Page 83. Knowledge management relies on a strong sense of community and collaboration. The development of a knowledge culture is essential to the effective implementation of knowledge management. This entails building a widespread acceptance of knowledge sharing as a a critical behaviour. Knowledge management does not operate within a vacuum. It draws on the organisational values and culture to support and guide the creation of the knowledge community.
LO1 Page 83 Organisational cultures describe the collective perceptions, beliefs and values of employees in the workplace. Each individual may perceive a different organisational culture. He/she will be influenced from the initial and ongoing experiences in the workplace. There are many different sources of information about the organisational culture, including stories, Observed incidents First hand experiences Models Organisational structure Public recognition of what people do Resource allocation practices Leadership sponsorship of values And the individual’s own role and focus. The type of culture within an organisation can strongly influence retention and productivity. Cultures which fail to value the individual employee and their contribution typically experience low retention and decreased productivity. These are known as negative organisational cultures.
Page 83 – 84 There are many ways in which a culture is influenced. Some of these are listed on this slide, but there are also others which operate. Past patterns and history reflect an individual and group’s experience of the culture – as it really operates. People predict how they will be treated and judged, based on their knowledge of past events. If they have been discouraged from sharing their knowledge, they will anticipate that same pattern continuing into the future. If the culture is competitively based, they will focus on building their small community into a strong unit, rather than the organisation. Organisations with weak cultures will often experience a fragmentation of common values. They will interpret new events more closely in terms of past patterns and history which are personally derived. Strong cultures aim to build a greater awareness of the wider perspectives which need to be embraced and understood. Teamwork is a powerful cultural influence. When we work closely with people, we learn many things from them – including what is acceptable practice. The team’s encouragement of specific practices provides strong guidance to individuals as to what behaviour is appropriate. Similarly, the climate and morale of the operational unit and organisation as a whole will promote a particular culture. The term climate describes the feelings people have about their workplace. A positive climate makes people excited and buoyed up when they come to work. A negative climate decreases the satisfaction and pleasure of coming to work. In turn, this affects the morale – the overall sense of well-being which is to be found in a work group. Low morale generates negative responses to new ideas, a reluctance to put extra effort into work, and possibly, increased conflict across employees. These are clearly very critical issues for any organisation. A cohesive organisational culture relies on strong information flows across the community . People who are kept isolated from events and practices within the wider organisation build their own ways of doing things, and their own value systems. This greatly impacts on their capacity to adopt and maintain a wider sense of the community’s culture.
Page 83 – 84 There are many ways in which a culture is influenced. Some of these are listed on this slide, but there are also others which operate. Similarly, the climate and morale of the operational unit and organisation as a whole will promote a particular culture. The term climate describes the feelings people have about their workplace. A positive climate makes people excited and buoyed up when they come to work. A negative climate decreases the satisfaction and pleasure of coming to work. In turn, this affects the morale – the overall sense of well-being which is to be found in a work group. Low morale generates negative responses to new ideas, a reluctance to put extra effort into work, and possibly, increased conflict across employees. These are clearly very critical issues for any organisation. A cohesive organisational culture relies on strong information flows across the community . People who are kept isolated from events and practices within the wider organisation build their own ways of doing things, and their own value systems. This greatly impacts on their capacity to adopt and maintain a wider sense of the community’s culture. Supervision quality similarly impacts on the culture. The values and messages a supervisor conveys to staff members is a strong and consistent message which is experienced almost every day. Over time, people adapt their behaviours and expectations to match these messages. If they conflict with the broader patterns of the wider community, they will be the more powerful. After all, the supervisor plays a large part in a person’s well-being at work. Effective organisations recognise the power of this influence and place considerable importance on developing effective supervisors who send the right messages. More broadly, the leadership of the organisation also contributes to the organisational culture. A leader who encourages sharing and collaboration will provide strong messages to the community. The values of the leader are noted and reflected into the activities and expectations of many staff members. It is important, then, to ensure the right messages are being sent. Workplace interactions are also strongly influential. Most people seek to operate in an amicable setting. They also try to build similar values to those around them. New members are often acculturated into their workgroup’s values quite quickly, as they are told “we don’t do it like that”, “this is how it works here…”. In many cases, the values which are being demonstrated and encouraged can be quite different to the work values which are more widely promoted. New members will see these local colleagues as their strongest models and influences – particularly in the formative stages.
Page 83 – 84 There are many ways in which a culture is influenced. Some of these are listed on this slide, but there are also others which operate. A cohesive organisational culture relies on strong information flows across the community . People who are kept isolated from events and practices within the wider organisation build their own ways of doing things, and their own value systems. This greatly impacts on their capacity to adopt and maintain a wider sense of the community’s culture. Supervision quality similarly impacts on the culture. The values and messages a supervisor conveys to staff members is a strong and consistent message which is experienced almost every day. Over time, people adapt their behaviours and expectations to match these messages. If they conflict with the broader patterns of the wider community, they will be the more powerful. After all, the supervisor plays a large part in a person’s well-being at work. Effective organisations recognise the power of this influence and place considerable importance on developing effective supervisors who send the right messages. More broadly, the leadership of the organisation also contributes to the organisational culture. A leader who encourages sharing and collaboration will provide strong messages to the community. The values of the leader are noted and reflected into the activities and expectations of many staff members. It is important, then, to ensure the right messages are being sent. Workplace interactions are also strongly influential. Most people seek to operate in an amicable setting. They also try to build similar values to those around them. New members are often acculturated into their workgroup’s values quite quickly, as they are told “we don’t do it like that”, “this is how it works here…”. In many cases, the values which are being demonstrated and encouraged can be quite different to the work values which are more widely promoted. New members will see these local colleagues as their strongest models and influences – particularly in the formative stages.
Page 83 – 84 There are many ways in which a culture is influenced. Some of these are listed on this slide, but there are also others which operate. More broadly, the leadership of the organisation also contributes to the organisational culture. A leader who encourages sharing and collaboration will provide strong messages to the community. The values of the leader are noted and reflected into the activities and expectations of many staff members. It is important, then, to ensure the right messages are being sent. Workplace interactions are also strongly influential. Most people seek to operate in an amicable setting. They also try to build similar values to those around them. New members are often acculturated into their workgroup’s values quite quickly, as they are told “we don’t do it like that”, “this is how it works here…”. In many cases, the values which are being demonstrated and encouraged can be quite different to the work values which are more widely promoted. New members will see these local colleagues as their strongest models and influences – particularly in the formative stages.
Page 84 Alvesson suggests there are a number of metaphors which can be used to describe the ways in which an organisational culture operates. This slide lists some of the descriptions which are used. Exchange – regulator implies that people are told how to behave. They are given clear indications as to how their behaviour should operate and what is expected socially. As the term “regulator” implies, people are encouraged to reflect the requisite values in their practices and provided with guidance on how this might be attained. The culture which develops is likely to be more uniform, as there could be a number of sanctions which are used to promote uniform values. A compass, on the other hand, is more indirect, offering guidance and support as people develop their individualised strategies to reflect the culture. This approach encourages ownership and engagement with why and how a culture operates, as well as increased reflection on what responsibilities it places on the individual. This can be a very productive approach during times of change, when people must re-evaluate their old patterns and values and redevelop new insights and approaches. Social glue emphasises harmony – that people should work together and seek to reduce conflict and disconnection. People should be able to anticipate coming to work and enjoying their interactions with others. This expectation is implicit in the concept of social glue. It reflects the desire to generally maintain a constructive and productive workplace. However, the avoidance of conflict at all times can become repressive! The consideration of different perspectives is particularly important during times of change when people need to consider a range of options. In some workplaces, the culture becomes enshrined as a “sacred cow”. In other words, people aim to preserve traditional values and belief systems for a sustained period. This can become challenging if the context alters significantly, as those behaviours may no longer be appropriate. An important message from Alvesson is that the culture needs to reflect the context. Organisations which are trying to build some common values and principles will aim to build stability. Those in a highly changing context may be more concerned with creating a flexible, and sometimes, diverse set of values.
LO2 Pages 84 – 86 Knowledge intensive communities rely on service, knowledge sharing and strong collaboration across many members. They therefore seek to build a strong knowledge culture. There are a number of values which knowledge cultures are known to encourage. For example, they seek to build cultures which: Are open and collaborative – encouraging high interaction and learning across many different members, and across the boundaries which organisational structures often create. Encourage sharing of practice, knowledge, resources and insights. This is particularly helpful for new and junior members of an organisation, where much can be learnt from others. Tolerance is important in knowledge cultures. Members need to be encouraged to continuously learn and develop new skills and capabilities. In the process, they may make mistakes. Tolerance during that learning process ensures people do not become fearful of trying new things. Collaborative cultures are the cornerstone of knowledge management. All members of the knowledge community need to be encouraged to collaborate. This implies that they should offer their own knowledge and seek support form others as part of their normal work roles. To operate in this manner, there needs to be a high degree of trust – that is, willingness to act on the basis of other’s knowledge.
Page 85 – 86. The previous slide outlined the values which are important in a knowledge community. These values need to be enacted in the knowledge philosophy which is created and the principles which are both espoused and enacted. Four major messages need to be generated. People are more important than systems. Knowledge sharing should be publicly and widely encouraged. Good knowledge practices need to be encouraged very actively by leaders and supervisors. This includes promoting desired practices and rewarding those who demonstrate a strong commitment to those practices. The values outlined in the earlier slide need to be adopted by all members of the community. In practice, this is a significant goal which may be almost impossible to attain. However, the greater the commitment to building a knowledge culture, the more likely it will be instilled into the community.
LO3, Page 86 – 87. The process of shifting a culture from one set of values to another is long, time-consuming and challenging. It requires strong adoption of the new values by knowledge workers, and seeks to build new ways of looking at the work place and work activities. In order to shift and maintain knowledge culture processes, there needs to be sustained and robust encouragement of knowledge practices and the underlying philosophy. As Chapter 2 of the textbook noted, it is important to ensure that the various systems and processes in an organisation are harmonious with these values. In the case of knowledge management, there are many factors which can influence how well a knowledge culture is embedded into the community. Knowledge culture enablers are those influences that contribute o the creation of an effective and positive knowledge community. In particular, they are the elements which align core values, organisational structures, systems and processes to ensure consistent messages and principles are perceived by all members o the community. The next four slides will explore each of these factors in turn.
Figure 4.2 Pages 87 – 88. Many of these core values have been explored already in this session. However, they again emphasise the critical need to promote the importance of collaboration, communication, learning and trust. A respectful and dynamically interacting community is an important feature of knowledge-intensive communities. As the text outlines, the values should promote four key outcomes: Innovative and creative thinkers Flexible and adaptable behaviour A strong learning orientation High affirmation of the value of knowledge workers and A strong communal focus These five enablers are highly influential in encouraging effective knowledge cultures.
Pages 88 – 89. Figure 4.2 (page 87) Structural support descries the underlying processes and structures which are supported by the organisation. The activities and processes of an organisation offer many important messages as to the value placed on an activity or outcome. If a process is embedded in critical organisational processes and expectations, or incorporated in the structures of the organisation, it is given more credibility and affirmation. For example, the creation of a knowledge management unit or position signals a major commitment to the knowledge management process. Similarly, the integration of knowledge management roles into the organisational structures signifies the value placed on knowledge management. Transparent decision making is another way to facilitate the development of knowledge cultures. Community members benefit from having an insight into the critical issues facing an organisation, and from the opportunity to share their insights and wisdom as appropriate. The process of decision making can guide members toward a better understanding of the knowledge values which are reflected and prioritised. Similarly, effective knowledge cultures rely on appropriate access to information and sources of knowledge . Organisations which reduce the access to these sources will find it difficult to promote ready sharing and collaboration. Hierarchical structures are well known for their limiting of knowledge exchange. (Students might recall the impact of the knowledge chain, hub and web structures from Chapter 2. [Page 42, Figure 2.2] These models illustrated the challenges of enabling effective access and interchange of knowledge.) A problem-solving orientation also provides greater opportunity to draw on and apply knowledge into work-related contexts. Organisations which encourage reflection and consideration of different options prior to taking action demonstrate a real commitment to knowledge management principles and values. The provision of effective communication channels also enables knowledge cultures to operate effectively. Communication structures can include electronic processes (such as email, the website and organisational databases) and more traditional channels, such as meetings, organisational record keeping and interpersonal communication. The recognition that communication is an important part of knowledge work greatly assists with the inculcation of an effective knowledge culture. Another major form of structural support is to be found through the human resource management processes . HRM describes the major systems and processes which operate in the organisation. They enable effective management of staff members from the time they are recruited for employment. This area is a critical aspect of creating an effective knowledge culture. The next session will focus on this important area.
Page 89 While the structures within the organisation and the espoused values are most important, the way in which these values are enacted strongly determines how effectively the culture will emerge. Enacted values describes the values which are demonstrated in everyday activities. They illustrate the degree to which knowledge cultures are allowed to thrive. There are various elements which can contribute to effectively enacted knowledge values. One influential factor relates to how knowledge management principles are modelled throughout the knowledge community. The cues and messages which staff members see reflected in the actual activities of the organisation are critical models as to what is valued. This has important implications for leaders and supervisors: they cannot simply parrot knowledge management principles, but must, instead, model those principles through their own practices. Leaders who have more senior roles are particularly critical sources of influence. They need to both demonstrate and espouse knowledge principles to members of the organisation, so that others feel assured that knowledge management is highly regarded and valued. Knowledge workers also need opportunities to enact those values . Collaboration requires time and opportunity. People need time to work collaboratively. Workloads and roles should recognise the time needed to build relationships and to work across networks. This is important knowledge business which needs time to develop. Allied to this issue is the fact that employees need to be encouraged to collaborate . In many firms, people feel guilty if they are not visibly “working”. This can preclude opportunities to collaborate, and can reduce the capacity to work across sections of the organisation. Collaboration is an investment in the future, but it takes considerable effort to build relationships and to connect with others in a fruitful and ongoing manner. Thus, enacted values provides strong messages as to the importance of knowledge management, and provide the opportunity to participate in the various processes which occur.
Pages 89 – 90 The final knowledge culture enabler is that of interaction with colleagues. As noted in an earlier slide, the quality and focus of interaction with colleagues strongly influences cultural outcomes. Five areas can be identified as being particularly important. Quality of interaction relates to the experiences a person has, particularly with respect to the capacity to share knowledge. Employees need to build trust and faith in their co-workers. They need to be confident that shared knowledge will be treated respectfully and appropriately. They also need to be encouraged to share their knowledge. If individuals experience denigration or lack of interest in their knowledge, they will reduce their efforts to share what they know, or to seek access to the knowledge held by other colleagues. Another issue relating to quality of interaction can be due to workloads. Overworked people tend to reduce their focus to cope with the roles that are deemed to be critical. This can reduce their capacity to work more broadly as knowledge members. The focus of interaction can also create some complex messages. People who are placed in settings where the focus of interaction is very much around the daily business of completing tasks will find it harder to interact at the higher knowledge levels. The focus of interaction needs to provide opportunity to explore knowledge issues and strategies. The availability and suitability of mentorship is a further element which can build a strong enabling strategy for knowledge intensive communities. Mentors offer guidance to less experienced people as to how knowledge management operates in the organisation, and how the individual can reflect the principles in their own behaviours. Good mentors can play a major role in promoting effective knowledge management. As can teams. Team behaviours enable knowledge management if they are collaborative, supportive, non-judgemental and constructive. As we saw in session 3, this is important in team settings if common values and principles are to be developed. These four enabling emphases are all important in encouraging strong and durable knowledge cultures. While a culture may be found in organisations which have some gaps in these enabling factors, it is certainly easier to build effective processes with all four areas reflected.
LO 4. Pages 90 – 91. Knowledge management generates many changes in work practice, values and organisational structures. Dynamic change can stem from a number of factors: Systematic problem solving where new and innovative solutions may be identified. Experimentation with different options to find the optimal solution Experiential learning where an individual learns through experience and builds new models of understanding from that learning process Sharing of insights with others which enables other people to consider different ways of doing things, and Early adoption of improved or new strategies as they are identified and considered worthy of consideration. These practices are very much part of knowledge cultures. However, they create many challenges for work communities, as they reflect a dynamic approach to change. People find that there is little opportunity to consolidate and formalise methods before more refinements are introduced. This can create challenges for any community. Knowledge settings may find that some changes are simple incremental activities which gradually evolve toward better practices. In many cases, they may be trialled by an individual through experimentation and then gradually gain wider adoption through growing awareness by others. At a larger scale, many changes are also organisationally driven. Knowledge management will continue to experience major growth and development in its processes and principles, as it is still a very new field. This means that the management of change should be considered carefully to ensure it successfully brings the staff members along too. Knowledge management change must ensure the knowledge culture is drawn into any change process. The intertwined nature of knowledge culture and organisational systems and processes means that change needs to be carefully managed. The rest of the session will explore some of the issue which arise when cultural change is being encouraged.
Page 90 There are many misconceptions about change when it is culturally driven. Unlike many organisational changes where rapid and vigorous alterations to organisational processes can be achieved, cultural change is slow . It relies on people building an understanding of the change intention and then integrating the altered practices into their ways of dong things. Cultural change relies on many agents. It cannot be introduced via one channel. Many members need to be guided and assisted by their leaders and supervisors. Thus, the change process needs to empower a number o agents to publicise the change to be implemented and the outcomes which are envisaged. Champions can greatly assist change . They need to work closely with different members of the community and should seek to promote the adoption of the desired practices or values by as many people as possible. The dissemination of the messages across the community is an important means of encouraging acceptance of the change process and desired outcomes. However, knowledge changes are highly complex. When change links to the underlying knowledge culture, it needs to be supported across the full spectrum of organisational activities and systems . It will impact on people and how they do things, the systems they use, the learning they need to undertake and the values which they share with others. Multi-faceted change of this nature requires considerable resolve to ensure it is effectively promoted and embedded into the many different organisational processes and belief systems which are influenced.
Page 91. An important process which can assist knowledge culture development and change is the use of organisational development methodologies (OD). This process recognises the complexity of changing organisational cultures. It assists with melding the core values, organisational structures and processes, and enacted values . OD is an increasingly important element of organisational planning and change management, as it recognises the many complex factors which need to be managed. In particular, it strongly reviews the gap between the enacted and core values, and identifies the different structural barriers which may be affecting successful change. This is a field which has also grown significantly over the last few years. Many organisations have appointed organisational developers to facilitate organisational change processes. These professionals can ensure the change process is well managed and accepted by the individuals who will be affected. They engage the community with the change processes, and ensure they remain connected with the emerging issues and strategies which are to be explored. These change agents can monitor the effects of any changes and ensure the development process is operating smoothly. They can also act as effective information channels across the organisational community, and have skills in evaluation and staff member learning. In some firms, organisational developers may be part of the knowledge management team. The use of specialist change agents can be highly beneficial, as it ensures major change processes are strategic, minimally disruptive and well understood by the various stakeholders.
An important technique which assists with planning effective change is that of organisational diagnosis . This methodology involves a detailed analysis and examination of existing organisational patterns, attitudes, processes and behaviours. Draws on many sources of evidence , such as literature on the subject, comparison with other organisations, discussion with experts, analysis of organisational data and member responses to exploration. OD assists with clarifying areas which challenge effective change and development . This ensures the change management strategy is appropriate and has clearly identified the real issues which will impede successful change. In many cases, the analyses will highlight some very unexpected outcomes. A number of areas might be explored when undertaking a diagnosis of this nature. These are highlighted in Table 4.1 (pages 92 – 93) and are explored in more detail over the next slides.
Table 4.1, pages 92 – 93. The choice of focus for an organisational diagnosis will depend on the purpose of the change process. It is important to gain a strong understanding of what is happening in the organisation and how various structural support processes are impacting on the knowledge culture. The data to be collected will reflect the problem which is being addressed. The extensive list in Table 4.1 cannot be examined as a single organisational diagnosis process. Instead, the main areas would be identified. These would be analysed prior to the change process, and also form the basis for a subsequent evaluation as to whether the change has been successfully adopted and implemented. Each focus in Table 4.1, for example, explores a different set of issues. Organisational context : How is the organisation operating at present, in terms of its internal processes and external competitors / comparators? Key people : How well supported is the knowledge management strategy by its key people? Knowledge philosophy: Does the organisational community have a good understanding of the knowledge philosophy? Knowledge definition: Is there good definition +of what constitutes core knowledge? Knowledge sharing: Is knowledge sharing operating effectively? Knowledge cohesion: How strongly is the collaborative knowledge culture working? Knowledge conflict: Do decision makers find it easy to gain access to critical knowledge? These questions can be very important preparatory considerations before a change intervention occurs. In many cases, the issues will be greatly clarified by undertaking a diagnosis before the change process is implemented.
Figure 4.3 page 93. Figure 4.3 in the textbook outlines some of the different techniques which can be used to undertake an organisational diagnosis. It can be seen that many different approaches can be applied. These will be explored in more detail in the following slides. However, some general points can be made: There are different levels of analysis which can be undertaken: individual, group or organisational. The cultural evidence that is collected is will vary according to the level of analysis. Formal structured systems are explored at the organisational elves, while patterns and interactions are examined at group level, and the individual level provides examples of these in practice. The diagnostic approaches which are used also reflect the scale of investigation which is needed. Large organisational analyses are undertaken using surveys and similar large-scale data collection, while the group and individual analyses allow more fine grained approaches. In most situations, the organisational diagnosis will use several different techniques across a range of levels to validate the findings. When the results confirm similar trends, there is evidence of convergence of the findings. In other words, the results are accurate representations of the phenomenon under review.
Figure 4.3 page 93. The organisational level of analysis normally requires formal and highly structured diagnostic processes. It generally operates as large scale evaluations which seek to sample a range of sub-groups and communities within the organisation. It examines the overall effects on the organisational culture. This can mask the differentiation between different groups, but it does offer a view of the large picture across the organisation. Cultural evidence which can be explored through analyses of this nature include the overall organisational values, stakeholder views of the philosophy, the impact of structure on knowledge implementation and strategy, Stakeholder implementation of the knowledge messages being disseminated, and The efficacy of the systems which have been established A range of diagnostic approaches can be used. These include Surveys Comparisons with similar organisations or knowledge activities Trends analysis to monitor the take-up of the knowledge processes within the organisation, or industry strategies for knowledge management Benchmarking with comparative organisations so that close comparisons may be made. Analyses of this nature would normally be undertaken after careful investigation to ensure the correct issues are being addressed. They need to be very well managed to ensure the outcomes provide the desired information.
Figure 4.3 page 93. Group level analyses focus more intensively on particular units or teams, closely exploring how they function and interact with other areas of the organisation. The investigations enable a closer analysis of the finer points of an issue, and can serve to clarify cause-effect relationships. They are often quite formally conducted, with a range of methods used to ensure a complete picture of the issue is built up. The overall knowledge gained from an investigation of this nature can assist with identifying structural issues which need to be addressed, variations across units and groups within the community, the impact of organisational practice on real units and the likely barriers to successful knowledge implementation. Various forms of evidence might be emphasised. The investigation might, for example, consider Whether knowledge sharing is working effectively Whether core values have diverged from the enacted values How the knowledge culture is being experienced by the group What sources of knowledge can be accessed Conflict regarding knowledge access, and its impact on both productivity and knowledge commitment Evidence of competitive forces which might be reducing the capacity to commit to he knowledge agenda Evidence of collaboration within and beyond the group. Approaches which can be taken often adopt a more qualitative methodology, such as case studies, focus gropes and action research, as they seek to explore the interactions and dynamic interchanges across members. Observation of the processes and principles which are applied are also of value. The results can be compared with similar units to identify finer differences. This form of analysis is particularly useful if the group seeks to improve its functionality, or to compare its processes against similar groups. It also provides an organisation with useful case studies to determine how well the broader knowledge culture is implemented in practice. To some extent, it could be regarded as a “reality check”.
Figure 4.3 page 93. The exploration of an individual's experience with the knowledge culture can be very informative. These in-depth personalised accounts enable a closer analysis of the cause-effect relationships which occur in any organization. They can be managed very responsively to explore fine-grained issues which may have broader implications for the larger organisational community. Individuals may be selected because they represent a particular type of employee (such as a new staff member who has recently experienced the knowledge culture from a naïve perspective) to an expert source who may have insights to share with others. The evidence collected from the individual analysis can be used to identify larger systemic issues which need investigation, collect stories of success and learning which could be more widely shared Examine a particular phenomenon in depth, such as the values which are in place within the community, Compare the individual's priorities with the organisational priorities Determine the experiences which are shaping individual perceptions of the knowledge culture or Clarifying how people are sharing their knowledge and the issues they are experiencing while attempting to do so. The methods are often based around case histories (which may draw on a number of different people’s perspectives). These commonly use an interview approach, but may also apply observational strategies. Individual analyses can be costly, and their applicability to the wider community may be minimal. They can also be quite time consuming given their intensive focus on individual experiences.
LO6, Page 96 – 97. The process of changing aspects of the knowledge culture requires considerable effort. Following careful diagnosis, a change should be undertaken as a program of considered enhancement, with a clear understanding of what needs changing and how it can be effected. The steps on this slide, and in Table 4.2 illustrate the careful management which is necessary to ensure successful cultural enhancement. Identify key goals to be achieved . These should stem from the diagnosis which was previously conducted. Identify key sponsors / main clients of the intervention Typically, a sponsor might be the CEO or other members of the Executive. They could also be external stakeholders or other key clients. It should be very clear as to what the sponsors anticipate seeing as a consequence of the process. They also need to clarify how involved they wish to be. Identify the scope of the process Programs can become so large that they are unmanageable. The clarification of the program scope ensures there is a clear understanding of the aims, the value of the exercise and the time frame to be achieved. The scope can also define what is not within the program focus. Identify major contributors Advisory groups and other forms of stakeholder interaction are important. The identification of major contributors ensures appropriate members are kept informed and engaged with the process. This is particularly important in a change process. Gather background information The diagnostic information, other prior interventions, theoretical literature and expert opinion can be extremely helpful in clarifying the issues which will need to be addressed. Review the existing organisational context / culture Any change process needs to be realistic. It needs to clearly position the process in the existing context. A close consideration of how members are likely to embrace the proposed change is very important to a successful outcome. The identification of champions or advocates can be very helpful. The individuals who are potential barriers to the change should also be identified and carefully considered to identify how the change might be promoted to them.
Continuing from the previous slide Table 4.2, page 97. 7. Determine key developmental objectives The outcomes need to be translated into clear objectives which can be achieved and measured. 8. Identify tasks and activities. All of the various tasks should be clarified and allocated. This allows members of the program team to take responsibility for their designated roles. 9. Identify potential contributors and assign roles and responsibilities Change programs of this nature need to be accommodate the demands on the various change agents. It may be necessary to draw in a number of other stakeholders as well. 10. Plan for communication and marketing Communication back to the community is critical. The program is about building a better knowledge community. It is essential that as much communication and promotion of the change is achieved. 11. Plan for evaluation Any evaluative processes should be carefully embedded in the processes along the way. 12. Prepare timelines and commitments When planning a program of this nature, it is important to recognise that change can be incremental and require time to gain credibility. This should be allowed for in any plan of this nature.
LO7, Pages 98 – 100 The implementation of any culturally driven change process requires careful management and oversight. Some useful principles to follow include: Communicate the program intentions and ongoing progress Ensure all members of the relevant community are kept informed, and that they have the opportunity to feedback about issues or concerns. Encourage key members of the community to become champions and information conduits for others. Pilot test Where possible, pilot test the proposed change. It is important to make sure nothing has been missed in the planning, and that it will be successfully managed in practice. This may lead to further changes. Accommodate difference Any change process will be enacted differently in various communities. In knowledge intensive communities, these differences are often evidence of desired innovation and creativity. It is important to accommodate differences where appropriate and reasonable. There are many ways in which planned change interventions can be strongly encouraged. Encourage knowledge champions Wherever possible, build up advocates to promote the change process. The more advocates within the local community, the better. Champions may be assisted by providing them with further development, information on the initiative and encouragement to undertake this role. Share user success stories Successful stories need to be disseminated widely. They act as models and encouragement for others. Promote awareness of the process and outcomes . The ongoing encouragement of communal learning and engagement is critical to successful cultural change. Wherever possible, this should be encouraged. KM viewpoint 4.2, (page 100) could be explored. This illustrates a change process which would greatly impact on an existing knowledge culture. The lack of consultation, the rapidity of the change process, and the failure to consult with the constituents are clear signs of poor program management. The feature notes the destabilising effect of this change process on the staff. Students may wish to discuss how this poorly managed process might have followed the model from Table 4.2.
LO8, Page 100 – 101 Cultural enhancement is an ongoing process which needs constant monitoring and bolstering. As noted earlier, the various influences can undermine the core values if a group is destabilised or enacted values become misaligned. Organisations need to maintain careful but sensitive management of their cultures. There are some important strategies that can be applied, including: Socialisation of new members to ensure they are fully cognizant with the core values and the expectations of the organisation. Reward and performance management systems which recognise and promote effective knowledge-compatible behaviour Development and support of leaders so that they can be successful and vigorous knowledge champions Enhancement and integration of existing services through ongoing monitoring, diagnosis and cultural enhancement strategies Ensure good communication at all times with all stakeholders.
Pages 101 – 102. A particularly important method of building an effective knowledge culture is through communities of practice (CoP). In building effective CoP, it can be useful to: Clarify the domain and contribution of members so that the focus of the CoP is clearly understood. This will help to clarify the role and expectations of members. Identify potential members to ensure all potential participants are aware of the group and its opportunities. Assist key members with workload support so that leadership of the CoP is strong, particularly in the early foundational period. Enable opportunities to interact by encouraging both online and interpersonal interactive opportunities. Consider appointing a broker to assist with CoP management so that the community is maintained and stimulated through ongoing interaction and the provision of opportunities to communicate and get together.
This session has explored the nature of cultural change. It has emphasised that knowledge cultures need to evolve on an ongoing basis. This necessitates a strong commitment and fostering of effective knowledge communities. The development of an effective knowledge community requires dedicated and ongoing support, particularly through the process of change and the monitoring of the values and principles which are being enacted. Knowledge culture development is complex, and links to many different organisational / work roles. This complexity needs to be recognized. Knowledge cultures need to be sponsored, promoted and strongly encouraged through individual, group and organisational processes.
Anabela Mesquita email@example.com
Gestão da Informação e do Conhecimento Objectivos da sessão Delinear as principais influências nas culturas organizacionais Descrever os traços das culturas efectivas do conhecimento Descrever os promotores da cultura do conhecimento Delinear técnicas que apoiem culturas do conhecimento durante uma mudança Identificar abordagens de diagnóstico adequadas para rever culturas de conhecimento Desenvolver um programa de melhoria de uma cultura do conhecimento Discutir os aspectos chave envolvidos na implementação de um programa de melhoria de uma cultura do conhecimento Descrever estratégias que podem ser usadas para manter uma cultura do conhecimento 2
Gestão da Informação e do Conhecimento Programa da disciplinaParte IIInfluências no conhecimento Culturas organizacionais Culturas do conhecimento efectivas Promotores de uma cultura do conhecimento Manter uma cultura do conhecimento durante uma mudança Rever a cultura do conhecimento existente Planear uma melhoria de uma cultura do conhecimento Implementar programas de melhoria de uma cultura do conhecimento Manter uma cultura do conhecimento 3
A GC tem por base um forte sentido de comunidade e de colaboração Assim, o seu principal objectivo é encorajar o desenvolvimento de uma cultura onde toda a gente reconheça e aceite a partilha do conhecimento como um comportamento desejável A GC é fortemente influenciada pelos valores e cultura da organização
Constituem as percepções colectivas, as crenças e os valores presentes no local de trabalho Cada indivíduo pode aperceber-se de uma cultura organizacional diferente pois ele será influenciado pelas suas experiências no local de trabalho A aprendizagem da cultura faz-se através das histórias, observações, experiência vivida no local de trabalho, modelos, estrutura organizacional, reconhecimento público do trabalho de cada um, liderança e papel individual de cada um A cultura tem grande influência na retenção dos funcionários e na sua produtividade Culturas que falham na valorização do indivíduo e sua contribuição contribuem para uma elevada taxa de rotatividade e para diminuição de produtividade.
A cultura é influenciada de muitas formas: Padrões passados e história Reflectem a experiência de um indivíduo ou grupo. As pessoas prevêm a forma como vão ser tratadas tendo por base o seu conhecimento dos eventos passados Trabalho em equipa Quando se trabalha de perto com os outros aprende-se muito, incluindo o que são práticas aceitáveis
A cultura é influenciada de muitas formas: Clima e moral Clima – descreve os sentimentos das pessoas sobre o seu ambiente de trabalho. Um clima positivo torna as pessoas mais alegres enquanto que um negativo diminui a satisfação e o prazer de trabalhar. O clima afecta o moral – sensação de prazer encontrado no trabalho em grupo. Uma moral baixa gera respostas negativas a novas ideias, relutância para executar trabalho extra e pode aumentar o grau de conflito entre as pessoas
A cultura é influenciada de muitas formas: Fluxos de informação entre a comunidade As pessoas que não participam nos eventos e práticas desenvolvem formas próprias de fazer as coisas e o seu próprio sistema de valores. Qualidade da supervisão Ao longo do tempo as pessoas adaptam o seu comportamento e expectativas às mensagens transmitidas pelos seus superiores
A cultura é influenciada de muitas formas: Liderança Um líder que encoraje a partilha e a colaboração fornecerá mensagens fortes à comunidade. Os valores do líder reflectem-se nas actividades e expectativas dos colaboradores. Interacções no local de trabalho As pessoas gostam de trabalhar em locais amigáveis, pelo que tentam desenvolver esses valores nos que os rodeiam. Os novos membros são aculturados nos valores do grupo. Frequentemente, estes valores podem ser diferentes dos promovidos de uma forma mais alargada. E estes novos membros podem ver nos seus colegas um modelo a seguir, sobretudo nas etapas formativas
A cultura pode operar como (metáforas): Troca – regulador Diz-se às pessoas de que forma elas se devem comportar. Dão instruções claras sobre a forma de trabalhar e o que delas se espera. Há uma cultura uniforme pois receiam-se as sanções “Compass” Oferece orientação e suporte ao desenvolvimento individualizado das estratégias. Motiva a responsabilidade e o compromisso, bem como a relfexão. Pode ser muito útil em época de mudança “Cola” social Ênfase na harmonia. As pessoas devem trabalhar em grupo e procurar reduzir o conflito. Devem anticipar trabalho futuro e gostar de interagir com os outros “Sacred cow” As pessoas procuram preservar os valores tradicionais. Pode ser um problema quando os comportamentos manifestados podem já náo ser os mais adequados
Abertas e comunicativas Encorajando a interacção e a aprendizagem Encorajam a partilha de práticas, conhecimento, recursos Tolerantes As pessoas podem cometer erros e a tolerância ajuda a motivar a experiência continuada Colaborativas Confiança
Valores implícitos das culturas de conhecimentos colaborativas Comunicação regular entre os vários níveis da organização A partilha do é demonstrada Os colegas conhecimento é promovem activamente encorajada a partilha e pelos supervisores a aprendizagem e líderes Os funcionários são O trabalho em informados sobre conjunto é visto os eventos como uma actividade e inovações central Culturas do conhecimento colaborativas Abertura, honestidade A aprendizagem e preocupação está incorporada pelos outros na comunidade é encorajada Ideias inovadoras e soluções Ideias novas são desenvolvidas são bem-vindas através da e exploradas combinação As pessoas de esforços preferem trabalhar juntas
Princípios de uma cultura do conhecimento As pessoas são mais importantes que os sistemas Encorajamento público para a partilha de conhecimento Apoio às boas práticas Valores adoptados por todos os funcionários
Influências que contribuem para a criação de uma comunidade de conhecimento efectiva e positiva Alinhamento entre os valores centrais, as estruturas organizacionais, os sistemas e processos
Valores centrais Colaboração Comunicação Interacção Inovação Adaptação Orientação à aprendizagem Confiança Partilha e valorização do conhecimento
Apoio estrutural Estrutura organizacional A existência de um departamento relacionado com a GC dá uma imagem de maior compromisso da organização com os valores que lhe estão subjacentes Tomada de decisão transparente Acesso à informação Resolução de problemas Canais de comunicação Gestão de Recursos Humanos
Valores enunciados Modelos Líderes Oportunidades para colaborar Encorajamento à colaboração
Interacção com os colegas Qualidade da interacção Foco da interacção O foco da interacção precisa de fornecer oportunidades para explorar os aspectos relacionados com o conhecimento e a estratégia Comportamento da equipa promove a GC caso seja colaborativo, construtivo, dê apoio e não emita juízos de valor
Processos dinâmicos de mudança podem ser causados por: Resolução sistemática de problemas Onde soluções novas e inovadoras podem ser identificadas Experimentação Com diferentes opções para encontrar a melhor solução Aprendizagem experiencial Onde o indivíduo aprende através da experiência e constrói novos modelos de compreensão do processo de aprendizagem Partilha de ideias O que permite aos indivíduos considerar diferentes formas de realizar as tarefas Adopção antecipada das estratégias novas ou melhoradas
A mudança pode ser lenta A mudança cultura apoia-se em muitos agentes Não pode introduzida apenas por um “canal” Os “campeões” / líderes podem ser muito úteis na mudança As culturas do conhecimento necessitam de ser suportadas / apoiadas por um conjunto de actividades e de sistemas organizacionais
Desenvolvimento organizacional Este processo reconhece a complexidade da mudanças das culturas organizacionais e apoia-se no alinhamento dos valores centrais, das estruturas e processos organizacionais, e dos valores declarados Pode ser apoiado através do trabalho realizado pelos gestores cuja função será a de assegurar uma boa gestão e aceitação do processo de mudança Objectivo: mudança estratégica, planeada e aceite rapidamente, sem problemas
Diagnóstico organizacional: análise dos padrões organizacionais, atitudes, processos e comportamentos existentes Extracção de informação a partir de várias fontes Literatura, comparação com outras organizações, discussão com peritos, análise de dados O DO ajuda na clarificação das áreas que desafiam a eficácia da mudança e do desenvolvimento da organização
A escolha do foco do diagnóstico depende do objectivo do processo de mudança. A sua selecção pode ter em conta as respostas aos aspectos seguintes: Contexto organizacional Público alvo / pessoas chave Filosofia de conhecimento Definição de conhecimento Partilha de conhecimento Coesão de conhecimento Conflito de conhecimento
Recolher evidências Diferentes níveis de análise Individual – Grupo – Organizacional Evidências culturais variam segundo o nível escolhido sistemas estruturados são explorados ao nível organizacional enquanto que os padrões e as interacções são analisados ao nível do grupo e individual As abordagens de diagnóstico reflectem a escala de investigação Grandes análises organizacionais recorrem a inquéritos e recolha de dados em larga escala enquanto que análise individual e de grupo necessitam de abordagem mais específicas (entrevistas, observações, histórias de casos) Convergência das descobertas
Nível Organizacional Evidências Culturais Abordagens de Diagnóstico Valores Inquéritos Filosofia Comparações Estruturas Análise de Tendências Mensagens Benchmarking Sistemas
Nível de Grupo Evidências Culturais Abordagens de Diagnóstico Valores Estudo de casosPartilha de Conhecimento Focus Groups Experiências Investigação acçãoFontes de Conhecimento Observação Conflito Comparação de Resultados Competição Colaboração
Nível Individual Evidências Culturais Abordagens de Diagnóstico Histórias Valores Histórias de casos Prioridades Entrevistas Experiências ObservaçãoPartilha de conhecimento Práticas
1. Identificar os objectivos a serem atingidos2. Identificar os patrocinadores chave/ principais clientes de intervenção3. Identificar a abrangência do processo4. Identificar os maiores contribuintes5. Recolher informação de fundo / base6. Rever a cultura / contexto organizacional existente
1. Determinar os objectivos chave do desenvolvimento organizacional2. Identificar tarefas e actividades3. Identificar potenciais contribuintes e atribuir papéis e responsabilidades4. Planear a comunicação e o marketing5. Planear a evolução6. Preparar horários e compromissos
Comunicar o programa de intenções e seu progresso Realizar testes piloto Acomodar as diferenças dentro da cultura do conhecimento Apoiar intervenções culturais planeadas Utilizar histórias de sucesso Promover o reconhecimento do processo e seus resultados
Socialização de novos membros Sistemas de recompensa e gestão de desempenho que reconheça e promova um comportamento efectivo de GC Desenvolvimento e apoio dos líderes Melhoria e integração de serviços existentes Assegurar uma boa comunicação
Comunidade de Práticas: Clarificar o domínio e contribuição dos membros Identificar potenciais membros Ajudar os membros chave apoiando-os nas tarefas a realizar Promover oportunidades para interagir Considerar apontar alguém que assista na gestão da CoP;
A cultura de conhecimento evolui constantemente O desenvolvimento de uma comunidade de conhecimento efectivo requer comportamentos e apoio dedicado O desenvolvimento de uma cultura do conhecimento é complexo e está interligado com diferentes papeis da organização / trabalho