Subject clauses and related structuresPresented by : supervised by: prof. Jennifer June EvansMustapha Aboulahassan prof. Tamer Youssef
Indicate the subject clause in each sentence and identify its type( infinitive, gerund,that,or interrogative)1. That Obama got so many votes surprised everyone.2. for Alan to spread such an outright lie would be unthinkable.3. Whether they will take disciplinary action against him has not been decided yet.4.
Answers :1. That obama got so many votes ( that clause)2. for Alan to spread such an outright lie ( infinitive clause)3. whether they will take disciplinary action against him ( interrogative clause).4.
TYPES OF SUBJECT CLAUSES USE OF SUBJECT CLAUSES IN DISCOURSE MOVEMENT OF SUBJECT CLAUSES EXTRAPOSITION PATTERN VR. SENTENCES WITH SUBJECT CLAUSES RELATED STRUCTURES WITH NOUN PHRASE SUBJECTS
SUBJECT RAISING SENTENCES VR. SENTENCES WITH EXTRAPOSED THAT CLAUSES PROBLEMS EFL/ESL STUDENTS HAVE WITH SUBJECT CLAUSES AND RELATED STRUCTURES ACTIVITY
There are four types of subject clauses that appear in subject position.e.g. [ that he is lazy all the time] doesn t surprise her.
Infinitive clauses are clauses that contain a verb in its infinitive form. They are a type of nonfinite clause.e.g. To speak fluent English requires a lot of time and work.
Infinitive clauses can appear in subject position in these cases. Before verbs like delight and occur Before be+adjectives like, easy and difficult Before be+nouns including, error, mistake, offense and task.
Infinitive clauses may have a subject, which is preceded by for.e.g. For Kamal to ignore her advice would be foolish.complementizer
Gerund clauses contain a verb in the present participle form, like the infinitive clause they are not marked for a tense.e.g. Speaking fluent English requires a lot oftime and work.
Gerund clauses may contain as their subject. noun in the possessive forme.g. Ali’s refusing our invitation took us completely by surprise. possessive pronoune.g. His refusing our invitation took us completely by surprise.
Gerund clause can occur with many of the same verbs and be+adjectives and noun combinations as infinitive clauses. Many subject infinitive clauses have gerund clause counterparts e.g. To get an interview with him is practically impossible. e.g. Getting an interview with him is practically impossible.
That clauses are introduced by the complementizer that and include a subject and a past or present tense. e.g. That the earth is round was a revolutionary idea at that time .
That clauses occur before : be+adjective including, apparent, clear, and remarkable. e.g. That I managed to get my MA degree at all is truly remarkable be+nouns including, accident, miracle, result ofe.g. That we continue to help each other is the result of our collaboration.
Interrogative clauses, or embedded question clauses, begin with a wh-element and like that clause, they have a present or past tense verb or a modal.Interrogative clause can be the subject of verbs including , bother, concern, depend on… e.g. Whether this is the right decision or not will depend on his principles.
Interrogative clauses can also occur before: Be+adjectives, such as arguable, certain, obvious…e.g. How he plans to that is not obvious. Be+nouns, such as concern, issue, matter…e.g. Whether Brahim completes the task today or next week is not the matter.
Subject clauses are a vehicle for linking new information to old information.e.g. The scientific community is now focusing intently on finding a cure for this dreaded disease. To accomplish this goal will not be easy. It requires very expensive research. The object NP this goal is an old information referring to finding a cure for this dreaded disease and thus linking to the preceding sentence.
Extraposition: Clauses in subject position can be moved to the end of a sentence. The subject position is filled by it.e.g. For Khalid to ignore her advice would be stupid.It would be stupid for Khalid to ignore heradvice .
Extraposition applies to : Infinitive clauses: with main clause verbs including amuse,bother,delight… And be+adjective like difficult, easy ,foolishe.g. To understand this lesson is easy. It is easy to understand this lesson.
with that clause , extraposition is possible with main verbs such as amaze, bother, and surprise. And be+adjectives including, apparent, clear, evident.e.g. That he likes her is quite obvious It is quite obvious that he likes her.
A few number of intransitive verbs – appear, come about, develop, happen,seem… can appear only in sentences with extraposed that clauses but CAN NOT occur in sentences with that clause in subject position.e.g. It appears that she wont be joining us ⃰ That she wont be joining us appears.
Interrogative clause can be extraposed when they are followed by be+adjectives such as clear,important,obvious and so on.e.g. How Omar does it is not important It is not important how Omar does it.
Generally, gerund clauses resist extraposition. But exception can be found.e.g. Protesting the new policies would be no use It would be no use protesting the new policies
Exercise 2: Indicate whether each of the following sentences has an extraposed counterpart. If so, give the extraposed counterpart; if not, explain why.Example: insulting the boss in front of everyone was really a dumb idea.Answer: no ( Gerund clauses do not extrapose well)1. To be awarded first prize in this contest is a great honor.2. For Alan to be denied the right to a fair trial would be outrageous.3. Paying off our mortgage has markedly improved our financial position.
Answers:1. Yes, It is a great honor to be awarded first prize in the contest.2. Yes, It would be outrageous for Alan to be denied the right to a fair trial.3.No ,Gerund subject clauses do not extra pose well
Extraposition pattern Subject clauseOccur far more in speech and Used to Link to previouswriting discourse and to shift to a new topic .Makes it possible to createsentences with multiple embedded When we have a complexclauses. constituent in the main clausee.g. It embarrassed her that it was following the verb.so obvious that he was angry. e.g. To include that issue in the⃰ [That [that he was angry] was so forthcoming Students Loans Billobvious ] embarrassed her. would make the measure hybrid.
In addition to the extraposition patternsentences , they are other sentences that arealternative to subject clauses. And they bothinvolve the movement of an NP from anextraposed subject clause into subjectposition in the main clause.These alternatives are Tough movement andSubject Raising sentences.
Tough movementAn object of an infinitive clause in an extraposition pattern sentence moves into subject position in the main clause occupied by it*.e.g. It is easy [ to understand this lesson]. This lesson is easy [to understand].
Tough movement can also operate on infinitive clause with subjects.e.g. It s easy for Kamal to understand this lesson. This lesson is easy for Kamal to understand.
For tough movement to apply the main clause must have be, or a similar verb followed by either, an easedifficulty adjective. OR An NP that has a similar easedifficulty meaning. For example, a joy, a pain
Subject Raising sentences The subject of an infinitive clause is moved into the subject position in the main clause. The rule that does this is subject raising Subject raising occurs with verbs such as appear, happen ,and seem.e.g. It seems[Mohamed to enjoy my company]. Mohamed seems [to enjoy my company].
Subject raising rule can also apply to sentences with be+probability adjectives including unlikely, likely, certain.e.g. It is likely [the value of the dollar to go up in January]. The value of the dollar is likely [to go up in January].
subject raising sentences: e.g. The first thing he thought of when he woke up was Marge. She wasn’t likely to take a taxi to Naples. The pronoun she has an antecedent link to the previous discourse. Which is Marge.
Extraposed That clause sentences e.g.The report states that it is likely that more than half of all conventional gas reserves that will be ultimately produced in US have been already produced. The principle of end weight favors that pattern when that clause is a long, complex noun phrase.
EFLESL students do not find problems with subject clause sentences may be because they are not used that frequently and they occur in written English. But the real problem is with Tough Movement and extraposition structures which occur in spoken English.
Spanish speakers will often omit the it required in extraposition structures. An intermediate ESL student may make errors like this:⃰ Is very hard to live without privacy.⇨ this particular type of errors is fairly common with low-intermediate and intermediate-level students.