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حاسب أول متوسط الفصل الأول كتاب الطالب

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حاسب أول متوسط الفصل الأول كتاب الطالب 1436-1437

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حاسب أول متوسط الفصل الأول كتاب الطالب

  1. 1. ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻫـ‬ ١٤٣٧ - ١٤٣٦ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ٢٠١٦ - ٢٠١٥ ¢ùjQó`Jº`«`∏©àdGhá`«`Hô`à`dGIQGRhäQô`b É¡`à`≤Øf ≈``∏``Y ¬``©``Ñ``Wh ÜÉ``à``µ``dG Gò```g §°SƒàŸG∫hC’G∞°ü∏d ∫hC’G»°SGQódGπ°üØdG á«∏ª©dGäÉÑjQóàdGhÖdÉ£dGÜÉàc
  2. 2. ì`g1436,º«∏©àdGhá«HÎdGIQGRh 1436/3264:´GójE’GºbQ 978-603-508-097-2:∂eOQ ‫ﺍﻟﻨـﺸـﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠـﻴـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﺑﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ -‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﳼ‬‫:ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬‫ﻟﻠﺼﻒ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ‬ .‫،٦٣٤١ﻫـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ‬ - .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ / ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﻢ‬ ٢٥٫٥ x ٢١ ‫؛‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ١١٢ .‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴـﺔ‬‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳـﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ـ‬٢ ‫ﺍﳊـﻮﺍﺳـﻴﺐ‬ ‫ـ‬١:‫ﺭﺩﻣـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ١٤٣٦/٣٢٦٤ ٠٠٤٫٠٧١٢ ‫ﺩﻳـﻮﻱ‬ .¬©eÉæcƒ∏°Sø°ùM≈∏Yó¡°ûJ¬àaɶfπ©éædh,¬«∏YßaÉëæ∏aIô«ÑcIóFÉah᪡e᪫bQô≤ªdGGò¡d .¬HßØàëJÉæà°SQóeáÑàµeπ©éæ∏a,IOÉØà°SÓdΩÉ©dGôNBG»aá°UÉîdGÉæàÑàµe»aQô≤ªdGGò¡HßØàëfºdGPEG ájOƒ©°ùdGá«Hô©dGáµ∏ªªdG`º«∏©àdGhá«HôàdGIQGRƒdáXƒØëeô°ûædGh™Ñ£dG¥ƒ≤M ™bƒeº«∏©àdGhá«HôàdGIQGRh www.moe.gov.sa :»`fhô`à`µdE’Gó`jô`Ñ`dG ègÉæª∏dáeÉ©dGIQGOE’G-Ö°SÉëdGº°ù≤d computer.cur@moe.gov.sa
  3. 3. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬‫ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻀﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬‫ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳ‬‫ﺑﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﻗﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺶﺀﹴ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‬‫ﻭﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺑﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﺴﺎﻧﺪﺓ‬‫ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻛﻨﻈﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ (Computer Science) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ .(Computer Literacy) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻌﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺳﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ١.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬‫ﻭﻣﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‬ ٢.‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛﺄﺩﺍﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬‫ﺑﻨﺎﺀ‬ ٣‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬‫ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬ ٤‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻳﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻮﻝ‬ ٥‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﻣﻨﻬﺞ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬‫ﺗﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ .‫ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻓﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻗﺴﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺤﻮﻱ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﻇﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ‬‫ﺗﻈﻞ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬،‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺗﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ .‫ﻭﺗﻨﻮﻋﻬﺎ‬‫ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ‬‫ﻛﺴﺐ‬‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻚ‬‫ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ‬‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬،‫ﻭﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬‫ﺗﻜﺘﻔﻲ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬‫ﻧﻨﺼﺤﻚ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬‫ﺃﺧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬‫ﹸﻌﺪ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﺏ‬‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻚ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻗﺘ‬‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ‬‫ﺑﺄﻥ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺮﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺻﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﺑﺸﺘﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﻄﻮﻳﻊ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻳﻀ‬‫ﺗﺤﺎﻭﻝ‬‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬ ،،‫ﺧﻴﺮ‬‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻓﻖ‬‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﻴﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬
  4. 4. ( ) ‫ﺍﻷﻭﳳ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ٩ ... ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ١-١ ٩ ...‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ٢-١ ١١ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ٣-١ ١٢ ...‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ٤-١ ١٣ ...‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ٥-١ ١٤ ...‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ٦-١ ١٤ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ٧-١ ١٧ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ١٨ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ‬ ١٩ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ٢٠ ... ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ‬ ٢١ ... ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬... ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ( ) ٢٥ ... ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ١-٢ ٢٥ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ٢-٢ ٢٦ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ٣-٢ ٣٧ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ٣٨ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ‬ ٣٩ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ٤٠ ... ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ‬ ٤١ ... ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ٤٤ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ :‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ٥٠ ... ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬
  5. 5. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ( ) ٥٩ ... ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ١-٣ ٥٩ ... (OPERATING SYSTEM) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ٢-٣ ٦٠ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﻡ‬ ٣-٣ ٦٠ ... (COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEMS) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ٤-٣ ٦٣ ... (SMART DEVICES OS) ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ٥-٣ ٦٦ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ٦٧ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ‬ ٦٨ ... ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ٦٩ ... ‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ‬ ٧٠ ... ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ٧٢ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻟﺔ‬ :‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ٧٨ ... ‫ﺍﺑﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ٨٣ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ٨٨ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ٩٣ ... (١) ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ١٠٠ ... (٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ‬ ١٠٧ ... ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬
  6. 6. ( ) ‫ﺍﻷﻭﳳ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ : . . . . . . . . . . . .
  7. 7. ٨ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ١.‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻕ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹸﻔ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٢.‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬‫ﹸﻮﺿﺢ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٣.‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹶﺘﻌ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٤.‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﹸﺠﺮﻱ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٥.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﺒﺎﺩﻝ‬‫ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫ﻕ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹸﻔ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٦.‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹸﻌ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٧.‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ‬ ٨.‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺰ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﹸﻤ‬‫ﺗ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ-ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫-ﺑﺈﺫﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ــ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ــ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺄﺗﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻘﺪﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻏﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻫﻤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻘﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﻼﻏ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻞ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻔﻀﻞ‬ .‫ﺍﻹﻧﻘﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺗﻒ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﹰﺍ‬‫ﺯ‬‫ﺭﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺁﻟ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺗﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ .‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﺩ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪ‬
  8. 8. ٩ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺮﺕ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻢ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬‫ﻧﻌﻴﺶ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺗﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻓﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺠﺰ‬ ،‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺴﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮﺍﺗﻔﻨﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺗﻮﻣﺎﺗﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ‬ ‫ﻏﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ .(١-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻫﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ .‫ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ‬ ١-١ ٢-١ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ :(١-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬:(٢-١)‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﻴﻒ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ؟‬‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ (ON/‫)ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻣﺎ‬ :‫ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،‫ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ (OFF/‫)ﺇﻃﻔﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،(1) ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﹸﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻭﺳ‬ ‫ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬ .(٢-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (0) ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﹸﻤﺜﻞ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻭﺳ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﺎﺱ‬ ،‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ،(1) ‫ﻭ‬ (0) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ .(bit) ‫ﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
  9. 9. ١٠ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯﻙ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬‫ﻷﺣﺪ‬‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ؟‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻒ‬ ،(sky) ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ (١-١) ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺠﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ (sky) ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻬﺬﺍ‬ (٢-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (s) ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ (٣-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ .(٣-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (Byte) ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ‬ ،(bit) ‫ﺑﺖ‬ 8 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (01100001) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎﻟﺮﻣﻮﺯ‬ (a) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻳﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻤﺜ‬ (١-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‬ :(bit) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ، (1) ON ‫ﺇﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ .(0) OFF (bit) ‫ﺑﺖ‬ 8 ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ (Byte) ‫)١-٣(:ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ :(١-١) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬(s)‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻑ‬‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬:(٢-١)‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ (sky) ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ :(٣-١) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ :(١-١)‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻟﻪ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬،‫ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬‫ﺍﺳﻤﻚ‬‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ‬ ١ .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬‫ﻳﺮﺍﻫﺎ‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﻝ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﺣ‬ ٢ .‫ﺍﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻳﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻣﺔ‬‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ :‫ﻣﺜـــﺎﻝ‬
  10. 10. ١١ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ :(٤-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ٣-١ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬،‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ‬‫ﻧﺮﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ‬‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺤﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺠﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ‬ .‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺎﻝ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻘ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻏﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻇﻬﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻊ‬ :‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ (٤-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ (0)‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻗﺪﻳﻤ‬ ‫)ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟـ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺸﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺎﺭﻏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ .(0) ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ .(‫ﺷﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ .‫ﻫﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ١٥٠٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣ‬ .‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬‫ﻭﻳﺼﻌﺐ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻭﻑ‬‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻜﻒ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺑﺘﺎ"-ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫"ﺑﺮﺍﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﺐ‬‫ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺗﻪ‬‫ﺗﺪﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻈﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ -‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺷﺮﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺨﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‬‫ﻣﻮﺳﻰ‬‫ﺑﻦ‬‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻮﺍﺭﺯﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺐ‬‫ﺑﻮﺿﻊ‬‫ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬‫ﻛﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺷﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬‫ﻟﺘﺤﻞ‬(.)‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻳﻐ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺿﻊ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ،‫ﻟﻶﺣﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺮﻙ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ (‫)ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﺑﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺣﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﻟﻴ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻣﺤﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺎﺳﺒ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺮﺍﺑﺎﻳﺖ(؟‬ 1) ‫ﺑﺴﻌــﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ (‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺠﺎ‬ 250) ‫ﻭﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ؟‬‫ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺎﺭ؟‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1024 (KiloByte (KB)) ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1024 (MegaByte (MB)) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1024 (GigaByte (GB)) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ (TeraByte (TB)) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺮﺍﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌــــﺔ‬ 1024
  11. 11. ١٢ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ :(١) ‫ﻣﺜـــﺎﻝ‬ :(٢) ‫ﻣﺜـــﺎﻝ‬ (1 KB) ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ؟‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ .‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺮﻓ‬ 1024 ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺤـــــــــﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ؟‬ 4 ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ 4 × 8 = 32 bit :‫ﺍﻟﺤـــــــــﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،(Puzzle) ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺰ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﺗﻜ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﻜﻴﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻌﺜﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬ .(٥-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﻤﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ .‫ﻗﺒﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ :‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ :(Data) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ .‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺷﻜ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ : (Information) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ (1,0) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ (Binary Digits) ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ .(Digital Signals) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬ :(٥-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ٤-١ :‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻧﻌﻠﻢ‬‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬ ١٠٠٠ =‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬ ...‫ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ١٠٠٠ = ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ؟‬١٠٠٠=‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮ‬‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﺤﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ١ ‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻷﻳﺒﺎﺩ‬‫ﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺔ‬‫ﻣﺎ‬ ٢ ‫ﺑﻚ؟‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻲ‬
  12. 12. ١٣ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻏﺮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ (Technology) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ :‫ﺷﻘﻴﻦ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬ :Techno .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬ :Logy ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻓﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ﹸﻌﺮﻑ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬‫ﻓﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺼﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻼﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﺛﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻛﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺤﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ .(1,0) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ (Digital Technology) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ (1,0) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ٥-١ ‫ﺟﻤﻞ‬‫ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻭﻝ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬(‫)ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﻛ‬ :(‫)ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﺗﻜ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮﺍﻳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻣ‬ ٣٠ ‫ﻋﻤﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ :‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺠﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ؟‬ (IT) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻓــﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨـــﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻌــﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻫـــﻢ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣـــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺼــﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻨــﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺻﻞ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟــﻮﻗــﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠــﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﻳــﻮﻓــﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨــﺪﺍﻣــﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻘﺪ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬ .‫ﻭﺳﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠــــﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ (Information Technology) ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮ‬ .‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻣ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺼﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ .‫ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺎﺗﻪ‬
  13. 13. ١٤ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﺮﻯ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻣﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺗﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻄﻠﻖ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ .‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ : (Digital Device) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ : (Computer) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ .(٦-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺎﺳﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻤﺜ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺗﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﺄﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ١ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺬﻑ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬‫ﻛﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺧﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ٢ .‫ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬‫ﺟﻬﺎﺕ‬‫ﻛﻌﺮﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ‬ ٣ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ٤ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ‬ ، ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﺭﺉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺳﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺫﻫﺎﻧﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ،(‫)ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺆﺩﻱ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ (‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ (Playstation ‫ﻭ‬ Xbox) ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬ :‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﻨﻒ‬ ٦-١ ٧-١ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ :(٦-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
  14. 14. ١٥ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ :(٧-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ :(٨-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ‬ :(٩-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ :(١٠-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ :(Mainframe) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ١ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ .(٧-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ :(Server Computer)‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ٢ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﻤﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻪ‬ ،‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻌﺪﺩ‬ .(٨-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ :(Workstation) ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ‬ ٣ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ‬‫ﺗﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﺰ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻳﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ .(٩-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ :(Personal Computer (PC)) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ٤ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻪ‬ ،‫ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹶ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻗﹺ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ :‫ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬ .(١٠-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬
  15. 15. ١٦ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫اﻟـﺨـــﺎدم‬ (Server) ‫أﻧـــــﻮاع‬ ‫اﻟـﺤﺎﺳــﺐ‬ ‫اﻟـﻤﺮﻛﺰي‬ ‫اﳊﺎﺳﺐ‬ (Main Frame) ‫اﻟﻌــﻤــﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄــﺔ‬ (Work Station) ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫اﳊﺎﺳﺐ‬ (Personal Computer) ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﳊﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫أو‬ (Control/Embedded Computer) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ :(١١-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ :(١٢-١) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ :(Control/Embedded Computer)‫ﺍﻟﻀﻤﻨﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ٥ .‫ﺫﻛﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺒﺮ‬ (١٢-١) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻀﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬‫ﻭﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻛﺎﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺘﺮﺍﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺳﻢ‬ .(١١-١) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ‬
  16. 16. ١٧ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻗﻢ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺋﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ١‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺖ‬ (8) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬ ٢.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬‫ﺩﻋﺖ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬‫ﺳﻌﺔ‬‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬‫ﻳﺒﻴﻦ‬‫ﻣﺠﺴﻢ‬‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ٣.‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺎﺀ‬ ٤‫ﺑﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻼﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻟﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺎﺭﺑﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺮﺗﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ١.‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ (٥ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ٢) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ٢‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻢ‬ : ‫ﻣﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ .‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺠﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩ‬ ٣.‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ٤.‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬
  17. 17. ١٨ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ 0 ................................... ................................... ................................................... ................................................................. .................................. ................................... :‫ﺑﺎﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻧﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﻤﻞ‬ »fhôàµdEG RÉ¡L πc »ªbôdG ≥£æªdG ≈∏Y »æoH ¬∏ªY »a
  18. 18. ١٩ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﺩﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺖ‬ :‫ﺇﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﻐﺮ‬ .( ) OFF ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ، ( ) ON ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﺖ‬.‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﻗﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺮﻓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ،‫ﻛﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ .‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻳ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺷﻜ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ (1,0) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ .‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﻈﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬.(1,0)‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬(Binary Digital)‫ﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﺘﺪﻓﻖ‬‫ﺗﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫ﻭﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ .‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ‬
  19. 19. ٢٠ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ :‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺖ‬ 8 ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺭﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﻗﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺮﻓ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺗﻤ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ‬ (1,0) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1024 ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﻣﻌﺎﻥ‬ 1 ‫ﺃﻭ‬ 0 ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ :‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ( ) ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎﻡ‬ ( ) ‫ﻋﻼﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻊ‬ ١( ) .‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ٢( ) .‫ﺣﻮﺍﺳﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ٣( ) .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ٤( ) .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٥( ) .‫ﻛﻴﻠﻮﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ = (GB) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ٦( ) .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻀﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻲ‬ ،‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫«؟‬Digital » ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬ (Bits) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ :‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔ‬ ٢٠ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻇﻔﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺔ‬ ١ ‫ﺱ‬ ٢ ‫ﺱ‬ ٣ ‫ﺱ‬ ٤ ‫ﺱ‬ ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  20. 20. ٢١ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ :‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ‬ ١:‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺠﺎﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ -‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺖ‬ -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻳﺖ‬ -‫ﺃ‬ ٢:‫ﻳﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1014 -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1024 -‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 2024 -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 1000 -‫ﺃ‬ ٣:‫ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 2 -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 7 -‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 4 -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺖ‬ 8 -‫ﺃ‬ ٤:‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺗﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺮﺱ‬‫ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺪ‬ -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻴﻒ‬ -‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻧﺐ‬ -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ 50 -‫ﺃ‬ ٥:‫ﻣﺎﻋﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ -‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ -‫ﺝ‬ ٦:‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺷﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺩﻡ‬ -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ‬ -‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ -‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ 64
  21. 21. ٢٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ٢٢ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺱ‬٧:‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﺭ‬ -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻴﺸﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﻱ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ -‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ -‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺗﻒ‬ -‫ﺝ‬ ٨:‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﻋﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺧﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ -‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺧﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ -‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ -‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺗﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺷﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ،‫ﺧﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ -‫ﺩ‬
  22. 22. ٢٣ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ٢٣ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﻬــــﻢ‬ : . . . . . . . . ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ( )
  23. 23. ٢٤ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺫﻫﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻭﺃﺷﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻧﻮﻋ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻮﺍﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺋﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻗﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺕ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ :‫ﺗﻤﻬﻴﺪ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ -‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫-ﺑﺈﺫﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ١.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ٢.‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ٣.‫ﻭﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ٤.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺗﻌ‬ ٥.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﺬ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٦.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﺬ‬‫ﺗ‬ ٧.‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﺬ‬‫ﺗ‬
  24. 24. ٢٥ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﺻﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ،‫ﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺆﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻴﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻛﻴﺰﺓ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ .‫ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ‬ ١-٢ ٢-٢ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ .‫ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺫﻛﺮ‬ ،‫ﻧﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﻣﺤﻄﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺩﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬‫)ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬ ،(‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ،(Software) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﻦ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻳﻀﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ .(١-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (Hardware) :‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ،‫ﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺑﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﺈﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ :‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﹸﻌﻄﻰ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ .‫ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ :(١-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،(Operating Systems)‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬‫ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴـﻞ‬‫ﻧﻈـﺎﻡ‬‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻬـﺎ‬‫ﻭﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻧـــﻈــــﺎﻡ‬،(Windows)‫ﻧﻮﺍﻓﺬ‬ .(Android)‫ﺃﻧﺪﺭﻭﻳﺪ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴـﻘــﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠــﻴــﺎﺕ‬ ،(Application Programs) ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺭﺩ‬‫ﻣﺎﻳـــﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓــــــﺖ‬ (Microsoft Word) ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼــــــﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻟﻜــﺘــﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬
  25. 25. ٢٦ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﹸﻤ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ :‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ‬ .‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺫﻥ‬ - ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻳﺜﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻴﺚ‬ (Desktop) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻮﻋﻴﻪ‬ (Personal Computer (PC)) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ‬ - ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻚ‬ (Laptop) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮﻝ‬ ،(Motherboard) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ :‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬ .(٢-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (Computer Peripherals) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ٣-٢ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ :(٢-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬
  26. 26. ٢٧ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(٣-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ :(٤-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ (‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫)ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻀﻦ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،(System Board) ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ .(٤-٢) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ (٣-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ . (٥-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ :(٥-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛـــﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟــــﺞ‬ : ١-٣-٢
  27. 27. ٢٨ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(٦-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻑ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻷﺗﻌ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧــﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻳﻤـــﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔــﺄﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑــﺰﺭ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﺃﻧـــﻘـ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ (‫)ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ (‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫)ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻈﻬﺮ‬ .(‫)ﺇﺑﺪﺃ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ..................................................: ................................................... ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻪ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺎﺱ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ (1,000,000,000) ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ،(GHZ) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺠﺎﻫﺮﺗﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬ ،(Intel) ‫ﺇﻧﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋ‬ (٦-٢) :(Memory Unit) ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬ :‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ :(Read Only Memory (ROM)) ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ١ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ :(Processing Unit) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭﻻ‬
  28. 28. ٢٩ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ :(Random Access Memory (RAM)) ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ٢ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺆﻗﺘ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ،‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ (٧-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(٧-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻣــﻦ‬ ‫ﻟــﻜــﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨــﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜــﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﱢﺩ‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﺣــ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ :(Interface Unit) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ١‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ :(Data Bus) ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ‬ .(٨-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺒﺮ‬ :(٨-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
  29. 29. ٣٠ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ٢‫ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ :(Expansion Slots) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺘﻮﺳﻌـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄـــﺎﻗــــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴــــﺖ‬ ،(٩-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬــــــﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﻜـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄـــﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜــــﻞ‬ ،‫ﻋـــﻠـﻴﻬـــــﺎ‬ (Expansion Cards) .(١٠-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (Network card) ٣‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ :(Ports) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (Universal Serial Bus (USB)) ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ (١١-٢) ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻳﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﺬ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ (١٢-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ (HDMI) ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ‬ .‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ (USB) ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ‬ :(١١-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(Sound card) ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ١ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻗﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ (USB3) ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ،(USB) ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ،(USB2) ‫ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺮﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬ (USB3) ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﺳﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬ (USB2) ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ‬ (HDMI) ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬ‬ :(١٢-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬:(TV card)‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ٢ .‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻧﻲ‬‫ﺍﻹﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬‫ﻹﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ‬ :(Graphics card) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ ٣ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ USB3 USB2 USB2 USB3 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻘﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(٩-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬ :(١٠-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
  30. 30. ٣١ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻀﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﺑﻤﺮﺍﺳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺒﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻳﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻳﻤ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺳﻞ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺞ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﻳﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﻇﻒ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‬ : ٢-٣-٢ ‫ﺍﻟﻠـﻮﺣــﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻓـــﻲ‬ ‫ﻛــﻤـــﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺋــــﻴﺴــﺔ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﻭﺣــﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺛــﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـــﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺗــﻨـــﻘــﺴــﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺿــﻨـﺔ‬ :‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ، (١٣-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ :(١٣-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺣــــﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧــﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘــﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳــﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺣــــﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧــــﺮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺣــــﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣــــﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧـــﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ :(١٤-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ :(Input Units) ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺃﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹲ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻋﺪ‬ (١٤-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ :‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
  31. 31. ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ١‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ :(Key board) ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ (١٥-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ٢‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ :(Mouse) ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ (١٦-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ٣‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺒﻪ‬ :(Scanner) ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺳﺢ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﱡ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳﻤ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،(١٧-٢) .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺳﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(١٧-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(١٥-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(١٦-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺣـﺪﺓ‬ ٣٢
  32. 32. ٣٣ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ٤‫ﻻﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ :(Digital Camera) ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﺧﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ (١٨-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ٥‫ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ :(Touch Screen) ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ،(١٩-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭﺇﺧﺮﺍﺝ‬‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﱡ‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﹸﻌ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﻭ‬،(٢٠-٢)‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﺪﻳﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ٦‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ‬ :(Microphone) ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻗﻂ‬ .(٢١-٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(١٩-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻛﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ :(٢٠-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻴﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(١٨-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻗﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ :(٢١-٢) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ :‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻳﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ :(Bar Code Reader) ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺭﺉ‬ ١ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﻬﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺤﻮﻟﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﺀ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ :(Joy Stick) ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺎ‬ ٢ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺒﻪ‬ :(Pen scanner) ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺳﺢ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬ ٣ .‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻨﺴﺨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ٣٣ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬

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