CONDITIONAL
SENTENCES
3 MAIN TYPES:
First, second and third
conditional
First Conditional
If I see Andrew at the meeting, I'll give him your message.
PRESENT SIMPLE

FUTURE SIMPLE

USE: To talk ...
Second Conditional
(Hypothetical)

What would happen if…?

If my parents were alive, they would be very proud of me now.
P...
Third Conditional

What would have happened if…?

If she had worked harder, she would have passed her exams.

PAST PERFECT...
The zero conditional
(factual)
What happens if…?
If I stay out late, I always take a taxi home.
PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT SI...
Conditional Sentences:
Variations in tenses
First Conditional: The if clause is usually in the present
simple. However, we...
The main clause usually has the verb will / shall.
But we can also use:
 Going to:
If Helen passes her exams, I'm going t...
Tense variations in
conditional 2

The if clause usually takes the past simple. However,
it is also possible to use:
 Pas...
The main clause usually has the modal would
+ infinitive. However, the modals could and
might are also used and the infini...
Tense variations in
conditional 3

The if clause is usually in the past perfect simple.
However, we can also use the past ...
The main clause usually has the modal
would + perfect infinitive. However, we can
also use the modals could and might +
pe...
MIXED CONDITIONALS
MIXED C


If-clauses can be mixed provided that they make sense within a context.
If-clause

Type2

Sh...
Words other than if
Unless
Even if
If only
As/so long as

I won`t go out unless he comes too.
Even if it rains, we`ll go t...
In questions….
Suppose /
supposing (that)

Suppose you had a lot of
money, would you give up
work?

What if

What if you h...
IMPLIED CONDITIONALS
Conditions are not always expressed in the form of
conditional clauses, particularly in spoken Englis...
Inversion

 If the first verb in a conditional if clause is
should, were or had, we can leave out if and
put the verb at ...
 We use if it was / were not for + noun to say
that one situation is dependent on another
situation.
 If it wasn`t / wer...
 In real conditional sentence, we use
If… happen to,
If … should,
If … should happen to
to talk about something that may ...
Polite requests
We can use if… will in requests:
o If you will take your seats, ladies and gentlemen,
we can begin the me...
Now let's sing
some
conditionals!
Conditionals1
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Conditionals1

  1. 1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
  2. 2. 3 MAIN TYPES: First, second and third conditional
  3. 3. First Conditional If I see Andrew at the meeting, I'll give him your message. PRESENT SIMPLE FUTURE SIMPLE USE: To talk about something that is quite likely to happen in the future. It is very possible that I will see Andrew at the meeting, in which case I'll give him your message. The condition is quite likely to be fulfilled. For presenting future plans, real possibilities, steps in an argument, points in a procedure, predictable consequences, instructions.
  4. 4. Second Conditional (Hypothetical) What would happen if…? If my parents were alive, they would be very proud of me now. PAST SIMPLE WOULD + INFINITIVE USE: To talk about a present situation which is impossible, a hypothetical situation. The situation cannot be fulfilled because my parents are not alive. If she changed her job, she'd be much happier. USE: To talk about a future event which is unlikely to happen. The speaker doesn`t expect her to change her job. That is, it is unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled.
  5. 5. Third Conditional What would have happened if…? If she had worked harder, she would have passed her exams. PAST PERFECT WOULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE USE: To talk about something that might have USE happened in the past, but didn`t. She didn`t work hard enough and, consequently, she didn`t pass her exams. It also expresses excuses, regrets and blame for past events.
  6. 6. The zero conditional (factual) What happens if…? If I stay out late, I always take a taxi home. PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE USE: To describe something that is generally true. The use of if here is very similar to when. For presenting habits, general truths, rules, typical patterns, correlations. We can also use the past simple in the two clauses. If I stayed out late, I always got a taxi home.
  7. 7. Conditional Sentences: Variations in tenses First Conditional: The if clause is usually in the present simple. However, we can also use:  Present continuous: If he's still waiting for you, he'll be very angry.  Present perfect simple: If Rob's received your letter, he'll phone you.  Present perfect continuous: If it's been raining all night, you'll have to wear boots.  Can: If I can finish work early, I'll help you.  Should: If I should see him, I'll tell him the news.
  8. 8. The main clause usually has the verb will / shall. But we can also use:  Going to: If Helen passes her exams, I'm going to buy her a present.  Future continuous: If we book this holiday, we'll be lying on the beach in two weeks` time.  Future perfect: If they win the next match, they'll have won every match in the season.  Imperative: If you need me, call me.  Can / could, may / might, should / ought to, must If you don't eat your dinner, you can't have an ice cream.
  9. 9. Tense variations in conditional 2 The if clause usually takes the past simple. However, it is also possible to use:  Past continuous: If you were coming with me, I`d give you a lift.  Could If I could have the day off, I`d go with you. Were / was to: If you were to ask Steve, I`m sure he would do it.
  10. 10. The main clause usually has the modal would + infinitive. However, the modals could and might are also used and the infinitive can be in the continuous form:  If we had more money, we wouldn`t be living here.  If we had more money, we could go out more.  If you asked Tony, he might do it for you.
  11. 11. Tense variations in conditional 3 The if clause is usually in the past perfect simple. However, we can also use the past perfect continuous or could + perfect infinitive. If he had been travelling in the car, he would have been killed too. If we could have got a taxi, we would have come round to see you.
  12. 12. The main clause usually has the modal would + perfect infinitive. However, we can also use the modals could and might + perfect infinitive. If I had known there was no more work to do, I could have stayed in bed. If the ambulance had come sooner, he might have been saved.
  13. 13. MIXED CONDITIONALS MIXED C  If-clauses can be mixed provided that they make sense within a context. If-clause Type2 She would have a degree Type 2 now. so she doesn`t have a degree now. ) If I were faster, I would have won the race. (I´m not fast Type 2 If she had worked harder at university, (she didn`t work hard at university Type 3 Main clause so I didn´t win the race.) If they were studying all morning, they will be tired now. (they were studying so they are tired now.) Type 3 Type 1
  14. 14. Words other than if Unless Even if If only As/so long as I won`t go out unless he comes too. Even if it rains, we`ll go to the match. On condition (that) I`ll lend you the car on condition that you take care of it. Provided / providing (that) I`ll lend you the car provided that you take care of it. Assuming (that) Assuming that you take care of the car, I`ll lend it to you. If only I had money, I would go out more. You can use the car as long as you take care of it.
  15. 15. In questions…. Suppose / supposing (that) Suppose you had a lot of money, would you give up work? What if What if you had a lot of money, would you give up work? Imagine Imagine you had a lot of money, would you give up work?
  16. 16. IMPLIED CONDITIONALS Conditions are not always expressed in the form of conditional clauses, particularly in spoken English. They can be expressed in another way or they may be evident from the context. The rules for the verb usage are still followed in the result clause (main clause). He committed the crime, otherwise he wouldn’t have been arrested. (implied conditional) If he hadn’t committed the crime, he wouldn’t have been arrested. I would have stayed longer, but he didn’t ask me to. (implied conditional) I would have stayed longer if he had asked me to.
  17. 17. Inversion  If the first verb in a conditional if clause is should, were or had, we can leave out if and put the verb at the start of the clause. We do this particularly in formal or literary English.  Should any of this cost you anything, send me the bill (If any of this should…)  It would be embarrassing were she to find out the truth. (… if she were to find out…)  Had they not rushed to hospital, Dan would have died. (If they hadn`t rushed…)
  18. 18.  We use if it was / were not for + noun to say that one situation is dependent on another situation.  If it wasn`t / weren`t for the fireman, my dog would have died in the fire.  If it hadn`t been for my parents, I wouldn`t have gone to university.  We also use but for + noun with a similar meaning:  But for Jim`s support, I wouldn`t have got the job.
  19. 19.  In real conditional sentence, we use If… happen to, If … should, If … should happen to to talk about something that may be possible but is not very likely:  If you happen to be in our area, drop in and see us.  If you should be in our area, …  If you should happen to be in our area, …
  20. 20. Polite requests We can use if… will in requests: o If you will take your seats, ladies and gentlemen, we can begin the meeting.  if you want to make a request more polite, you can use if…would: o If you would take your seats, …
  21. 21. Now let's sing some conditionals!

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