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Intro to the brain pp


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Intro to the Brain

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Intro to the brain pp

  1. 1. Intro to the Human Brain
  2. 2. Today’s Objectives Content Objective  I can explain how the brain works and how it is studied.  I can display critical thinking about research studies. Language Objective  I can define Localization of Function and Brain Plasticity.
  3. 3. Today’s Key Terms  Neurology  Localization of Function  Frontal Lobe  Hippocampus  Neuron  Brain Plasticity  MRI and fMRI
  4. 4. Top Myths about our Brains What ideas or theories have you heard about our brains?  Top Myths about Our Brains Video Which of the ideas that we listed can we take off?
  5. 5. Neurology  The study of the brain and its functioning.
  6. 6. Localization of Function  The principle that certain areas in the brain are responsible for certain behaviors.
  7. 7. Localization of Function: The Frontal Lobe  The Frontal Lobe is responsible for self-control, planning, social judgment, and other higher-order thinking tasks.  Sociopaths (Far Right) have been shown to have less activity in their Frontal Lobe.
  8. 8. Localization of Function: Hippocampus  The Hippocampus is an area deep in the brain responsible for the storage of new memories.  Damaged Hippocampus = No New Memories.
  9. 9. Neurons  Neurons are cells that make up the nervous system (including the brain) that specialize in communication of information throughout the body  Brains consist of billions of Neurons and Trillions of Neural connections.
  10. 10. Brain Plasticity  The Principle that the brain changes over time and depending on our environment.  Our brains are always changing.  Use it or Loose It!  How Our Learning Occurs in the Brain
  11. 11. How do Neurologists study the Brain?  Throughout history Neurologists have used a variety of tools to study the brain.  Post-Mortem Examination  Brain Damage Case Studies  Modern Technology (MRI, fMRI, PET)  Key Question: Why might each of these methods have been used? What are the strengths and limitations of each?
  12. 12. Post Mortem Studies  After individuals (or animals) die, their brains are dissected and compared to normally functioning brains.  Example: Rosenweig (1972)
  13. 13. Rosenzweig (1972)  Aim: To determine how the environment can impact the neurological development of rats.  Method: Randomly assigned lab rats to one of three conditions.  Control: Typical Laboratory Cage (other rats, adequate room and food/water.)  Impoverished: Small cage, isolated, adequate food/water.  Enriched: Large space, Multiple Toys, Companions, adequate food/water. After living 4-10 weeks, they were killed and autopsies were performed on their brains (randomly assigned numbers to eliminate researcher bias).
  14. 14. Rosenzweig (1972) Cont.  Findings: The enriched rats had… 1.Thicker and heavier cerebral cortexes 2. Larger Neurons  Conclusion: An enriched environment produced more developed and bigger brains.  Critical Thinking:  Artificial environment limited Ecological Validity.  Ethical?  Applications?
  15. 15. Brain Damage Cases  The close examination of individuals with traumatic brain damage.  By studying how their behavior has changed, we can understand what that part of the brain is responsible for.  Example: Dimasio et al (1994) – The case of Phineas Gage  Gage Video
  16. 16. Dimasio et al (1994)  Aim: To determine what areas of Phineas Gage’s brain was damaged in the accident.  Method: Used MRI technology to create a model of the accident and determine what areas were damaged.
  17. 17. Dimasio et al (1994) cont.  Finding: The frontal lobe, and only the frontal lobe were damaged in the accident.  Conclusion: The frontal lobe is responsible for self-control and social processing.  Critical Thinking:  Reliable?
  18. 18. Brain Imaging Technology  In recent decades, scientists can use non-invasive technology to take images of the brain of functioning brains.  MRI- Creates an Image of the structure of the brain  fMRI- Shows activity in the brain.  Example: Corkin et al. (1997): HM
  19. 19. Corkin et al (1997)  Aim: To determine the extent of damage done to HM’s brain.  Method: Performed an MRI on HM.  Finding: All of HM’s Hippocampus and Amygdala were removed.  Conclusions: The hippocampus is responsible for the storage of new memories.  Critical Thinking:  Ethical?  Reliable?
  20. 20. Homework for Tonight 1. Select One of the Articles Online and read it in full. 2. Complete a 3-2-1 note guide for the Article. 3: New/Important ideas that were not discussed in class. 2: Pieces of Critical Thinking/Methodological Limitations 1. Question you still have about the Study.
  21. 21. Wrap-Up: Pepper  Be Prepared to answer a question based on the vocabulary and ideas which we have discussed today.