CMC Abnormal Psychology Chapter11

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CMC Abnormal Psychology Chapter11

  1. 1. <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission over any network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-205-50294-6 </li></ul>PowerPoint for Abnormal Psychology Fourteenth Edition James N. Butcher Susan Mineka Jill M. Hooley Prepared by Andy Pomerantz Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
  2. 2. Chapter 11 Substance-Related Disorders
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Addictive behavior—behavior based on the pathological need for substance or activity—may involve the abuse of substances such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tranquilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecstasy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marijuana </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Substance abuse generally involves a pathological use of a substance resulting in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially hazardous behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued use despite a persistent social, psychological, occupational, or health problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substance dependence involves a physiological need for increasing amounts of a substance </li></ul>
  5. 5. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Alcoholic – a person with a serious drinking problem whose drinking impairs his or her health, personal relationships, and occupational functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism – a dependence on alcohol that seriously interferes with life adjustment </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Demographics of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Lifetime prevalence for alcohol abuse in the U.S. is 13.4% </li></ul><ul><li>More than 37% of alcohol abusers suffer from at least one coexisting mental disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol abuse cuts across all age, educational, occupational, and socioeconomic boundaries </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Alcohol has complex and often contradictory effects on the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At lower levels, alcohol stimulates certain brain cells and activates the brain’s “pleasure areas” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher levels, alcohol depresses brain functioning </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Excessive drinking can be viewed as progressing from early- to middle- to late-stage alcohol-related disorder </li></ul><ul><li>For individuals who drink to excess, the clinical picture is highly unfavorable and may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis of the liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach pains </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Psychosocial effects of alcohol abuse and dependence include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality deterioration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several acute psychotic reactions fit the diagnostic classification of substance-induced disorders </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biological Causal Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol <ul><li>The mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway is the center of psychoactive drug activation in the brain </li></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 11.1: The Mesocorticolimbic Pathway
  12. 12. Biological Causal Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol <ul><li>Genetics probably play an important role in developing sensitivity to the addictive power of drugs like alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Learning factors appear to play an important role in the development of substance abuse </li></ul>
  13. 13. Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Potential alcohol abusers tend to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have parents who are negative role models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be emotionally immature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect a great deal of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require an inordinate amount of praise and appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React to failure with marked feelings of hurt and inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have low frustration tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel inadequate and unsure of their abilities to fulfill expected male or female roles </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence <ul><li>Alcohol abusers also tend to be unable or unwilling to tolerate tension and stress </li></ul><ul><li>Many people expect that alcohol use will lower tension and anxiety and increase sexual desire and pleasure in life </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with less intimate and supportive relationships tend to show greater drinking following sadness or hostility </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sociocultural Causal Factors <ul><li>The incidence of alcoholism is minimal among Muslims and Mormons, whose religious views prohibit the use of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>The incidence of alcoholism is high among Europeans (15% in France) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders <ul><li>Biological approaches include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications to block the desire to drink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antabuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naltrexone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications to lower the side effects of acute withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders <ul><li>Psychological treatment approaches include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Several approaches stress controlled drinking rather than abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholics Anonymous has reportedly met with considerable success </li></ul>Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders
  19. 19. Treatment of Alcohol-Related Disorders <ul><li>Success of alcoholism treatments range from low rates for hardcore substance abusers to rates of 70-90% when modern treatment procedures are used </li></ul><ul><li>“ Project MATCH” found equal success rates among the following treatments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 12-step program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A CBT program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivational enhancement therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relapse prevention programs attempt to maintain abstinence once the behavioral excesses have been checked </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Aside from alcohol, the psychoactive drugs most commonly associated with abuse and dependence are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narcotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-anxiety drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine and nicotine </li></ul></ul>Drug Abuse and Dependence
  21. 21. Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics) <ul><li>Narcotics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These drugs were originally praised for their medical uses, but they are dangerously addictive </li></ul>
  22. 22. Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics) <ul><li>The immediate effects of narcotics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleviation of physical pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxation and pleasant reverie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleviation of anxiety and tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoric spasm </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics) <ul><li>Long-term effects include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological craving for the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual deterioration of well-being </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics) <ul><li>Some investigators have suspected that endorphins play a causal role </li></ul><ul><li>A high incidence of antisocial personality has been found among heroin addicts </li></ul><ul><li>In the U.S., addiction is associated with a narcotics subculture </li></ul>
  25. 25. Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics) <ul><li>Treatment for narcotics addiction is initially similar to that for alcohol addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Methadone and buprenorphine are often used in conjunction with a rehabilitation program </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cocaine and Amphetamines (Stimulants) <ul><li>Cocaine and amphetamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase feelings of alertness and confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease feelings of fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over the long-term, however, amphetamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are psychologically and physically addictive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May result in brain damage and psychopathology </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Methamphetamine <ul><li>Highly addictive stimulant drug known by some as “poor people’s cocaine” </li></ul><ul><li>Increases level of dopamine in brain </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged use causes structural changes in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Use has increased substantially in last 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Users are resistant to treatment, and relapse is common </li></ul>
  28. 28. Barbiturates (Sedatives) <ul><li>Barbiturates were once widely used to induce sleep </li></ul><ul><li>They are dangerous drugs commonly associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological and psychological dependence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lethal overdoses </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Barbiturates (Sedatives) <ul><li>Those who become dependent on barbiturates tend to be middle-aged people who rely on them as sleeping aids </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal is a key issue in treatment </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hallucinogens: LSD and Related Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens cause an individual to see or hear things in different and unusual ways </li></ul><ul><li>This category includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mescaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psilocybin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecstasy </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Ecstasy <ul><li>Both a hallucinogen and a stimulant </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly popular as a party drug among young adults </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically similar to methamphetamine </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rush” and well-being, but serious adverse consequences also </li></ul>
  32. 32. Marijuana <ul><li>Marijuana may be classified as a mild hallucinogen </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of marijuana vary but may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper-talkativeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucination </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Marijuana <ul><li>Marijuana is not strongly physiologically addictive, but it may be psychologically addictive for some people </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological treatment methods have been shown to be effective in reducing use in dependent adults </li></ul>
  34. 34. Stimulants: Caffeine and Nicotine <ul><li>Problematic for many reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addictive properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to quit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health problems and side effects </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Pathological Gambling <ul><li>Although pathological gambling does not involve a chemically addictive substance, it is similar in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The personality factors that tend to characterize addictive gamblers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difficulties attributable to compulsive gambling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The treatment problems involved </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Unresolved Issues <ul><li>Is the use of methadone effective in the treatment of heroin, or does it simply exchange one addiction for another? </li></ul>
  37. 37. End of Chapter 11

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