Mihi tena kotou, ngā ātitua. Ko George. I am from Mahia on the east coast of the North island south of gisborne, I am also from Whakakī Mohaka, Nuhaka, Morere and as far up as Wiakaremoana
Ka puta. To come out of. Or to be born of.
Whakamārama, The sneeze of hine ahu one after hongi or the breath of life via Tane, Tihei mauri ora Mauri (is a life force) so a whenua or placenta can be a potential mauri.
The value of these concepts like whānau hāpū and Iwi where already instilled in the value of the language. Te Reo Māori.
Acknowledge Ange Worthington, introduction to Active Home Birth Taranaki and National scene. With some encouragement and help from Angela this is what I submitted if you have not read it already,
Nieces photo’s taken at Parihaka Pā during Te Miringa’s tangihanga on Te Raukura. Two weeks before birth.
Acknowledge Chris and Mama Katerina, Chris who I have made a new life long friend with. You were so quite during our labour I loved it thankyou. To our mum Katerina who has fort the system for so long especially through the 60’s 70’s 80’s and 90’s knowing what was right in your heart. We are so proud of you and the fact that you have completed your training as a grand mother in midwifery we the whanau know that the mostly male dominated western medical system in birthing has been hard to learn to like. I would also like to thank her for Feeding me up on the blood building diet 1 month before birth and 1 month after (congeeese) Brown rice and water mixed with dried fruit and spices, sweet or sour, cooked for long periods of time and is great for a new breastfeeding mum, that can just come and go from the cooker, along with the acupuncture I never thought I would ever like needles.
Born at 9.8 pound.Photo taken on Minjeribah Stradbroke Island Australia, Indig exchange. Tuwhakararo was kept home and named on the 18th day his first day out of the home. Minjeribah aboriginal woman where strong with there traditional men and womans circles, we where taken to significant womans birthing sites, Brown’s Lake womans lake for swimming and bathing and children only. A traditional Birthing Lake.
Tuhakararo’s name sake or koroua, keeping traditional names with in the male line.
Parihaka water from under ground so the best quality, I found that sleeping when baby slept (Ozytosen) help with milk production. Olive oil on the nipples to prevent cracking. Hot clothes for engorgement.
E rere wairua, spiritual flight. On several occasions I have experienced the flight arrival of the sprits of my children and like wise the departed. Kaitiaki Sprit Guide They are not fully born until that first breath of Hine ahu one. I believe that traditionally tōhunga whom had the right karakia for different birth situations would only be called upon if needed.
Acknowledge, Tūngane who is also present and herself and Henare are good family friends and very supportive with passing of Te Miringa. I thankyou also for inspiring me to want to take up the challenge of training to be a midwife also. But for now I am going to enjoy the growth of the tamariki new babies I have and look to that in the future.
We are the repositories of the scared knowledge, it is our responsibility to ensure that what we have been taught is preserved and taught on. If we can be empowered then our daughters will be empowered .
Angela Worthington for your introduction and invitation to contribute to your magazine, I hope that my story our story reaches that 99% of Māori mothers and non māori mothers in the like. I would also like to mihi to the Taranaki Active Home Birth group Carla, Cherie and Don and all the other supporters who have made this event possible. I have now found another whānau amongst you all. kiaora
One of Te Whiti o Rongomai’s statements, Te Miringa for those of you whom may not know was the founder and director of The Parihaka International Peace Festival which ran for 5 years, promoting world peace through the passive resistance of Te Whiti o Rongomai and Tohu Kākāhi, not to take up arm, but to peacefully resist. Te Miringa and Katerina birthed there own children at home together although frond upon by the wider community. They are a guiding light for us the next generation.Like our given birth right to manage our own births, it is also our given right to manage our own tūpapaku or deceased. Te Miringa was preserved in the old manner of wrapping in flax mats and kawakawa for preservation, he was boxed on a manuka stretcher which sat above salted ice to keep him cool and buried in a secret burial place only known to the whānau. (This is an old tradition.)
Te Whare Tūpuna is an ancestral house. Te Wharetāngata, the womb. Translates as a Person House. There are several similarities between the two When you walk through the front door way the Pare above depicts the genitals of a Te Ati Awa Ngāti Awa kuia Rongoueroa this is very common in many carved houses and represents the procreation of her Iwi.
Photo taken at Parihaka pā during Te Miringa’s tangihanga 17th Aug 10
Waiata Open the center baby of the hārākēkē, Where/What is the Kōmako calling to me? What is the most important thing in the world? And I will say People! People! People!Daughters, the importance of their involvement during the birth process, natural knowing from a young age.
Not Burning, but bury. 10 days at home avoid over stimulation, fast cars and bright lights can be overwhelming. Tuwhakararo was home for 18 days before we took him out. Can avoid sickness and dehydration by passing around. Most of all bonding time, familiarization with own environment. Grounding or tūrangawaewae.
Saying by Titokowaru.
Waiata Open the center baby of the hārākēkē, Where/What is the Kōmako calling to me? What is the most important thing in the world? And I will say People! People! People! I would like to invite Tihikura my partner, to introduce himself and speak about his homebirthing experience from a papa point of view.
Charissa Waerea 2011 Home Birth Conference
KAUPAPA Maori Tīkanga (protocols) ofPregnancy, Birth and Baby - Building Community through Traditional Practices. NNNNN
MIHIKo Kurahaupō, Ko Takitimu ngā waka Ko Rongomaiwahine, Ko Ngāti Kahungunu ngā Iwi Ko Te Kupenga o Te Huki te rohe Ko Ihaka Whaanga te Tūpuna Ko Charissa Waerea tōku ingoa Tēnā kōtou kātoa
Tīmatanga o te AoThe beginning of the world Ko Io Ka puta Ko te Kore Ka puta Ko te Pō Ka puta Ko Ranginui = Ko Papatūānuku
KO RANGINUI RĀUA KO PAPATŪĀNUKU KA PUTA KO TANEMAHUTA KO TĀNGAROA KO TAWHIRIMATEA KO HAUMIETIKETIKE KO RONGOMATĀNE ARA KA PUTA A HINEAHU ONE TIHE MAURIORA! I HONGI A TĀNE TE HĀ WAIRUA ĀTUA KI TĀNGATA TĒNEI IRA, TĒNA IRA, TĒRA IRA KO HINETĪTAMA TE WĀHINE I HŪRI KI TE PŌ KO HINENUITEPO KEI RŌTO I TŌNA WHARETANGATA I IA MĀTE IA MĀUI ARA KĀ PUTA KI TE ĀO MĀRAMA TE IRA TĀNGATA TE IRA TĀNE TE IRA WĀHINEKIA TĀTAE WHAKAPAPA MAI I NGĀ RĀNGI I RŪNGA
CosmogeneyIn the begginning there was the nothingness, where nothng existed. Likenedto the darkness of the inside of the whenua each stage in the darkness ofgestation and develpoment there was a name an ansestor another layer ofgeneolodgy to which I have been derived to which human kind has beencreated.Out of the darkness the place of death the realm of Hine nui te pō thekaranga or call can be heard calling Hine ahu one into Te Ao mārama theworld of lightTihei māuri ora I sneeze! I am alive! The first half mortal woman made from the sandsof Kurawaka. Was laid upon by Tāne and breathed life.So, the seperation of Ranginui and Papatūānuku was complete. Tāne pushedhis father up towards the sky and his mother remained below.
Tīkanga Māori me te Whenua Te Pō Ranginui Tane Tumatauenga Te Ao MaramaTawhirimatea WHANAU HAPŪ Haumietiketike Papatuānuku Tāngaroa Rongomatane
WHĀNAUA word with several meanings the word it self means to give birth.Whānau or family groups share common kinship and whakapapa orgenealogies, for other cultures this may be your most immediate family.In more modern context Māori have learnt to adopt this word as adescription for a group of people working together towards a commoncause for example a fundraising committee for school group.However in the case of the model whānau here are people who haveblood ties between one another. Each whānau usually has an elder orrepresentative whom will liaise with the hapū.
HAPŪThis word meaning pregnancy or to be pregnant,again a term pertaining to maternity andprocreation.A hapū is a cluster of whānau living upon adesignated site or area of land.There can be many hapū like sub groups thatmake up an iwi.
IWIThe word iwi comes from koiwi which translates tobones in te reo māori.I suppose this is recognition of the bones of those whohave passed before us. An iwi is a larger scale hapū andis made up of many hapū who occupy over a largermass of land. Hapū are able to also descend to commonancestors and share literally the same DNA. HoweverIwi do not necessarily share the same commonancestors and origins.
TE IRA TĀNGATA – HUMAN KIND IWI IWI IWI HAPŪ HAPŪ whanau whanauwhanau whanau TE IRA TĀNGATA whanau whanau HAPŪ HAPŪ IWI IWI IWI
Self determination of birthing rights Tīno Rangatiratanga prior and post 1840• Traditional Community Structures• Hapū, whānau, Iwi prior to Colonisation where thriving birthing communities.• The impacts of Christianity and other enforced religions on traditional Māori birthing communities.• Land Confiscation severance of hāpū and their customary lands, limited survival means• Woman raped genetic makeup interfered with.• Parihaka men imprisoned 1881, sent to the South Island Caves and Prisons to build roads and infustructure in Dunedin township (some never returned). “E Tu Tamawāhine, I te wā o te Kore.” “Stand strong oh woman at a time of Adversity”
Where were traditional practices lost?• Tōhunga Suppression Act 1907• The Tohunga Suppression Act 1907 was intended to stop people using traditional Māori healing practices which had a supernatural or spiritual element. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/medicines-and-remedies/2/2• !920’s dismise and distruction of Māori Carvings Whakairo displaying gentals, concidered offenceive to the Christian Missionaries. (Whakairo were mostly burnt or distroyed).• Tau mau or arranged marraiges, assured whakapapa connections, Arikitanga and hāpū alliances.
Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840• Ko te tuarua“Ko te Kuini o Ingarangi ka whakarite kaWhakaae ki ngā rangatira ki ngā hapū, kingā tangata katoa o Nu Tirani, te tinorangatiratanga o o rātou wenua, o rātoukainga me o rātou tāonga katoa”
Raupatu• Land Confiscation & theft of ansestral lands prior and post 1840, impacts to colonisation.• Land confiscation is ongoing even in present day.• Dispossession• Alienation• Ability to Survive or operate as a functioning community.
The direct and indirect effects of the application of dispossesion toMāori land on tikanga and the health and wellbeing of Māori, whānau,hāpū, Iwi.• Severing of ancestral connection with the land.• Mana tāngata, Mana whenua, Mana moana• The effects as a result• Wellbeing of Māori and future development
Ira tāngata• Te oranga o ngā tāngata o te whenua• Na te tango whenua• Kua ngaro ngā kai• Kua ngaro ngā māra• Kua ngaro ngā ika• “Ko te mate o te tangata, ko te mate o te whenua”.• “When the people are unwell, so too is the land”.
RANGATIRATANGAMy spiritual connection to our land and sea can never be stolen.Me tū tōnu tātou ngā tāngata whenua, tāngata moana, tāngata kaitiaki o ngā motu nei ki ngā tāonga. Pūpuritia ki ngā tīkanga o koro mā o kui mā….
Māori Legal Concepts derived from Tīkanga Whānaungatanga Whānau and extended family, whāngai. Mānaakitanga – Enhance mana, Uplift Wairuatanga- Spritual Rangatiratanga – Leadership, self governance Katiakitanga - Land Gurdian, customary rightsŪkaipōtanga – Baby that breastfeeds in the night. Humankind and co dependance mother and child and human and land.
Tikanga WhanauMaori Home Birthing Traditions by Charissa Waerea Tummy Talk 2011
“What an amazing experience it was to see you for the first time, my son. Your piercing black eyes coming up out of the bloody red water, you were swimming uptoward me. I called to Koro to help me to push you out,the transition was done, finally you were here. Nau mai ki te ao mārama, welcome my son to the world of light.”
Mate atu he toa, haere mai ra he toa. When one leader dies, another is born to replace him. Haere,haere, haere ki te pō. Go! Go! Go to the place of deathwith peace. This writing is in memory of Te Miringa and to my son, Tuwhakararo.
Tuwhakararo was born at Te Ikaroa papakainga/homebase, near Parihaka, two weeks onfrom the sudden passing of his grandfather, Te Miringa.The last thing Te Miringa asked my partner was, “Is the baby born yet?” To the elders in our communityTuwhakararo is Te Miringa. The mantle has been passed on through the cycle of death and birth.
Mihi aroha/love and thanks go to: My darling tane,Tihikura, whose encouragement gave me strength. Te Miringa and Katarina for providing a safe home andenvironment/papakainga for all of your mokopuna tobe birthed in. Chris and all our whanau support whomade our fourth home birth absolutely wonderful in our time of loss.
In the 1970’s my partner’s family was one of the firsthome birthing families in our rural district. The Hohaia whānau have always been advocates of ‘owning’ theirown births. Tuwhakararo is the ninth pepi/baby born in the house. Katerina, my mother-in-law, was also myLMC (lead maternity carer). Chris, our second midwife, worked quietly in the kitchen baking bread while I laboured.
Birth Tikanga Reclaiming the tikanga/protocols and practices of my foremothers was the most empowering act of tino rangatiratanga/self-determination possible. Both my grandmothers home birthed 14 children each in the 1940’s, but now only 1% of Maori are home birthing!Active home birth has been a right of all humanity since the creation of time. The word ‘tikanga’ has a wide range of meanings, such as culture, customs and protocol. It is generallyconsidered ‘the Maori way of doing things’. It is derivedfrom the Maori word ‘tika’, meaning ‘to do things right’.
There are tikanga specific to wahine/women during pregnancy, birth, and the care of mother and pepi afterwards.Whenua: The word for placenta is also is our word for the land, it is traditional to bury or return the whenua to the earth. Pepi is kept attached to the whenua for as long as possible beforecutting the pito/umbilical cord. You can use trees, rocks (carved or plain), or pou/posts to mark where the whenua is buried. If you do not know your ancestral land, pick a place significant to you so you can show your children where their whenua is.
After birth all tissue and blood products are buried,returned to the earth (this includes birth pool water, to a non-food garden area). This was very important to the ancestors.Taura muka: Harakeke cord used for the pito instead ofclamps. Some whānau have pounamu umbilical cutting instruments handed down through generations.
Ipu whenua: A clay or woven harakeke container for thewhenua/placenta. Sometimes the whenua and the pito are buried in separate places. Some pito are put intothe hollows of special trees. Whenua are usually buriedin ancestral grounds or a significant place that connects the child with the land.
Whakapapa: Researching your genealogy is a good way to learn about how the land links you to yourhapū/subgroup. Find out which iwi or regional area youcome from and then work on finding your hapū — talk with elders/kaumātua, grandparents or any whānau member that might have information to share, go to a local marae, or there are some good publications and whakapapa websites. The word ‘hapu’ also means ‘to be pregnant’.
Naming ceremony: Each of my children has been given ancestral names in a naming ceremony, followed bywhānau kai/food to complete it. Babies are not alwaysnamed straight away; a name is a lifelong commitment. Some of my pepi have remained nameless for weeks, some months! It’s OK — waiting can be exciting!
Tuwhakararo (name sake) great great grandfather
Tinana, Hinengaro and Wairua/Body, Mind and Spirit The three elements of tinana/body, hinengaro/mind and wairua/spirit are combined in equal importance to achieve wellbeing in home birth.Tinana: Traditional diet was mainly made up of high-iron foodse.g. paua, watercress, fish and organic vegetables. Our body ismostly made up of waiora/life water so it is vital to drink plentyof water, for yourself and pepi. This is important during labourand will also help keep a good milk supply when breastfeeding. Keep physically well; regular exercise and good diet both contribute to a healthy birth.
Hinengaro: Mental wellness helps with positive thoughts. Fish oil traditionally helps mental fatigue. Take responsibility for being informed about birth.Research whakapapa, look at whānau genealogy; this is good if you choose an ancestor’s name for your pepi.
Wairua: I believe that throughout pregnancy many spiritual transitions take place. Wai/water and rua/two literally meanswhen two waters meet or the sperm and the egg; the meeting of the two creates a spirit form. Tihikura’s role in my labour and birth was that of kaitiaki, a spiritual guardian or protector and securer of the environment (‘kai’ — a person who does something, and ‘tiaki’ — to care forsomething). Physically he was there to help me through the pain, but more importantly, he made sure the spiritual pathway was clear. A kaikarakia/prayer man can also help with karakia/prayer if a birth is difficult.
Prenatal and Postnatal Care Tihikura was hands-on with our pepi for a good two weeks, being fed andcared for also by whānau so he too could rest. That way the three of us could take time to bond. Later Tihikura took over the role of caring for us as the whānau womenfolk slowly moved out.The prenatal and postnatal care of mothers is just as important as the time ofbirth. When hapu (pregnant) I usually move home. At home, I am surrounded by whānau who cook, do washing and domestic chores. The grandmothers, aunties and friends rotate the care. Community protect and care for each other. I think we are really lucky to be a whānau who still has access to theknowledge of how to care for women and babies. For wahine who don’t have whānau links, find a Maori midwife (www.ngamaia.co.nz). We need more Maori midwives with links to their culture.
Other tikanga you could explore are: The use of taonga puoro/instruments, oriori/chanted lullaby sung to pepi whilst in the womb, mirimiri/massage, rongoa/medicines. Knowledge of how our foremothers birthed is an enlightening and enriching taonga/gift that empowers and protects wahine, their pepiand whānau. My commitment is to teach and guide my daughters and granddaughters to ensure that our tīkanga and practices live on for future generations.
Whether we are Maori or pakeha, knowing the values of tikanga can link and build community. Charissa and her whanau live at Te Ikaroa papakainga near Parihaka, where she enjoys the breath of the ocean and tending her vege garden. She is passionateabout encouraging Maori wahine to find their way back to the traditions of birth and the empowerment it brings.
Te Miringa Hohaia 1952 – 2010 “Ko te poo te kaihari I te raa, ko te mate te kaihari I te oranga”.“Night is the bringer of day, death and struggle, the bringer of life”.
Te Whare TūpunaTe Whare Tāngata* Whare is a body with the arms extended for welcome
Rebuilding Community through Traditional Practices of Birthing• Rebuilding of the whānau, hāpū, Iwi structures• Learning of whakapapa whānau geneolodgy/cosmogeney• Naming ceremonies, make use of old names to reaffim the connection to ansestors• Birth if possible on papa kāinga whānau ansestral lands• Ngā wāhine, building woman support networks, mothers, sisters, aunties, grandmother, daughters, friends• Ngā Tāne, building men support networks, fathers, brothers, uncles, grandfathers, sons, friends• Whai I ngā tīkanga a kui mā, a koro mā.
Ngā Tīkanga BIRTHING TRADITIONS * Returning of all blood products (whenua/placenta) to the land (preservance of the individual, DNA products) • Haircutting During Pregancy/Nail Cuttings return to the land • Cutting of the pīto with a greenstone adze or muka • Whenua capsuals made of uku clay or harākēkē. (biodigradiable)• Whenua Trees, rocks,place over whenua on whānau uru pā or significant land sites • Kawakawa (dried) smoking to heal the vigina after birth • Noho ki te kāinga at least 10 days at home • Whakaīngoa Naming ceremony
Ko wai au? “He kākānō ahau I ruia mai I Rangiatea” “I am a seed that originated in Rangiatea”.I am the proud expectant mother of my 5th child, my partner has two tamarikithat I concider my own, I know who I am, I know where I am from, I knowwho my ansestors are and I acknowledge their fight to ensure thesurvivability of my people. My children and their children will be the futureseeds and bearers of our ancent knowledge, reo, waiata, karakia andwhakapapaI am the child of Rangi and Papa the primal parents of all man kind. HE AHA TE MEA NUI HE TĀNGATA! HE TĀNGATA! HE TĀNGATA HE!
Workshop Challenge Question? How can Māori and non Māori communities grow together andknowledge share to promote and encourage home birth with regard tophysical, mental, emotional, and spiritual aspects of birth?
Hutia te Rito Hutia te Rito Hutia te Rito o te Hārākēkē Kei hea to Komako e kō? Ki mai ki ahau He aha te mea nui He aha te mea nui o te Aō Mākū e kī atuHe tāngata! He tāngata! He tāngata he!