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Common diseases of
cattle - in pathology view (in India)
Dr.Pavulraj. S
M.V.Sc., Scholar(NRCE)
Division of Pathology
India...
List of common diseases
Bacterial diseases
• Tuberculosis
• Paratuberculosis
• Brucellosis
• Hemorrhagic septicemia
• Join...
Tuberculosis
• Chronic bacterial disease of animal
• Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
M.bovis
• Characterized by pres...
Granuloma in the lungs
Consolidation of lung
Tuberculous granuloma in the mediastinal
lymph node
Nodules of tubercle present in lung
containing cheesy mass
Granulomatous lesion in LN, liver, intestine
Spleen- Caseous nodules on the surface
TB- Nodules on the diaphragm, liver and
spleen
Tubercle in pleura, masentry, peritoneum –
pearl’s disease
Uterus -Endometrium contains numerous
raised tubercles
TB- Mastitis and granuloma in the bone
marrow
Differential diagnosis
• Lung abscesses
• Pleurisy and pericarditis - traumatic reticulitis
• Contagious bovine pleuro pne...
Paratuberculosis
• A chronic bacterial disease of bovine, ovine
and caprine
• Caused by Mycobacterium avium sub sp.
paratu...
Emaciation and cachexia
Mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged
Thickened, edematous ileum and distended
lymphatics on the serosal surface
Thickening of intestine wall
Presence of corrugations
Corrugations can’t be removed even after
stretching of intestine wall – look like brain
Differential diagnosis
• Parasitism
• Malnutrition
Brucellosis
• It is a infectious bacterial disease of animals
• Characterized by abortion in late gestation
and formation ...
Necrosis of cotyledons
yellowish granular necrotic areas in cotyledons
and chorion is opaque and thickened with a
leathery...
Edema of fetus, serosanguinous fluid in body
cavities
Pneumonia and necrotic foci in liver of fetus
Enlarged scrotum in males
Orchitis
Hygroma
Differential diagnosis
• IBR
• Vibriosis
• Leptospirosis
• Trichomoniasis
• Nutritional and physiological causes
Hemorrhagic septicemia
• Highly contagious bacterial disease of bovine
• Characterized by edematous swelling in neck
regio...
Edema of neck and brisket region
Subcutaneous edema
Serosanguinous fluid in peritoneal, pleural
and pericardial cavity
Serosanguinous fluid in pericardial cavity
Epicardial hemorrhages
HS- Petechial on the Heart and Lung
Pneumonia
Lungs – congested and consolidated –
marbling
- Fibrinous bronchopneumonia
HS- Hemorrhage on the serosal surface
Hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis
HS- Chronic cases- Necrotic patch on the
liver
Hemorrhage - Brain
Differential diagnosis
• Anthrax
• Blackleg
• Acute leptospirosis
• Rinderpest
Foot and mouth
• It is a contagious viral disease of cloven footed
animals
• Caused by Picorna virus
• Characterized by pr...
FMD: Mouth lesions
Ruptured vesicle in gum
Vesicles causing
extensive erosion in mouth
Infected FMD lesion - tongue
Ulceration of tongue
Rupture of vesicle leading to necrotic area in feet
Vesicle on teat
Ruptured vesicle in the teat
Erosions on the ruminal mucosa
Tigroid appearance - Degeneration and necrosis in myocardium
Differential diagnosis
• Vesicular stomatitis
• Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
• Malignant catarrhal fever
• Bovine vir...
Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis
• Infectious viral disease of cattle
• Caused by Herpes virus
• Characterized by conjun...
Congested mucus membrane
Purulent oculo-nasal discharge
Necrotic white plaques in nasal mucosa
Necrotic plaques on the mucosa and
mucocutaneous junction
Multifocal white plaques - palpebral
conjunctiva
Hemorrhagic laryngotracheitis
Rhinotracheitis, mucopurulent exudate in
trachea
Nasal septum necrosis
Pustules in vulva/vagina, glans penis and
prepuce
Necrotic lesion in liver of aborted fetus
Differential diagnosis
• Shipping Fever
• Malignant Catarrhal Fever
• Pinkeye
• Mucosal Disease
Rinderpest
• Is a acute contagious viral disease caused by
Morbilli virus
• Characterized by erosive mouth lesions and
hem...
• Salivation:
excessive &
frothy
• Serous oculonasal
discharge
Conjunctivitis
Necrosis and erosion of the gum above the
dental pad and inside the upper lip
Erosions in the inside of the upper lip
Ulcer on lower lip
Necrotic Peyer's patches
Rectum - Hyperemia of the longitudinal folds
(zebra striping)
Zebra marking in large intestine
Some time petechial hemorrhage in bladder,
vagina and other mucous membrane
Differential diagnosis
• Mucosal disease
• Malignant catarrhal fever
• Foot and mouth disease
Theileriosis
• Infectious disease of animal caused by
haemoprotozoan parasite
• Characterized by enlargement of lymph
node...
Lymph node enlargement
Enlarged and hemorrhagic lymph nodes
Abomasal ulcers
Swollen edematous lungs & interstitial pneumonia
Other lesions
• Enlarged and mottled liver
• Infarcts, thrombosis and lymphoid
hypertrophy in spleen
• Hemorrhagic and ulc...
Differential diagnosis
• Hemorrhagic septicemia
• Babesiosis
• Malignant catarrhal fever
Fascioliasis
• Fascioliasis is caused by different liver
flukes(Trematode)
• Etiology
– Fasciola gigantica
– Fasciola hepa...
• Emaciated, anemic or edematous carcass in
severe chronic infestations
• Presence of flukes in enlarged and thickened bil...
Submandibular edema
Flukes in bile ducts and liver parenchyma
Thickening of bile duct
Young fluke of Fasciola magna
Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis
• Infectious disease of newborn animal
• Infection start at umbilicus and spread to joint...
• Seen in colostrum denied young calves
• Infection of umbilicus lead to omphalitis &
cystitis
• Bacterial infection produ...
Swelling of umbilicus
Swelling of the joints
Septic arthritis involving the distal limb,
fetlocks and pastern joints in all limbs
Discharge of pus from the joints
Large fibrin clots in the carpal joint
Edematous, hyperemic
synovial membrane
Liver abscess
Grey foci in renal cortex and hemorrhage in
medulla
Differential diagnosis
• Hematoma – contain blood
• Umbilical hernia – hernial ring, sac, contents
• Patent urachus – rete...
For your kind
attention and
reading. Be the
best and proud to
be a ‘Great
Veterinarian’
References
• Color atlas of diseases and disorders of cattle
-Roger W.Blowey
• Rebhun’s Disease of dairy cattle
-Thomas J....
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Common cattle diseases

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Common cattle diseases

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Common cattle diseases

  1. 1. Common diseases of cattle - in pathology view (in India) Dr.Pavulraj. S M.V.Sc., Scholar(NRCE) Division of Pathology Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P., India
  2. 2. List of common diseases Bacterial diseases • Tuberculosis • Paratuberculosis • Brucellosis • Hemorrhagic septicemia • Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis Viral diseases • Foot and mouth diseases • Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis • Rinderpest Haemoprotozoan disease • Theileriosis Parasitic disease • Fascioliasis
  3. 3. Tuberculosis • Chronic bacterial disease of animal • Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M.bovis • Characterized by presence of tubercle nodules in lungs, spleen, lymphnodes
  4. 4. Granuloma in the lungs
  5. 5. Consolidation of lung
  6. 6. Tuberculous granuloma in the mediastinal lymph node
  7. 7. Nodules of tubercle present in lung containing cheesy mass
  8. 8. Granulomatous lesion in LN, liver, intestine
  9. 9. Spleen- Caseous nodules on the surface
  10. 10. TB- Nodules on the diaphragm, liver and spleen
  11. 11. Tubercle in pleura, masentry, peritoneum – pearl’s disease
  12. 12. Uterus -Endometrium contains numerous raised tubercles
  13. 13. TB- Mastitis and granuloma in the bone marrow
  14. 14. Differential diagnosis • Lung abscesses • Pleurisy and pericarditis - traumatic reticulitis • Contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia
  15. 15. Paratuberculosis • A chronic bacterial disease of bovine, ovine and caprine • Caused by Mycobacterium avium sub sp. paratuberculosis • Characterized by dehydration, emaciation, chronic diarrrhoea and thickening of intestine - corrugations
  16. 16. Emaciation and cachexia
  17. 17. Mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged
  18. 18. Thickened, edematous ileum and distended lymphatics on the serosal surface
  19. 19. Thickening of intestine wall
  20. 20. Presence of corrugations
  21. 21. Corrugations can’t be removed even after stretching of intestine wall – look like brain
  22. 22. Differential diagnosis • Parasitism • Malnutrition
  23. 23. Brucellosis • It is a infectious bacterial disease of animals • Characterized by abortion in late gestation and formation of granulomatous lesions in genital organs, joints, fetal liver and indurations of mammary glands • Caused by Brucella abortus in cattle
  24. 24. Necrosis of cotyledons yellowish granular necrotic areas in cotyledons and chorion is opaque and thickened with a leathery consistency. Called leathery placenta. Edematous placenta
  25. 25. Edema of fetus, serosanguinous fluid in body cavities
  26. 26. Pneumonia and necrotic foci in liver of fetus
  27. 27. Enlarged scrotum in males
  28. 28. Orchitis
  29. 29. Hygroma
  30. 30. Differential diagnosis • IBR • Vibriosis • Leptospirosis • Trichomoniasis • Nutritional and physiological causes
  31. 31. Hemorrhagic septicemia • Highly contagious bacterial disease of bovine • Characterized by edematous swelling in neck region, pneumonia and wide spread of hemorrhage in visceral organs • Caused by Pasteurella multocida
  32. 32. Edema of neck and brisket region
  33. 33. Subcutaneous edema
  34. 34. Serosanguinous fluid in peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavity Serosanguinous fluid in pericardial cavity
  35. 35. Epicardial hemorrhages
  36. 36. HS- Petechial on the Heart and Lung
  37. 37. Pneumonia
  38. 38. Lungs – congested and consolidated – marbling - Fibrinous bronchopneumonia
  39. 39. HS- Hemorrhage on the serosal surface
  40. 40. Hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis
  41. 41. HS- Chronic cases- Necrotic patch on the liver
  42. 42. Hemorrhage - Brain
  43. 43. Differential diagnosis • Anthrax • Blackleg • Acute leptospirosis • Rinderpest
  44. 44. Foot and mouth • It is a contagious viral disease of cloven footed animals • Caused by Picorna virus • Characterized by presence of vesicles in oral mucosa and foot
  45. 45. FMD: Mouth lesions
  46. 46. Ruptured vesicle in gum
  47. 47. Vesicles causing extensive erosion in mouth
  48. 48. Infected FMD lesion - tongue
  49. 49. Ulceration of tongue
  50. 50. Rupture of vesicle leading to necrotic area in feet
  51. 51. Vesicle on teat
  52. 52. Ruptured vesicle in the teat
  53. 53. Erosions on the ruminal mucosa
  54. 54. Tigroid appearance - Degeneration and necrosis in myocardium
  55. 55. Differential diagnosis • Vesicular stomatitis • Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis • Malignant catarrhal fever • Bovine viral diarrhea • Rinderpest
  56. 56. Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis • Infectious viral disease of cattle • Caused by Herpes virus • Characterized by conjunctivitis, hemorrhagic tracheitis, encephalitis in calves and abortion and mastitis in cows
  57. 57. Congested mucus membrane
  58. 58. Purulent oculo-nasal discharge
  59. 59. Necrotic white plaques in nasal mucosa Necrotic plaques on the mucosa and mucocutaneous junction
  60. 60. Multifocal white plaques - palpebral conjunctiva
  61. 61. Hemorrhagic laryngotracheitis
  62. 62. Rhinotracheitis, mucopurulent exudate in trachea Nasal septum necrosis
  63. 63. Pustules in vulva/vagina, glans penis and prepuce
  64. 64. Necrotic lesion in liver of aborted fetus
  65. 65. Differential diagnosis • Shipping Fever • Malignant Catarrhal Fever • Pinkeye • Mucosal Disease
  66. 66. Rinderpest • Is a acute contagious viral disease caused by Morbilli virus • Characterized by erosive mouth lesions and hemorrhagic enteritis • Has been eradicated from India (25 -06-2006)
  67. 67. • Salivation: excessive & frothy • Serous oculonasal discharge
  68. 68. Conjunctivitis
  69. 69. Necrosis and erosion of the gum above the dental pad and inside the upper lip
  70. 70. Erosions in the inside of the upper lip
  71. 71. Ulcer on lower lip
  72. 72. Necrotic Peyer's patches
  73. 73. Rectum - Hyperemia of the longitudinal folds (zebra striping)
  74. 74. Zebra marking in large intestine Some time petechial hemorrhage in bladder, vagina and other mucous membrane
  75. 75. Differential diagnosis • Mucosal disease • Malignant catarrhal fever • Foot and mouth disease
  76. 76. Theileriosis • Infectious disease of animal caused by haemoprotozoan parasite • Characterized by enlargement of lymph nodes, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage in kidneys and liver, ulcers in abomasum and catarrhal enteritis • Etiology – Theileria annulata
  77. 77. Lymph node enlargement
  78. 78. Enlarged and hemorrhagic lymph nodes
  79. 79. Abomasal ulcers
  80. 80. Swollen edematous lungs & interstitial pneumonia
  81. 81. Other lesions • Enlarged and mottled liver • Infarcts, thrombosis and lymphoid hypertrophy in spleen • Hemorrhagic and ulcerative enteritis
  82. 82. Differential diagnosis • Hemorrhagic septicemia • Babesiosis • Malignant catarrhal fever
  83. 83. Fascioliasis • Fascioliasis is caused by different liver flukes(Trematode) • Etiology – Fasciola gigantica – Fasciola hepatica – Fasciola magna - one of the largest of flukes
  84. 84. • Emaciated, anemic or edematous carcass in severe chronic infestations • Presence of flukes in enlarged and thickened bile ducts and in the liver parenchyma • Hepatic abscesses and secondary bacterial infection • Calcification of bile ducts • Hemorrhagic tracts of migratory immature flukes in the liver and some time lungs in an acute infestation • Icterus due to liver damage
  85. 85. Submandibular edema
  86. 86. Flukes in bile ducts and liver parenchyma
  87. 87. Thickening of bile duct
  88. 88. Young fluke of Fasciola magna
  89. 89. Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis • Infectious disease of newborn animal • Infection start at umbilicus and spread to joints • Characterized by swelling of umblilicus & joints and drainage of pus • Caused by – E.coli – Staphylococcus sp., – Actinomyces pyogenes
  90. 90. • Seen in colostrum denied young calves • Infection of umbilicus lead to omphalitis & cystitis • Bacterial infection produce bacteremia and infect joints leading to arthritis • Abscess formation and congestion of visceral organs
  91. 91. Swelling of umbilicus
  92. 92. Swelling of the joints Septic arthritis involving the distal limb, fetlocks and pastern joints in all limbs
  93. 93. Discharge of pus from the joints Large fibrin clots in the carpal joint Edematous, hyperemic synovial membrane
  94. 94. Liver abscess
  95. 95. Grey foci in renal cortex and hemorrhage in medulla
  96. 96. Differential diagnosis • Hematoma – contain blood • Umbilical hernia – hernial ring, sac, contents • Patent urachus – retention of urine
  97. 97. For your kind attention and reading. Be the best and proud to be a ‘Great Veterinarian’
  98. 98. References • Color atlas of diseases and disorders of cattle -Roger W.Blowey • Rebhun’s Disease of dairy cattle -Thomas J.Divers • Veterinary pathology -RS Chauhan • http://compepid.tuskegee.edu • http://www.fao.org

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