ENERGY W o r k r e a lic e d b y: Abra há n C ha c ó n B a tre s ( N º 10 ) 2 º A
E n e r g y d e f in it io nTyp e s o f e n e r g yE ne rg y s ourc e sR e n e w a b le a n d n o n r e n e w a b le e n e r g y s ourc e sE n v ir o n m e n t a l im p a c tE n e r g y p o w e r s t a t io n s
E n e r g y D e f in it io nDefinition: Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, electrical, or other forms.
Typ e s o f e n e r g yE le c t r ic a l e n e r g yE le c t r o m a g n e t ic e n e r g yS ound e ne rg yM e c h a n ic a l e n e r g yC h e m ic a l e n e r g yN u c le a r e n e r g yT h e r m a l o r c a lo r if ic e n e r g y
M e c h a n ic a l e n e r g yKinetic energy: is the energy that objects obtain when they are in motion.Potential energy: is the energy that objects have when they change their position of equilibrium.
E le c t r ic a l e n e r g yIt is the energy associated with an electric current. It happens in objects that are connected to a suply of electricity.
E le c t r o m a g n e t ic e ne rg yIt is transported through electromagnetic waves. A type of electromagnetic energy is luminous energy that comes from the sun or from artificial lights.
S ound e ne rg yIt is transmitted through sound waves that are also transmited through vibrations of matter.
Chemical Energy It is found in subtances. It can be released or absorbed during chemical processes.
N u c le a r e n e r g yIt is released during nuclear reactions. It is contained in the nuclei of the atoms.
T h e r m a l o r c a lo r if ic e ne rg y It comes from the vibration of the particles in matter. Temperature measures the thermal energy of each singular object.
Energy sourcesNon-renewable energy sources:CoalPetroleumNatural gasWorld reserves of fossil fuelsRenewable energy sources:HydraulicSolarWindMarine, Geothermal, Biomass, Municipal solid waste
Non-renewable energy sourcesNon-renewable energy sources are natural natural resources which cannot be used more than two times, as in the following examples:
COALCoal was formed some 300 millions years ago from the remains of plants that were buried and transformed in the absence of oxygen. There are two forms of extracting coal:Open coast mine: It happens when the coal is close to the surface.Underground mine: It happens when the mineral is buried deep below the surface.
PETROLEUMPetroleum is formed by the buried remains of plants and animals that have decomposed because of bacterial action. There are two ways of transport of petroleum:Oil tankers are specialised ships designed for intercontinental transport.Oil pipelines are enormous steel pipes.
NATURAL GAS Natural gas is a mixture of gases formed from decomposed plants and animals. It contains 70% of methane. It is found in underground gas fields and in porous rocks.
WORLD RESERVES OF FOSSIL FUELS The world´s petroleum reserves are located in theOrganization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and in the USA, Russia, China and Norway. Natural gas are in Russia, the USA, UK, and Algeria. Coal are in the USA, China and Australia.
Renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources are sources that comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, water, tides, which can be used many times.
HYDRAULIC and SOLARHydraulic energy: it is the Solar energy: it is produced by energy produced by the thermonuclear radiation from movement of water. Its inside the sun. It can be used potential energy is in various ways: transformed into kinetic - To produced hot water by energy, and the kinetic using flat solar thermal energy moves turbines, collectors. which rotate an alternator. The alternator transforms - To generate electrical energy kinetic energy into electricity. using solar panels - To produced electrical energy in heliostat fields.
WIND and MARINEWind energy: it is produced by the effect of radiation on the Marine energy: it is the atmosphere. The different energy produced in water. temperatures in the Depending on where it comes atmosphere causes the air the energy can be: movement. Consequently, the blades of a wind turbine -Tides energy are moved, and these -Wave energy transform kinetic energy into electricity. - Ocean thermal energy.
GEOTHERMAL and BIOMASSGeothermal energy: it comes Biomass: this type of energy from the heat stored in the is produced from the plant earth crust. It appears remains, in forests and naturally, such as geysers agricultural waste and volcanic eruptions. (sunflowers, beetroot...) It producesses electricity and fuels (charcoal, biogas, biodiesel and alcohol).
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTEThe incineration of municipal solid waste can be tranform into electrical or thermal energy.
Increased greenhouse effect: it occurs because the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps the sun´s rays, so the earth´s temperature increases, this affects to the poles wich are melting. Acid rain: is caused by burning coal and petroleum, when these fuels are burnt its produced sulphur that with water vapour produce acids.Oil spills: it happens when petroleum accidently mixed with water, they are harmful to marine and coastal ecosystems.Nuclear waste: it must be stored in places extremely safe, like nuclear power stations because is dangerous for all living beings.Rising water temperature: is the proccess that thermal power stations make in order to increase water temperature in rivers. This have a negative effect on the animals and plants that live in there.Atmospheric pollution: are the particles in suspension (heavy metals and gases) that are in the atmosphere.
Solar power stationsSolar power stations:They consist of a set of normally concentration collectors parabolic- cylindrical shape to promote efficient absorption of solar radiation. The problem is that solar energy can not be stored.
Nuclear power stationsA nuclear power station is a plant in which the boiler acts as a nuclear reactor. The thermal energy is caused by nuclear fission reactions in nuclear fuel composed of an uranium compound.
Geothermal power stationsThis consists of a penetration to great depths on the crust (5 km), in order to obtain a minimum temperature of 150º C, and in which are introduced two tubes in a closed circuit in different contact with the heat source. First, the water that enters is cold, but when the water raises outside it becomes hot. This water moves a turbine that produce electric energy.
Wind farmsWind farms are places where energy is transformed into electrical energy by wind turbines. It is necessary that in areas that are installed wind farms, wind reaches a minimum speed of 12km/h and a top speed of 65 km/h maximum time possible to make the instalation as efficient as possible.
OPINION ABOUT WIND TURBINES In my opinion I think that is a great advance the creation of WMS1000. As Janin said, now the price is prohibited that only cities with a very high economic power can afford. Also the instalation of this machine depends on the place that youlocated “if you think of Indonesia, it has thousands of islands and they cannot centralize their water suply... the geographic makeup of the country makes it possible,” said Janin.