Pmbok 4th edition chapter 1 - Introduction to Project Management


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Pmbok 4th edition chapter 1 - Introduction to Project Management

  1. 1. ProjectManagementProfessional Ahmad H. Maharma PMP®
  2. 2. Project Management 1. What is Project Management j g
  3. 3. Turn your phones off/ silent
  4. 4. Who wants to be a project manager?
  5. 5. Why?
  6. 6. Who wants to work with a project manager?
  7. 7. When? Where? How?
  8. 8. Value of PMP Certification1. One of few certifications for Project Management  Adopted by IEEE standards – 1490  Run by PMI, non‐profit body, you can participate in PMI activities as  a  Run by PMI non‐profit body you can participate in PMI activities as a member 2. Proof of Project Management expertise  Not easy to get PMP certified Increased Confidence 3. Better Salary3. Better Salary PMP credential holders earn an average salary of about 100k 15.6 percent higher than non‐credentialed colleagues with same  experience 4. More Job Opportunities Desired requirement for a PM job – gets an edge Increasingly essential requirement for a PMO based organization  gy q g5. Greater respect from management and colleagues
  9. 9. Project Manager PositionsProject Administrator / CoordinatorAssistant Project ManagerProject Manager / Program ManagerExecutive Program ManagerDirector - PMOV.P. Program DevelopmentPresident - CEO 9
  10. 10. Project Manager SkillsContemporary Project Management requires the following skills: • Common sense and an ability to think logically. • An ability to work under pressure. • Good time management and organizational abilities. • Excellent diplomatic and negotiation skills 10
  11. 11. PMP Exam - Eligibility3 years / 4500 hours of PM Experience (non-overlapping) with a Bachelors or higher education 5 years / 7500 hours, with high school or equivalent35 hours of PM Education, e.g. Formal college education in Project Management Company-sponsored Programs Courses offered by training companies or consultants Courses by distance education training with end of course assessment Doesn’t count Self Study PMI Chapter meetings
  12. 12. PMP Exam StructurePMP Exam Structure Total Questions – 200 (175 + 25unaccounted)Total Time – 4 hours (240 mins)Passing % - 61% (actual 68 5%) 68.5%)Format - multiple choice, one answerAbout 80 seconds for each Question Real test ofPatience, Experience and Knowledge , p g
  13. 13. Question Topics1.1 Initiating 11%2. Planning 23%3. Executing 27% g4. Monitoring and Controlling 21%5. Closing 9%6. Professional and Social Responsibility 9% 13
  14. 14. A walk through the course outline
  15. 15. The textbook The PMBOK® Guide — Fourth Edition is the preeminent global standard for project management. Like previous editions, it represents generally recognized good practices in the profession while reflecting project management’s j t t’ continually evolving knowledge
  16. 16. Program Outline 16
  17. 17. The 5 Project Management Process GroupsEach process is described by (ITTO’s):InputsI tTools & Techniques 17Outputs
  18. 18. The 9 Knowledge Areas The 9 Knowledge AreasProject Integration Management j g gProject Scope ManagementProject Time ManagementProject Time ManagementProject Cost ManagementProject Quality ManagementProject Quality ManagementProject Human Resource ManagementProject Communications ManagementProject Communications ManagementProject Risk ManagementProject Procurement ManagementProject Procurement Management 18
  19. 19. 7. Project Management Framework Time Cost Scope Management Management Management Quality Integration HR Management Management Management Risk Communication Procurement Management M g t Management M g t Management M g t The PMBOK’s 9 Knowledge areas
  20. 20. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Time Management
  21. 21. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Cost management
  22. 22. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Scope Management
  23. 23. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Quality Management
  24. 24. Time Cost Scope Management Management Management Quality Q lit Integration I i HR Management Management Management Risk Communication Procurement Management Management ManagementThe next four knowledge areas are Facilitating Processes
  25. 25. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t HR Management
  26. 26. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Risk Management
  27. 27. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Communications Management
  28. 28. Time Cost ScopeManagement Management Management Quality Integration HR ManagementManagement Management Risk Communication ProcurementManagementM g t Management M g t Management M g t Procurement Management
  29. 29. Time Cost Scope Management Management Management Quality Integration HR Management Management Management Risk Communication Procurement Management M g t Management M g t Management M g tIntegration Management – pulling it all together
  30. 30. What if it’s not Integrated? it s Time Scope S Management Cost Management Management Integration Management QualityManagement HR Management Procurement Communication Management Management Risk Management
  31. 31. 1. Project Integration Managementeffective integration of the processes required t ff ti i t ti f th i d toaccomplish project objectivesprocesses include 1. project charter development 2. project management plan development 3. project execution 4. monitoring and control of project work 5. 5 Close project 31
  32. 32. 2. Project Scope Managementdefines and controls what i and i not i l d d i thd fi d t l h t is d is t included in theprojectprocesses include 1. scope planning 2. scope definition 3. creation of a Work Breakdown Schedule 4. scope verification 5. 5 scope control 32
  33. 33. 3. Project Time Managementincludes processes required for the timely completion ofa projectpprocesses include 1. defining activities 2. sequencing activities 3. 3 estimating resource activities ti ti ti iti 4. estimating duration of activities 5. developing the project schedule 6. controlling the project schedule 33
  34. 34. 4. Project Cost Managementplanning, estimating, budgeting and controlling costs toensure the project can be completed within the approvedbudgetprocesses include 1. cost estimating 2. g cost budgetingg 3. cost control 34
  35. 35. 5. Project Quality Managementall activities th t d t ll ti iti that determine quality policies, objectives i lit li i bj tiand responsibilities for the project to satisfy the needs forwhich it was undertakenprocesses include 1. quality planning 2. performing quality assurance 3. performing quality control 35
  36. 36. 6. Project Human Resource Managementprocesses that organize and manage the project teamprocesses include: 1. human resource planning 2. acquiring the project team 3. 3 developing the project team 4. managing the project team 36
  37. 37. 7. Project Communications Managementactivities to ensure project information is timely and ti iti t j ti f ti i ti l dappropriately generated, collected, distributed, stored,retrieved and disposed of pprocesses include 1. communications planning 2. information distribution 3. performance reporting 4. 4 managing stakeholders 37
  38. 38. 8. Project Risk Management•processes to increase the p p probability and impact of p y p positiveevents and decrease the probability and impact of negativeevents•updated throughout the project•processes include 1. risk management planning 2. risk identification 3. qualitative risk analysis 4. 4 quantitative risk analysis 5. risk response planning 6. risk monitoring and control g 38
  39. 39. 9. Project Procurement Management•processes to purchase/acquire the products services or results products,needed to perform the project work•includes contract management and change control processes toadminister contracts or purchase orders•processes include: 1. 1 planning purchases and acquisitions 2. contract planning 3. requesting seller responses 4. selecting sellers 5. contract administration 6. 6 contract closure 39
  40. 40. PM Knowledge Areas & Process GroupsPM Process Initiating Process Planning Process Group Executing Process Monitoring & Controlling ClosingGroups / Group Group Process Group ProcessKnowledge GroupArea ProcessesProject Develop Project Charter Develop Project Management Direct and Manage Project Monitor and Control Project Work Close ProjectManagement Plan Execution Integrated Change ControlIntegrationProject Scope Collect requirements Verify ScopeManagement Define Scope Control Scope Create WBSProject Time Define Activity y Schedule ControlManagement Sequence Activity Estimating Resource Estimating Duration Develop ScheduleProject Cost Estimating Cost Control CostManagement Budgeting CostProject Quality Quality Planning Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality ControlManagementProject HR Human Resources Planning Acquire Project TeamManagement Develop Project Team Manage Project TeamProjectP j t Identify Stakeholders Id tif St k h ld Plan Communications Pl C i ti Distribute Information Di t ib t I f ti Performance Reporting P f R tiCommunications Manage stakeholdersManagement expectationsProject Risk Plan Risk Management Risk Monitoring and ControlManagement Risk Identification Qualitative / Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk R Ri k Response Planning Pl iProject Plan procurement Conduct procurement Administer Contract CloseProcurement procurementManagement
  41. 41. We Got People 41
  42. 42. The Four Project Dimensions People Process Product Technology 42
  43. 43. Project PhasesAll projects are divided into phasesAll phases together are known as the Project Life CycleEach phase is marked by completion of Deliverables 43
  44. 44. Why Do Projects Succeed?– Executive support– User involvement– Experienced project manager– Clear business objectives– Minimized scope– Standard software infrastructure– Firm basic requirements– Formal methodology– Reliable estimates 44
  45. 45. What are Projects? 45
  46. 46. Introduction What is PMBOK Guide? PMBOK Guide is a recognized standard for the project management profession. What is a standard? A standard is a formal document that describes established norms, methods, processes, and practices. How did it evolve? The knowledge contained in this standard evolved from therecognized good practices of project management practitioners whocontributed to the development of this standard.
  47. 47. IntroductionTheTh PMBOK G id provides g id li Guide id guidelines f managing for gi g individual projects.The PMBOK Guide defines project management and related p j g concepts, and describes the project management life cycle and the related processes
  48. 48. 1.2 What is a project?Definition A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Temporary endeavor with a definite beginning and end. The end is reached when the project’s objectives have been achieved or when the project is terminated because its objectives will not or cannot be met or met, when the need for the project no longer exists.
  49. 49. 1.2 What is a project? p jDefinition – Misconceptions: Temporary does not necessarily mean short in duration. Temporary does not generally apply to out put of the project (the product,service, or result created by the p j ); most p j , y project); projects are undertaken tocreate a lasting outcome. [and lasting impact.]Definition: “create”: create : – A product that can be either a component of another item or an end item in itself, – A capability to perform a service (e g a business function that supports (e.g., production or distribution), or – A result such as an outcome or document (e.g., a research project that develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether a trend is present or a new process will benefit society).
  50. 50. 1.2 What is a project? p jDefinition “unique”D fi iti – “ i ” Every project creates a unique product, service, or result. Although repetitive elements may be present in someproject deliverables, this repetition does not change thefundamental uniqueness of the project work. An g i g A ongoing work effort i g k ff t is generally a repetitive process ll titi because it follows an organization’s existing procedures.
  51. 51. 1.2 What is a project?Examples of Projects p jExamples of projects include, but are not limited to: Developing a new product or service, Effecting a change in the structure, staffing, or style of anorganization, developing or acquiring a new or modified information system system, Constructing a building or infrastructure, or Implementing a new business process or procedure.
  52. 52. 1.2 What is a project?Project Exist in All Organizations - Public Sector Organization - Business Organization - Non Governmental Organizations etcWhy? Because organizations are open systems. They have to systems respond to both internal and external changes To meet their development agenda To satisfy customers To survive To solve problems and grab opportunities
  53. 53. 1.3 What is project management? p j gWhat is Project Management?Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
  54. 54. 1.3 What is project management?How is project Management accomplished? Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the 42 logically grouped project management processes. The 42 project management processes are logically grouped in to five “Process Groups”. p These Process Groups are: Initiating, Initiating Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing.
  55. 55. 1.3 What is project management?What does a project typically include? p j yp y Identifying requirements Addressing the various needs, concerns, & expectations ofstakeholders as the project is planned & carried out, Balancing the competing project constraints including, but notlimited to: Scope, Quality, Schedule, Budget, Resources, and R d Risk.
  56. 56. 1.3 What is project management?What is interdependency of constraints? The relationship among these factors [the constraints] issuch that if any one factor changes, at least one other factor islikely to be affected.Example: For example, if the schedule is shortened, often the p , ,budget needs to be increased to add additional resources tocomplete the same amount of work in less time. If a budgetincrease is not possible, the scope or quality may be reduced to possibledeliver a product in less time for the same budget.
  57. 57. 1.3 What is project management?Constraints – Key points Project stakeholders may have differing ideas as to whichfactors are the most important, creating an even greaterchallenge.challenge Changing the p j g g project requirements may create additional q yrisks. The project team must b able to assess the situation and h be bl h dbalance the demands in order to deliver a successful project.
  58. 58. 1.3 What is project management?Because of the potential for change, the project management plan is iterativeand goes through progressive elaboration throughout the project’s life cycle cycle.What is iteration?What is progressive elaboration? Progressive elaboration involves g continuously improving and detailing a plan as more-detailed and specific information and more accurateestimates become available available. Progressive elaboration allows a project management team to manageto a greater level of detail as the project evolves evolves.
  59. 59. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, p j , Program, & Portfolio Mgt.Broader Context of Project Management In mature project management organizations, p j project management exists in a broader context g governed by program management and portfolio management.
  60. 60. 1.4 1 4 Relationships B/W Project, Project Program, & Portfolio Mgt. g , gThe Figure focuses/shows that, g , organizational strategies and priorities are linked, and there is relationships between portfolios and programs,and there is relationship between programs and individualprojects.projects
  61. 61. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt.Key points: Organizational planning impacts the projects by means of project prioritization based on risk, funding, and theorganization sorganization’s strategic plan. plan Organizational planning can direct the funding and support for g p g g ppthe component projects on the basis of risk categories, specificlines of business, or general types of projects, such asinfrastructure and internal process improvement improvement.
  62. 62. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, p j , Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.1 Portfolio ManagementWhat is ‘portfolio’? A portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. g j The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directlyrelated.
  63. 63. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt. P P f li M1.4.1 Portfolio Management g The projects or programs of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. For example, an infrastructure firm that has the strategic objective of “maximizing the return on its investments” mayput together a portfolio th t i l d t t g th tf li that includes a mix of projects in oil and gas, power, water, roads, rail, andairports. From this mix, the firm may choose to manage related projects as oneprogram. All of the power projects may be grouped together as a powerprogram. Similarly, all of the water projects may be grouped together as awater program.
  64. 64. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt P g P tf li Mgt.1.4.1 Portfolio ManagementWhat is portfolio management?It refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios.What is portfolio management involve?It includes identifying, p y g, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling g, g, g g, gprojects, programs, and other related work, to achieve specific strategicbusiness objectives.What does portfolio management focus on?It focuses on ensuring that projects and programs are reviewed to prioritizeresource allocation and that the management of the portfolio is consistent allocation,with and aligned to organizational strategies.
  65. 65. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.21 4 2 Program ManagementDefinition of ‘Program’ g A program is defined as a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits andcontrol not available from managing them individually.Key Points: Programs may include elements of related work outside thescope of the discrete p j p projects in the program. p g A project may or may not be part of a program but a programwill always have projects.
  66. 66. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt P g P tf li Mgt.1.4.2 Program ManagementDefinition of ‘Program management’ Program management is defined as the centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits.Key Point: Projects within a program are related through the common outcome or collective capability. If t e relationship betwee p ojects is o ly t at o a s a ed cl e t, selle , the elat o s p between projects s only that of shared client, seller,technology, or resource, the effort should be managed as a portfolio ofprojects rather than as a program.
  67. 67. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt. P P f li M1.4.2 Program Management g gFocus of Program Management: It focuses on the project interdependencies and helps to determine the optimal approach for managing them. Actions related to these interdependencies may include: Resolving resource constraints and/or conflicts that affect multiple p j projects within the program; p g ; Aligning organizational/strategic direction that affects project and program goals and objectives; and Resolving issues and change management within a shared governance structure.
  68. 68. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.2 Program ManagementAn Example of a Program : An example of a program would be a new communications satellite system i ti t llit t with projects for design of the satellite and of the ground stations stations, construction of each, integration of the system, and g y , launch of the satellite.
  69. 69. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt P g P tf li Mgt.Difference in approaches Projects, programs, and portfolios have differentapproaches. Table 1-1 shows the comparison of project, program, and portfolio views across several domains including g change, leadership, management, and others.
  70. 70. Project Management Competencies j g p 72
  71. 71. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt P g P tf li Mgt.1.4.3 Projects and Strategic Planning Projects are often utilized as a means of achieving an organization’sstrategic plan plan. Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following strategic considerations: Market demand Strategic opportunity/business need g pp y Customer request Technological advance Legal requirements
  72. 72. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, Program & Portfolio Mgt Mgt.1.4.3 Projects and Strategic PlanningKey Points Projects, within programs or portfolios, are a means of achievingorganizational goals and objectives, often in the context of a strategic plan. g g j g p Although a group of projects within a program can have discrete benefits,they can also contribute to the benefits of the program, to the objectives ofthe portfolio, and to the strategic plan of the organization. Organizations manage portfolios based on their strategic plan which may plan,dictate a hierarchy to the portfolio, program, or projects involved.
  73. 73. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.3 Projects and Strategic PlanningKey Points One goal of portfolio management is to maximize the value of the portfolioby the careful examination of its components the constituent programs components—the programs,projects, and other related work. Those components contributing the least to the portfolio’s strategicobjectives may be excluded. In this way an organization’s strategic plan excluded way, organization sbecomes the primary factor guiding investments in projects. At the same ti th time, projects provide f db k t programs and portfolios b j t id feedback to d tf li bymeans of status reports and change requests that may impact other projects,programs, or portfolios. The needs of the projects, including the resourceneeds,needs are rolled up and communicated back to the portfolio level which in level,turn sets the direction for organizational planning.
  74. 74. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt. P P f li M1.4.4 Project Management Office (PMO)Definition: f PMO is an organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under itsdomain.Responsibility of PMO: The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing projectmanagement support functions to actually being responsible for the directmanagement of a project.Key Point: The projects supported or administered by the PMO may not berelated, other than by being managed together.
  75. 75. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.4 Project Management OfficeKey Points: The specific form, function, and structure of a PMO is dependent upon theneeds of the organization that it supports. A PMO may be delegated the authority to act as an integral stakeholder anda key decision maker during the beginning of each project, to makerecommendations, or to terminate projects or take other actions as requiredto keep business objectives consistent. p j In addition, the PMO may be involved in the selection, management, anddeployment of shared or dedicated project resources resources.
  76. 76. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.4 Project M144P j Management Offi OfficePrimary Function:To support project managers in a variety of ways which may include, but arenot limited to: Managing shared resources across all projects administered by PMO Identifying & developing p j y g p g project mgt. methodology, best p g gy, practices, & , standards Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight; Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies standards policies, procedures, and templates via project audits; Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation , and Coordinating communication across projects.
  77. 77. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, p j , Program, & Portfolio Mgt.1.4.4 Project Management OfficePMO and Project Managers Pursue Different Objectives: Project managers and PMOs pursue different objectives and, as such, are d i d h driven b diff by different requirements. t i t All of these efforts, however, are aligned with the efforts however strategic needs of the organization.
  78. 78. 1.4 Relationships B/W Project, Program, & Portfolio Mgt. P P f li M1.4.4 Project Management OfficePMO and Project Managers have Different Roles: The Th project manager f j t focuses on th specified project objectives, while th the ifi d j t bj ti hil thePMO manages major program scope changes which may be seen as potentialopportunities to better achieve business objectives. b i bj ti The project manager controls the assigned project resources to best meetproject objectives while the PMO optimizes the use of shared organizationalresources across all projects. ll j t The project manager manages the constraints (scope, schedule, cost, andquality, etc.) of the individual projects while the PMO manages themethodologies, standards, overall risk/opportunity, and i t d th d l gi t d d ll i k/ t it d interdependencies d iamong projects at the enterprise level.
  79. 79. 1.5 Project Management and Operations ManagementDefinition:D fi i i Operations are an organizational function performing the ongoingexecution of activities that produce the same product or provide a repetitiveservice. iExamples: Production operations, manufacturing operations, and accountingoperations, etc.Key Points: Though temporary in nature, projects can help achieve the organizationalgoals when they are aligned with the organization’s strategy. organization s strategy Organizations sometimes change their operations, products, or systems bycreating strategic business initiatives.
  80. 80. 1.5 Project Management and Operations ManagementProjects require project management whileoperations require b i ti i business process mgt. or operations management. t ti tProjects can intersect with operations at various points during the productlife cycle, such as: At each closeout phase; When developing a new p p g product, upgrading a p , pg g product, or expanding , p g outputs; Improvement of operations or the product development process; or Until the divestment of the operations at the end of the product life cycle.
  81. 81. 1.5 Project Management and Operations ManagementKey Points: At each point, deliverables and knowledge are transferred between the project and operations for implementation of the delivered work work. This occurs through a transfer of project resources to operationstoward the end of the project, or through a transfer of operational resourcesto the project at the start start. Operations are permanent endeavors that produce repetitive outputs,with resources assigned to d b i ll the same set of tasks according to the ih i d do basically h f k di hstandards institutionalized in a product life cycle. Unlike the ongoing natureof operations, projects are temporary endeavors. j d
  82. 82. 1.7 1 7 Project Management Body of Knowledge g The PMBOK Guide is the standard for managing most projects most ofthe time across many types of industries industries. This standard describes the project management processes, tools, andtechniques used to manage a project toward a successful outcome. h i d j d f l This standard is unique to the project management field and hasinterrelationships to other project management disciplines such as programmanagement and portfolio management. Project management standards do not address all details of everytopic.
  83. 83. 1.7 Project Management Body of Knowledge K l dg This standard is limited to single projects and the projectmanagement processes that are generally recognized as good practice. Other standards may be consulted for additional information on the ybroader context in which projects are accomplished. Management of programs is addressed in The Standard for ProgramManagement, and Management of portfolios is addressed in The Standard for PortfolioManagement. Examination of an enterprise’s project management processcapabilities is addressed in Organizational Project Management MaturityModel (OPM3 ).
  84. 84. 1.8 Enterprise Environmental FactorsDefinition: Enterprise environmental factors refer to both internal and externalenvironmental factors that surround or influence a project’s success. These factors may come from any or all of the enterprises involved inthe project. Enterprise environmental factors may enhance or constrain project management options and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome outcome. They are considered as inputs to most planning processes.
  85. 85. 1.8 Enterprise Environmental p FactorsEnterprise environmental factors include, but are not limited to: Organizational culture, structure, and processes; Government or i d t standards ( G t industry t d d (e.g., regulatory agency regulations, l t l ticodes of conduct, product standards, quality standards, and workmanshipstandards); Infrastructure ( I f t t (e.g., existing f iliti and capital equipment); i ti facilities d it l i t) Existing human resources (e.g., skills, disciplines, and knowledge, such asdesign, development, law, contracting, and purchasing) Personnel administration (e.g., staffing and retention guidelines, employeeperformance reviews and training records, overtime policy, and timetracking);
  86. 86. 1.8 Enterprise Environmental Factors– Company work authorization systems; p y y ;– Marketplace conditions;– Stakeholder risk tolerances;– Political climate;– Organization’s established communications channels;– Commercial databases (e.g., standardized cost estimating data, industry risk study i f i k t d information, and risk d t b ti d i k databases); and ) d– Project management information systems (e.g., an automated tool, such as a scheduling software tool, a configuration management system, an information collection and distrib tion s stem or web interfaces to other distribution system, eb online automated systems).
  87. 87. For more information do not hesitate to contact me. Ahmad H. Maharma - PMP®Ramallah, PalestinePhone: + (972) (2) 2968644PhMobile: + (972) (599) 001155E Mail:E-Mail: