29. 29. Public Service• The service is needed by individuals• The client is vulnerable, an expert is needed and great trust is placed on individuals• Moral and professional obligation to client regardless of time, pay, preference, or other “9-5 norms”.
  30. 30. Vulnerable Population?• Only 30% of the US population will earn a bachelor degree or higher. – 40% of the population does not even attempt college – For the 60% that attend college, only ½ will earn a bachelor degree or higher.• Education is a costly, life-changing event: – $8,244 per year, public four-year colleges – $14,092 more per year with a Bachelor’s Degree than w/o – $16,952 Associate Degree and more than a person with “some college, no degree” – 42% less likely to be unemployed with a Bachelor’s Degree than those with “some college, no degree.” – The more educated the longer the life-span
  31. 31. Academic Advising as a Necessary Public Service 1980 Empirical link between student satisfaction with academic advising & retention (1st National Survey of “What Works in Student Retention”) 2007-2009 (2009) Students who experienced congruence between (2007) Academic Advising does not negatively affect their preferred style and their advisors’ style were more underprepared students’ chance of success, as was likely to be and feel integrated into the campus previously theorized in the “cooling out” phenomenon environment. 2010Since the 1980 survey, over 50% of colleges have improved or developed academic advising programs to increase retention (4th national survey)
  32. 32. What is a profession? Sole jurisdiction EducationSelf regulation Profession w/theoretical background Field is a public service
  33. 33. Sole Jurisdiction– Legally recognized sole jurisdiction over profession • No one else creates the rules, laws, or standards that govern the profession• No one else can practice as an advisor• Often requiring licensure or additional certifications
  34. 34. Who else practices as an advisor?1. Students2. Faculty3. Any one available (AA, Chair, etc.)4. Other offices1. No one (you)2. The person before you3. Chairs4. Students5. The institution
  35. 35. Impact on advising? Sole Masters Degree or HigherOnly Credentialed Advisors jurisdiction (in the field) - cannot be learned on the job Increased Pay AutonomyLoss of “9to 5norms” Education Self regulation Profession w/theoretical background Recognition and RespectNational standards Increasedcreated by other Field is a public service responsibilityadvising professionals and culpability
  36. 36. Get your clickers ready….!
  37. 37. I _____ that advisors should be involved with these types of these activities: ~general education guidance ~new student orientation ~develop advising handbooks ~evaluate transfer credit ~monitor degree audits ~liaison to academic departments/schools1. Strongly Agree2. Agree3. Disagree4. Strongly Disagree
  38. 38. I _____ that advisors should be involved with these types of activities: ~research & publications ~curriculum: assessment & development ~service (academic committees, national committees) ~accreditation ~student mentoring1. Strongly Agree2. Agree3. Depends4. Disagree5. Strongly Disagree
  39. 39. If the occupation of advising required advisors to conduct research and assessment, publish scholarly articles, participate in curriculum development and accreditation,complete service activities (serve on academic committees,volunteer time), what should be the minimum educational requirement for an academic advisor?1. Certification2. Bachelor’s3. Master’s4. Doctorate5. Licensure w/ Degree
  40. 40. Advisors provide a necessary public service to avulnerable population who relies heavily on the advising expert?1. Strongly Agree2. Agree3. Disagree4. Strongly Disagree
  41. 41. The occupation of advising (the duties, norms, and skills) should:1. Be relatively consistent nationally2. Be determined within a State3. Be local to each institution
  42. 42. Are you willing to forgo 9-5 norms (guaranteed hours, schedules, sleep) to become a profession?1. Yes2. No3. Maybe
  43. 43. Last TwoQuestions
  44. 44. Is Academic Advising a Profession?1. Yes2. No
  45. 45. Should Academic Advising become a profession?1. Yes2. No3. No, but career opportunities need to be provided
  46. 46. THANK YOU!• Anna Adams – anna.adams@utah.edu• Jason Barkemeyer – jason.barkemeyer@utah.edu• Josh Larson – joshua.larson@health.utah.edu• Sharon Aiken-Wisniewski – saiken@uc.utah.edu
  47. 47. ReferencesAnalytic Quality Glossary. www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary/profession/htm.Bahr, P.R. (2007). Cooling Out in the Community College: What is the effect of Academic Advising on Students’ Chance of Success?Beal, RE. & Noel, L. (1980). What Works in Student Retention: The Report on American College Testing Program and National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.Boston Globe: http://www.boston.com/news/health/blog/2008/03/life_expectancy.htmlBureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey: http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htmCollege Board: http://www.collegeboard.com/student/pay/add-it-up/4494.htmlCook, Sandra. Important Events in the Development of Academic Advising in the United States. NACADA Journal. Vol 29 (2). Fall 2009. pp. 18-26.
  48. 48. Crookston, B.B. A Developmental View of Academic Advising As Teaching. Journal of College Student Personnel. Vol 13, January 13, pp. 395-415.Evetts, Julia. The Sociological Analysis of Professionalism, Occupational Change in the Modern World. International Sociology. Vol 18(2), June, 2003. pp. 395-415.Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget. Standard Occupational Classification Manual: What is a Profession?, pp. xxviii and 51.Gordon V. & Habley, W. Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook. 2000.Habley, W., Valiga, M., McClanahan, R. & Burkum, K. (2010). What Works in Student Retention. Fourth National Survey. Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities Report. Retrieved electronically from: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED515220.pdf.
  49. 49. References continuedHale, M., Graham, D., Johnson, D. & Donald, M. (2009). Are Students More Satisfied with Academic Advising When There is Congruence between Current and Preferred Advising Styles. College Student Journal, v43, n2, pp 313-324.Kolb, Robert W., Editor. Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, 4th Ed., Pgs. 1694-1696Klass, Alan A., M.D., What is a Profession? Canadian M. A. J., Sept. 16, 1961, vol. 85, pp. 698 – 701.Lumina Foundation: http://www.luminafoundation.org/publications/A_stronger_nation.pdfMcGillin, V. A. (2000). Current issues in advising research. In V. N. Gordon & W. R. Habley (Eds.), Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook: San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  50. 50. References continuedO*Net Online Help. www.onetonline.org/help/online/zones, www.onetonline.org/help/online/scales.O’Banion, Terry. An Academic Advising Model. Junior College Journal. Vol 42, 1972. pp. 62, 64, & 66-69.Shaffer, Leigh S. et al. (2010) The professionalization of Academic Advising: Where are we in 2010? NACADA Journal, Volume 30(1), pp. 66-77.Tuttle, Kathryn Nemeth. Academic Advising. New Directions For Higher Education, no. 111, Fall 2000. pp. 15-24Wilensky, Harold L. The Professionalization of Everyone. The American Journal of Sociology, Volume LXX, Number 2, September, 1964. p. 137-158.

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