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  1. 1. So you think you know what constructivist, problem-based, inquiry based learning is?
  2. 2. Where are we with onlinelearning in BC?• Online course development – Contracted to teacher developers – Content driven – Over-reliance on prescribed learning resources• Online course delivery – Instructor training – Assessment versus Activity driven – Too little peer interaction
  3. 3. 3 Learning Theories: KnowledgeBehaviourism Cognitive Social Constructivism ConstructivismSkinner Piaget VygotskyBehavioural Building on your Knowledge isresponses existing knowledge sociallyto environmental by discovering and constructed. exploring newstimuli. knowledge.
  4. 4. 3 Learning Theories: LearningBehaviourism Cognitive Social Constructivism ConstructivismPassive absorption Active assimilation Integration ofof predefined body and students intoof knowledge by accommodation of knowledge newlearner. Promoted community.by repetition and information to Collaborative existingpositive assimilation and cognitivereinforcement. structures. accommodation of Discovery by new information. learners.
  5. 5. 3 Learning Theories: MotivationBehaviourism Cognitive Social Constructivism ConstructivismExtrinsic, reward Intrinsic. Learners Intrinsic andand punishment set their extrinsic. Learning(positive and own goals and goals andnegative motivate motives arereinforcers) themselves to determined both learn. by learners and extrinsic rewards provided by the knowledge community.
  6. 6. 3 Learning Theories: InstructionBehaviourism Cognitive Social Constructivism ConstructivismCorrect behavioral The teacher Collaborativeresponses are facilitates learning learning istransmitted by the by providing an facilitated andteacher (tutorial) environment thatand absorbed by promotes discovery guided by thethe students. and assimilation & teacher. Dialogue accommodation. and interactivity with others.
  7. 7. Knowledge/LearningBehaviourism• Knowledge is transferred via readings and lectures; Students are consumersConstructivism• Knowledge is constructed via engagement and interaction with others and a world of resources; Students are contributors and consumers
  8. 8. Information DisseminationBehaviourism• Access to information is controlled; most work is private between student and teacherConstructivism• All course-relevant information is available to everyone; Most contributions are visible to all students
  9. 9. AssumptionsTypical Online Course Constructivist Online• Instructor provides Course feedback & grades • Instructor sets mission students’ work and supports self- directed learning• Instructor is narrow funnel for information • Students are knowledge producers• Students follow a from a world of directed course plan resources• Knowledge transferred • Students co-create a via content course plan presentation, textbook exercises, etc. • Student work is public and visible to all• Student work is private
  10. 10. Behaviourist strategies• Process skills• Facts & figures• Memorization activities• Drill & practice• Tutorial• Worksheet
  11. 11. Constructivist strategies• Discussions• Collaborative activities• Blogs, Wikis, Webquests• Global Collaborative Projects/Competitions• Portfolios
  12. 12. Active Learning
  13. 13. Inquiry based learning AskReflect Investigate Discuss Create
  14. 14. Ask• Careers – What type of career am I interested in?
  15. 15. Investigate• Careers – Career Web sites – University / College links – Recruitment pages (police, fireman, armed forces, etc.)• Open questions – What type of education do I need in order to work in this field? – Costs? Time?
  16. 16. Create• Careers – Students decide how they will record/present their research (Web page, PowerPoint, Blog, etc.)• Additional scaffolding? – What to include? • Name of the career; educational & skill requirements; salary; workplace environment; Something in addition that you found.
  17. 17. Discuss• Conversations – With teachers, peers, friends, family, community, etc.• Online discussions and presentations – Email, instant messaging, threaded discussions
  18. 18. Reflect• How did it go?• What do you think?• Did anything surprise you?• What new questions do you have?• What next steps might you take in your inquiry?• What next steps might you take in securing your future?
  19. 19. Active Learning
  20. 20. Problem based learning• Type of inquiry-based learning that uses problems to enhance student learning• Student-centred• Unique in that students are confronted with a problem first.• “Problems” are presented in one of two general formats: – Case studies – An ill-structured problem
  21. 21. PBL is …• Student-centred and experiential• Inductive• Builds on and questions prior learning• Context-specific• “Problems” and case studies are complex and ambiguous• Collaborative (students work in small groups)
  22. 22. Problem based learning Problem based Traditional modelCurriculum • the “problem” • content or case study is (facts, dates, the curriculum theories, equations…)Delivery • students • the present findings curriculum is and solutions delivered by the teacher
  23. 23. Steps in problem based learning• The problem or case study is presented to students• Students examine / define the problem and decide what skills / knowledge they already have• List skills / knowledge they will need to solve problem• Learn new skills / acquire new knowledge• Generate possible solutions• Present preferred solution(s)
  24. 24. Case studies• Typically used in medicine, law, political science, ethics• A woman with type AB blood gave birth to a child with blood type O. A second type-O child was born six years later.
  25. 25. Examples of ill-structuredproblemsHistory Class• Provide students with several primary documents for analysis. (newspapers, diary entries, speeches)• The students’ role is to seek out the historical context of these documents.
  26. 26. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsAbility to Can be formulated No definitiveformulate the exhaustively and formulationproblem written down definitively.
  27. 27. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsAbility to Can be tested. No single criterion todevise & Mistakes and errors determine correctness.conduct can be identified. Difficult to determinedefinitive tests when a solution is a solution.
  28. 28. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsRelationship Problems can be Solving the problem isbetween formulated synonymous withproblem and separately from understanding it in thesolution. solutions. first place.
  29. 29. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsAbility to Having a clear No stopping criteria…determine ending point and a the problem may bewhether determinable ongoing and changing.problem has solution. No way to determinebeen solved completion.
  30. 30. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsTractability Exhaustive list of No list of operations operations used to exists for solving ill- solve problem structured problems. exists.
  31. 31. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsRelationship Can be stated as a Many possiblebetween discrepancy of what explanations and eachexplanation & is and ought to be. “contains” or “implies”solution An explanation for a different solution. every gap.
  32. 32. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsUniqueness or Problems can be Each problem and eachreproducibility abstracted from solution is unique.of problem. real world & similar solutions can be found
  33. 33. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsRepeatability Attempts to solve You can’t undo whatof solutions can be made you’ve tried, so each repeatedly until solution is unique, and one works. changes the nature of the problem.
  34. 34. Comparing ill-structured to tameproblemsCharacteristics Tame Problems Ill-Structured ProblemsLevel of Identifiable “natural” No identifiable causes; every form with high degree of symptom is a problem andanalysis certainty; level of detail vice versa; level of detail & for solving the problem approach not easy to define; can be found; little agreement on setting boundaries for problem boundaries of problem. are reasonably agreed upon.
  35. 35. How can the Internet supportProblem-based Learning?• Direct students to particular sites that provide the context for a problem (news clips, graphics, blogs) – a news clip on an airplane losing altitude during a flight – what caused this to happen?• Students might be asked to explore possible solutions to the problem using the World Wide Web as one resource.
  36. 36. My ConclusionIn what ways the ICT use can berelated to those 3 learning theorybecause Behaviorism is Correctbehavioral responses are transmittedby the teacher (tutorial) and absorbedby the students, and Cognitive is Theteacher facilitates learning byproviding an environment that promotesdiscovery and assimilation &accommodation, and thanConstructivism is Collaborativelearning is facilitated and guided bythe teacher. Dialogue and interactivitywith others.