A Brief History of English LanguageBY: ABUOVA MADINA & AZIMOVA KUNDYZ
Plan: History of English Language - Traditional periodisation of English Language History - English Language Family Extralinguistic reasons replenishment of the English language Linguistic reasons of change of value of word
Traditional Periodisation of English Languages History The name of the period Time (Chronology)1.Old English (OE): 1.1 5th c.– 7th c. 1.1 Early OE 1.2 7th c.– 11th c. 1.2 Anglo-Saxon2. Middle English (ME): 2.1 11th c.– 14th c. 2.1 Early ME 2.2 14th c. – 15th c. 2.2 Classical ME3. New English (NE): 3.1 15th c. - mid.17th c. 3.1 Early NE 3.2 mid.17th c. - 18th c. 3.2 The age of normalization and correctness 3.3 the end of the 18th c.- till nowadays 3.3 Late NE ( Modern English)
Where does English come from? History of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. The Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language; most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders—mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc—from which the words England and English are derived.
English is a member of the Germanic language family
Overview of English Influences Pre-History-1066 A.D.Celts (Britons and Gaels) up to 55 B.C.Roman Conquest 55 B.C. - 407 A.D.Anglo-Saxon Period 407 A.D. - 787 A.D.Viking Invasions 787 A.D. - 1066 A.D.Norman Conquest begins in 1066 A.D.
The Celts/Pre-RomanThe island we know as England wasinvaded by two groups of people: 1. Celtsknown as Bythons and 2. Gaels.The Celts were Pagans and their religionwas known as “animism” a Latin word for“spirit.”Druids were their priests and when clanshad disputes, they intervened to settlethem.
Important Events in the (First) Anglo-Saxon Period 410-450 Angles and Saxons invade from Baltic shores of Germany, and Jutes invade from Jutland peninsula in Denmark, thus driving out the Celts. Nine Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms eventually become the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy or “Seven Sovereign Kingdoms”. King Alfred “the Great” managed peace against the Danes for about a generation, until William of Normandy defeated them in 1066.
Viking InvasionThe Vikings were sea-faring, explorers, traders andwarriors, Scandinavians during the 8th-11thcenturies.Expeditions that plundered and ended in conquestand settlements of Britain.King Alfred “the Great” in 871 was able to use thelanguage to appeal the English and his effortssaved the language.
Extralinguistic reasons replenishment of the English language The complexity of the word, which is mandatory, but flexible relationship of itscomponents - denotation, concept and form - making it possible to relate one item with multiple denotations. Rethink the essence of the word is that the name of one denotation applies to the other, if their concepts are somewhat similar. The word continues to exist in its original form.
Linguistic reasons of change of value of word linguistic reason of change of value of word Ellipsis, that is, is considered. reduction of word- combination there is the so-called semantic condensation at that - a remaining word is absorbed in itself by sense of all combination.
Conclusion English continues to change and develop, with hundreds of new words arriving every year. But even with all theborrowings from many other languages the heart of the English language remains theAnglo-Saxon of Old English. The grammar of English is also distinctly Germanic -three genders (he, she and it) and a simple set of verb tenses.