Oil Spill


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A slideshow presentation about oil spills and how they impact the environment. For a school project done by:
Paul Miranda
Melissa Quiterio
Manuel Herrera

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Oil Spill

  1. 1. By: Paul Miranda Melissa Quiterio Manuel Herrera
  2. 2. What is an Oil Spill? <ul><li>An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. The oil may be a variety of materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum products (such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by-products, ships' bunkers, oily refuse or oil mixed in waste. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Oil Spill Facts <ul><li>Spills take months or even years to clean up. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil is also released into the environment from natural geologic seeps on the sea floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Most human-made oil pollution comes from land-based activity, but public attention and regulation has tended to focus most sharply on seagoing oil tankers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Environment Effects <ul><li>The oil penetrates and opens up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing its insulating ability, and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>It also impairs birds' flight abilities, making it difficult or impossible to forage and escape from predators. </li></ul><ul><li>As they attempt to preen, birds typically ingest oil that coats their feathers, causing kidney damage, altered liver function, and digestive tract irritation. </li></ul><ul><li>This and the limited foraging ability quickly causes dehydration and metabolic imbalances. Hormonal balance alteration including changes in can also result in some birds exposed to petroleum. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Environment Effects (cont.) <ul><li>Most birds affected by an oil spill die unless there is human intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil coats the fur of Sea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestion. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Most Environmental Disaster Ever to Occur at Sea <ul><li>The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989. It is considered one of the most devastating man-made environmental disasters ever to occur at sea. As significant as the Exxon Valdez spill was, it ranks well down on the list of the world's largest oil spills in terms of volume released. However, Prince William Sound's remote location (accessible only by helicopter and boat) made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response. The region was a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals, and seabirds. The vessel spilled 10.8 million U.S. gallons (about 40 million liters) of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the sea, and the oil eventually covered 11,000 square miles (28,000 km2) of ocean. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methods of Cleaning <ul><li>Bioremediation: use of microorganisms or biological agents to break down or remove oil </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly. But it can only be done in low wind citation needed , and can cause air pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersants act as detergents, clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water. This improves the surface aesthetically, and mobilizes the oil. Smaller oil droplets, scattered by currents, may cause less harm and may degrade more easily. But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral. Recent research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals. </li></ul><ul><li>Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water. </li></ul><ul><li>Skimming: a machine that separates a liquid or particles floating on another liquid (Requires calm waters) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Way of Preventing Oil Spills <ul><li>Double Hulling: A double hull is a ship hull design and </li></ul><ul><li>construction method where the bottom and sides of the </li></ul><ul><li>ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Response Plans: This law says that the </li></ul><ul><li>owners of the tanker must have a detailed plan on what </li></ul><ul><li>they will do if there was a spill. They must have this plan </li></ul><ul><li>written before any spill. </li></ul><ul><li>Liability: The law says that the owners of a boat that spills </li></ul><ul><li>oil will have to pay $1,200 for every ton they spill. </li></ul><ul><li>Spill Fund: The law says that the government has </li></ul><ul><li>money from companies that transport the oil so when a </li></ul><ul><li>spill occurs, the government can pay for the clean up. </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation: The law says that the Coast Guard must know where the oil tankers can drive without an oil spill occurring. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Proper Disposal of Used Oil <ul><li>Put your used oil in a clean plastic container with a tight lid. Do not mix it with any thing else – paint gasoline, solvents, antifreeze, etc. – that will make it unsuitable for recycling. Take your used oil to a recycling center that collects used oil, a service station, quick lube, or any location that accepts used oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal Disposal Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Pouring used oil down a drain. Pouring used oil into a storm sewer. Tossing used oil on your driveway, street or the ground. Disposing of oil in lakes, streams or wetlands. Spreading oil to suppress dust or kill weeds Burning oil outdoors. </li></ul><ul><li>Winston-Salem </li></ul><ul><li>  The Division provides Winston-Salem and Forsyth County businesses an opportunity to dispose of paints, pesticides, herbicides, oxidizers, used oil, and solvents. </li></ul><ul><li>Located at 1401 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive.  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Contacts <ul><li>Emergency Numbers Incase Of An Oil Spill </li></ul><ul><li>Task Force 503-392-5860 (phone/fax) </li></ul><ul><li>Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (907) 465-5255 (phone) (907) 465-5262 (fax) (907) 465-5349 (phone) (907) 465-5262 (fax) (907) 269-3054 (phone) (907) 269-7687 (fax) </li></ul><ul><li>British Columbia Ministry of Environment (250) 356-8383 (phone) (250) 387-9935 (fax) (916) 445-9326 - work (916) 324-5662 - fax </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii Department of Health, Division of Environmental Health (808) 586-4249 (phone) (808) 586-7537 (phone) (503) 229-6931 (phone) (503) 229-6954 (fax) (360) 407-6905 (phone) (360) 407-7288/6042 (fax) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources <ul><li>www.wikipedia.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.google.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.ask.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.yellowcard.com </li></ul>