New trends in literature and graphic novels in


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NJCH Project Summer 2011

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  • Sweet Valley High One twin is good. One is bad. And they're both California blonde. Will quiet, studious Elizabeth let SVH socialitie Jessica take the boy she has her eye on in Double Love? In Secrets, will Jessica dish out some serious dirt on Enid just so she can nab the homecoming crown? And will Elizabeth extinguish the flames igniting between Jessica and her newest boy target, Bruce—or will will she get burned in Playing with Fire? SpeakFreshman year at Merryweather High is not going well for Melinda Sordino. She busted an end-of-summer party by calling the cops, and now her friends—and even strangers—all hate her. So she stops trying, stops talking. She retreats into her head, and all the lies and hypocrisies of high school become magnified, leaving her with no desire to talk to anyone anyway. But it’s not so comfortable in her head, either—there’s something banging around in there that she doesn’t want to think about. She can’t just go on like this forever. Eventually, she’s going to have to confront the thing she’s avoiding, the thing that happened at the party, the thing that nobody but her knows. She’s going to have to speak the truth.
  • Our students are used to a fast-paced world. They want the answers now. Our choices in literature that we present need to reflect those changes, whether we agree or disagree. If the literature is not relevant to our students they will not be willing participants in the reading.
  • Graphics in new forms and formats, words and pictures reaching new synergy, nonlinear organization and format, nonsequential organization and format, multiple layers of meanings, interactive formatsMultiple perspectives – visual and verbal, previously unheard voices, youth who speak for themselvesSubjects previously forbidden, settings previously overlooked, characters portrayed in new and complex ways, new types of communities, unresolved endings
  • Esperanza – immigration, social classHomeless Bird – social classAm I Blue? – gender issuesEsperanza Ortega possesses all the treasures a young girl could want: fancy dresses; a beautiful home filled with servants in the bountiful region of Aguascalientes, Mexico; and the promise of one day rising to Mama’s position and presiding over all of El Rancho de las Rosas. But a sudden tragedy shatters that dream, forcing Esperanza and Mama to flee to California and settle in a Mexican farm labor camp. There they confront the challenges of hard work, acceptance by their own people, and economic difficulties brought on by the Great Depression.  When Mama falls ill from Valley Fever and a strike for better working conditions threatens to uproot their new life, Esperanza must relinquish her hold on the past and learn to embrace a future ripe with the riches of family and community. HomelessLike many girls her age in India, thirteen–year–old Koly faces her arranged marriage with hope and courage. But Koly's story takes a terrible turn when in the wake of the ceremony, she discovers she's been horribly misled; her life has been sold for a dowry. In prose both graceful and unflinching, this powerful novel relays the story of a rare young woman, who even when cast out into a brutal current of time–worn tradition, sets out to forge her own remarkable future.Inspired by a newspaper article about the real thirteen–year–old widows in India today, this universally acclaimed best–selling novel, characterized by spare, lyrical language and remarkable detail, transports readers into the heart of a gripping tale of hope.
  • Monster – expectations of a certain socio-economic class, raceWho Am I…? – self-esteem, self-worth connected to a relationship with a partner
  • Use a handout with an excerpt of Cheryl McLean’s article “The Nature of Literacies” relaying to story of Tony.
  • According to a study by Hughes-Hassel and Rodge, when you look at what adolescents read for leisure we see the following: magazines are the first choice for the majority of those in the study for both boys and girls. Comics or graphic novels ranked second over the internet and then books. We need to accept the forms of literature that our students are reading and develop methods for incorporating them into our classrooms.
  • Work with your partner to answer these questions. Look at ways to use the genres on the previous slide across the curriculum, not just in language arts.
  • We need to give value to the types of literature our students choose. When we validate their literature we validate their choices. If your student only read auto magazines, find a way to make it work in your classroom. Finding that positive aspect can eventually turnkey into reading other types of literature. Go out and see what your kids are reading. Ask them why, what makes it so special. Try reading their choices. Go outside the box and try something new! Go explore our collection and find a new piece of literature to bring into your class – one you feel is outside of that box.
  • Persepolis – non-fiction, historical event in the not-so-distant past, can show these historical events with a unique visual narrative style that allows readers to imagine events far removed from their own world. In this case, the conflict in Iran. Later we will see Maus, depicting the horrors of the Holocaust.
  • Words you may have heard relating to graphic novels
  • Participants will be handed a two-page spread from a graphic novel. Once they have read and listed their results we will share the findings.
  • Pages will be copied and handed out to participants.
  • Also can bridge between what students already know with what they have yet to learn
  • Relay story from the journal article regarding the author creating graphic stories to teach his algebra class in his absence.
  • Stress that many students need to be told to “read” the pictures. When they pick up a gn for the first time they may not know that the pictures tell the story with the words. I have many students who have said they did not understand or like the story, only to find out that they were not looking at the illustrations.
  • Goes against all we have learned in the past. Yet, kids have no trouble once they start.
  • Grab a student’s interest from a movie they have seen.
  • New trends in literature and graphic novels in

    1. 1. Literature for the Digital Age Rose Hagar NJCH Adolescent and YA Literature Summer 2011
    2. 2.  Not the same books you read at their age
    3. 3.  We, the digital “immigrants” are instructing our students, the digital “natives.” What takes us 5 minutes to figure out, they have done in 5 seconds. Make our lessons and their reading choices relevant to their world Accommodate for our special needs and ELLs
    4. 4.  Eliza Dresang coined the term “Radical Change” in reference to children’s literature when she recognized a change perspectives and topics in books for children. Books that were appealing to children were not appealing to adults. Changes in books reflect the changes in society, a society becoming more interactive and connected through digital networks. Radical Change, 1999.
    5. 5.  Changing forms and formats Changing perspectives Changing boundaries
    6. 6.  Culture  Gender
    7. 7.  Social Class  Relationships
    8. 8.  Voluntary & participatory Choice and variety Collaborative and independent Respect for culture and heritage Situated in local contexts, homes & communities Real-world topics, issues, and characters Time and access Dr. Cheryl McLean, Rutgers University NJCH Adolescent and Young Adult Literature, Summer 2011
    9. 9. Traditional View Expanded View  Socially-situated; Reading specific to Writing discourse-group Printed text  Multiple and multimodal (visual, aural/oral, animation, digital and technological)  Local and global.Dr. Cheryl McLean, Rutgers University NJCH Adolescent and Young Adult Literature, Summer 2011
    10. 10.  Multimodality is communication beyond the printed word “The world, now, is no longer a world in which written language is dominant.” (Kress, 1997, p. 5) Includes:  Visuals, sounds, words, animation, movement, story, genre, signs, symbols, and senses
    11. 11.  Books Magazines Newspapers Catalogs Comic Books/Graphic Novels Facebook Twitter Blogs Wikis
    12. 12.  What types of literature do you use in your classroom? How many of the genres listed above do you use? Does the literature you use cover any of the topics that fall under the cover of “Radical Change?” If not, would you be willing to introduce it in your classroom? Can you see the need to use a book like Speak with you students?
    13. 13.  “What students do in school needs to feel important to them, and they need to feel important doing that work.” “It is vitally important to help students create their own self-sponsored opportunities for reading and to encourage them to read with depth and complexity. When they have the tools…and can apply those tools to things that matter outside school, the reading we do with them in our classrooms will matter to them more. “ Deborah Appleman. Reading with Adolescents.2007
    14. 14. Literature for the Digital Age Rose Hagar NJCH Adolescent and YA Literature Summer 2011
    15. 15.  Comic Book – A traditional, staple-bound, serialized pamphlet or periodical that tells a story in sequential art.
    16. 16.  Graphic Novel – A book length story, fiction or non-fiction, that is written and illustrated in the comic book style.
    17. 17.  A unique art form Literature in a cinematic format The reader can be so engrossed that they feel they are watching a movie of the story in their imagination.
    18. 18.  Anime – Japanese term for animation Manga - Japanese comics in print form that traditionally read back to front, right to left. Manga style – graphic novels created outside Japan utilizing the traditional manga style and format.
    19. 19.  Look at the pages you have before you. With your partner, read the excerpt and list any elements of literature that you see on the pages. What did you find? Do graphic novels promote literacy?
    20. 20.  Plot Characters Dialog Setting Audience
    21. 21.  Linguistically appropriate Demand many of the same skills needed for traditional prose Often contain more advanced vocabulary than traditional books at the same age/grade/interest level Helps develop critical skills necessary to read more challenging works
    22. 22.  Require readers to be actively engaged in the process of decoding and comprehending a range of literacy devices including-  Narrative structures  Metaphor and symbolism  Point of view  Foreshadowing  Use of puns and alliteration  Inference
    23. 23.  Offer fast-paced action, conflict, and heroic endeavors  Classic archetypes such as the reluctant hero, the unknown destiny, and the mentor wizard
    24. 24.  Meet the needs of different learning styles  The visual learner will connect in a way that they cannot with a text-only book  Flexible enough that the same title will appeal to the advanced reader and the reluctant reader
    25. 25.  Require readers to be active participants in the reading process. Use their imagination to fill in the blanks between the panels or the “gutter”.  What happened in the gutter? Develop visual literacy  The ability to recognize and understand ideas conveyed through visual (still or animated) imagery.
    26. 26. Look at these pages from The Arrival.Discuss what you see with your neighbor.How could you use this in your classroom?
    27. 27.  Develop strong language arts skills  Reading comprehension  Vocabulary development  Ensure that kids continue to read for fun outside the classroom.  Bridge for transitioning from picture books to text-only books  Stimulate young readers to branch out and explore other genres
    28. 28.  Excellent for ELLs and students who read below grade level because the simple sentences and visual cues allow the reader to comprehend most of the story. Address important developmental assets and social issues. Michelle Gorman. Getting Graphic: Comics for Kids. 2008
    29. 29.  Graphic novels are visual and students love visual media Attract and motivate kids to read Combining image and text bridges the gap between what we watch and what we read Image and text share the narrative responsibility therefore a great tool for our struggling readers and ELLs
    30. 30.  According to Yang, graphic novels are “permanent.” Language, actions on film or animation are time-bound. Graphic novels have a “visual permanence.” Time progresses only as quickly as your eyes move across the page. The rate of information transfer is controlled by the reader.Graphic Novels in the Classroom . Gene Yang, NCTE, 2008.
    31. 31.  Combine all the elements of novels, picture books , film, and poetry in their own unique way. Compare written narrative vs. visually without words Character information derived from facial and bodily expressions Meaning and foreshadowing from the pictures’ composition and viewpoint
    32. 32.  Goal of both traditional novels and GNs is to convince the reader they are not looking at words or lines drawn by an artist, but something imaginatively alive. In GNs the words have to be read, but so do the pictures. Just as a sentence creates a complete thought, a sequence of panels creates complete movement through time and space. On Writing (and Reading), the Graphic Novel. Stefan Petrucha, Knowledge Quest, 2008.
    33. 33. Non-Fiction
    34. 34.  Because they are literature! Because the are fun!! If reading one graphic novel gets a student to read, then just imagine where they will go from there!
    35. 35.  Alverman, D.E. & McLean, C. “The Nature of Literacies.” Secondary School Literacy: What Researach Reveals for Classroom Practice. Eds. A. Berger, J. Eakle & L. Rush. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 2007. 1-20. Appleman, D. “Reading with Adolescents.” Adolescent Literacy: Turning Promise into Practice. Eds. K. Beers, R. Probst, and L. Reif. Portsmouth: Heineman, 2007. 143-147. Chun, C. “”Critical Literacies and Graphic Novels for English-Language Learners: Teaching Maus.” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 53.2, 2009. 144-153. Crawford, P. & Weiner, S. Using Graphic Novels with Children and Teens: A Guide for Teachers and Librarians. New York: Scholastic, 1996-2011. Dresang, E.T. Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1999. Gorman, M. Getting Graphic! Comics for Kids. Columbus: Linworth Publishing, 2008. McLean, C. “Adolescent and Young Adult Literature.” PowerPoint Presentation. Richard Stockton College. New Jersey Council for the Humanities. Pomona, NJ. 31 July 2011. McLean, C. “Hidden Curriculum: Authenticity, the Canon and Multicultural Literature.” PowerPoint Presentation. Richard Stockton College. New Jersey Council for the Humanities. Pomona, NJ. 1 August 2011. Petrucha, S. “On Writing (And Reading), the Graphic Novel.” Knowledge Quest: Journal of the American Association of School Librarians. 36.3, 2008. 60-63. “Using Comics and Graphic Novels in the Classroom (The Council Chronicle, Sept. 05). National Council of Teachers of English. Accessed 8/5/2011. Yang, Greg. “Graphic Novels in the Classroom.” Language Arts. 85.3, 2008. 185-192.