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  1. 1. APA
  2. 2. <ul><li>The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as education, business, and nursing. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The APA citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the source of information in the reference list at the end of the paper. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>I. JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS IN PRINT FORMAT </li></ul>Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.
  6. 6. <ul><li>One Author </li></ul>Williams, J. H. (2008). Employee engagement: Improving participation in safety. Professional Safety, 53 (12), 40-45.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Magazine Article </li></ul>Mathews, J., Berrett, D., & Brillman, D. (2005, May 16). Other winningequations. Newsweek, 145 (20), 58-59.
  8. 8. <ul><li>Newspaper Article with No Author and Discontinuous Pages </li></ul>Generic Prozac debuts. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, pp. E1, E4.
  9. 9. <ul><li>II. BOOKS, CHAPTERS IN BOOKS, REPORTS, ETC. </li></ul>Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
  10. 10. <ul><li>One Author </li></ul>Alexie, S. (1992). The business of fancydancing: Stories and poems. Brooklyn, NY: Hang Loose Press.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Corporate Author with an Edition and Published by the Corporate Author </li></ul>American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th d.). Washington, DC: Author.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Anonymous Author </li></ul>Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (31st ed.). (2007). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Chapter in a Book </li></ul>Booth-LaForce, C., & Kerns, K. A. (2009). Child-parent attachment relationships, peer relationships, and peer-group functioning. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 490-507). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  14. 14. <ul><li>ERIC Document </li></ul>Shyyan, V., Thurlow, M., & Liu, K. (2005). Student perceptions of instructional strategies: Voices of English language learners with disabilities. Minneapolis, MN: National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from the ERIC database.(ED495903)
  15. 15. <ul><li>III. ONLINE JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS </li></ul>Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxxxxx
  16. 16. <ul><li>Article Retrieved from an Online Database </li></ul>Senior, B., & Swailes, S. (2007). Inside management teams: Developing a teamwork survey instrument. British Journal of Management, 18, 138- 153. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00507.x
  17. 17. <ul><li>Article Retrieved from an Online Database </li></ul>Koo, D. J., Chitwoode, D. D., & Sanchez, J. (2008). Violent victimization and the routine activities/lifestyle of active drug users. Journal of Drug Issues, 38, 1105-1137. Retrieved from
  18. 18. <ul><li>Article from an Online Magazine </li></ul>Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6 (12), 166-182. Retrieved from
  19. 19. <ul><li>IV. OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES </li></ul>Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from web address
  20. 20. <ul><li>Online Report from a Nongovernmental Organization </li></ul>Kenney, G. M., Cook, A., & Pelletier, J. (2009). Prospects for reducing uninsured rates among children: How much can premium assistance programs help? Retrieved from Urban Institute website:
  21. 21. <ul><li>Online Report with No Author Identified and No Date </li></ul>GVU's 10th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  22. 22. <ul><li>V. REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Indirect Quotation with Parenthetical Citation </li></ul>Libraries historically highly value intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality (LaRue, 2007).
  24. 24. <ul><li>Indirect Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative </li></ul>LaRue (2007) identified intellectual freedom and patron confidentiality as two key values held historically by libraries.
  25. 25. <ul><li>Direct Quotation with Parenthetical Citation </li></ul>Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life &quot;to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological&quot; (Gould & Brown, 1991, p. 14).
  26. 26. <ul><li>Direct Quotation with Author as Part of the Narrative </li></ul>Gould and Brown (1991) explained that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life &quot;to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological” (p. 14).
  27. 27. FAIR USE
  28. 28. Statue <ul><li>balance the rights of copyright owners with society's interest in allowing copying in certain, limited circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>fundamental belief that not all copying should be banned </li></ul>
  29. 29. Statue <ul><li>in socially important endeavours such as criticism, news reporting, teaching, and research. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Factors: <ul><li>the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul>
  31. 31. Factors: <ul><li>the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and </li></ul><ul><li>the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Traditional Activities: <ul><li>small excerpts in a review or criticism for purposes of illustration or comment ; </li></ul><ul><li>a parody which incorporates some elements (but not all) of the work being parodied </li></ul>
  33. 33. Traditional Activities: <ul><li>quotations from a speech, address, or position paper in a news report; and </li></ul><ul><li>limited copying made by a student for academic work </li></ul>
  34. 34. COPYRIGHT
  35. 35. Definiton <ul><li>a set of  exclusive rights  granted by the law of a jurisdiction to the author or creator of an original work , including the right to copy , distribute and adapt the work . </li></ul>
  36. 36. Definiton <ul><li>Copyright does not protect ideas , only their expression or fixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright law is different from country to country </li></ul>
  37. 37. Differences among copyright, trademark and patent
  38. 38. Differences among copyright, trademark and patent <ul><li>Copyright protects creative expression that has been reduced to a tangible form , such as a book, piece of recorded music, computer program, screenplay, painting, photograph, or motion picture. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Differences among copyright, trademark and patent <ul><li>Trademark protects brand names, literally marking items in trade. </li></ul><ul><li>to protect the consumer by giving them some confidence that items branded with a certain mark are authentic and come from where they purport to come from. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Differences among copyright, trademark and patent <ul><li>Patent protects innovation . While you can't copyright an idea, you can patent one. </li></ul>
  41. 41. COPYLEFT
  42. 42. CopyLeft: All rights reversed.
  43. 43. Definiton <ul><li>a license that permits people to freely copy, modify and redistribute software so long as they do not keep others from also having the right to freely copy, modify, and redistribute the software. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>The  GNU General Public License , originally written by  Richard Stallman , was the first copyleft license to see extensive use, and continues to dominate the licensing of copylefted software. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Open Source <ul><li>to qualify as Open Source, the software must be usable by anyone regardless of purpose. Such clauses are on shaky legal ground anyways.  </li></ul>
  46. 46. Freedom: <ul><li>the freedom to use the work </li></ul><ul><li>the freedom to study the work </li></ul>
  47. 47. Freedom: <ul><li>the freedom to copy and share the work with others </li></ul><ul><li>the freedom to modify the work , and the freedom to distribute modified and therefore derivative works . </li></ul>
  49. 49. Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization <ul><li>work to increase the amount of creativity (cultural, educational, and scientific content) in the commons </li></ul>
  50. 50. Creative Commons is a nonprofit organization <ul><li>the body of work that is available to the public for free and legal sharing , use , repurposing , and remixing .” </li></ul>
  51. 51. License Conditions <ul><li>You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work — and derivative works based upon it — but only if they give credit the way you request . </li></ul>Attribution
  52. 52. License Conditions <ul><li>You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs your work. </li></ul>Share Alike
  53. 53. License Conditions <ul><li>You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work — and derivative works based upon it — but for non-commercial purposes only. </li></ul>Non- Commercial
  54. 54. License Conditions <ul><li>You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it. </li></ul>No Derivative Works
  55. 55. References: <ul><li>What is Creative Commons . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>APA-6 th Edition . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Use in Copyright . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>CopyLeft . Retrieved from </li></ul>
  56. 56. References: <ul><li>Copy Left . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Copy Right . Retrieved from </li></ul>