Training Needs Analysis 350


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  • Cite: Edgar Dale, AudioVisual Methods of Teaching , 1946. Sight=charts, diagrams, slides, demos Hear=discussions, Q&A, group projects, AV Do=supervised practice, group projects, role playing, writing Create a variety of sensory input Because…. Senses work together The best way to master a skill is to teach it The more senses you make your learners use, the faster they learn and the longer they remember it. EVEN if you do all of this right, there are still other factors to consider.
  • Purpose Can help you improve your training design During & After training Consider: 1. Reactions from the trainees Do they like it? Was the material relevant to their work? 2. What learning took place as a result of the training? Skills, knowledge, attitude? Tips Be clear on how the eval info will be used Use clear questions Relate each question to the purpose of the eval Ask for specific comments Provide enough space and time to complete eval Ask Them—how do you evaluate your training? HANDOUT--Evaluation Point out 4 levels-
  • DO THE FLIPCHART while this slide is up of topics they teach and look at whether they need to change SKA For example—Catalog training Get feedback Transition—Your training will fall in one of these 3 categories. SKA S=physical, operate, manipulate, eye-hand coordination, typing, operate machinery K=cognitive, learning applying rules or knowledge, making decisions, recalling information A=values, behavior, customer service, ethics, emotional intelligence Remind them that different techniques are needed to do soft skills –attitude training then step-by-step In this workshop Knowledge is – “Training is a Process” Skills is Using design form, doing needs assessment, writing objective Attitude – modeling good behavior, it can be fun.
  • Ask if subject matter expertise is most important – then say NO! Nordstrom’s philosophy – hire the personality, train the skill Maybe Have them take out the Phases of Training handout to see the different parts of the process and prove that these skills are required As a trainer, you also need certain skills. You need to know your material Be aware that you may have different levels of knowledge of the topic in the audience. Some know nothing, some recognize the topic but can’t recall anything about it, some may know enough to talk about it. You should be able to talk at the right level so that the audience understands you. Design & Development addresses how we will organize that material and what materials are need to get the points across. Material production—technical knowledge is needed to create handouts and exercises Before next slide: What do you think is the worst human fear in the US? “ Speaking before a group” David Wallechinsky The Book of Lists
  • Do this on a flip chart – ask them first and then show the points on the slide.You are the agent for change and create a positive learning environment. What qualities do you think are necessary to be a great trainer? Self-confidence—be conscious of your personal style (the way you interpret, organize & package your topic) Be aware of your biases, attitudes & language choices Awareness of environment e.g. working environ & training environ Build bridges—what can be kept from the old and/or needs to be changed for the new Others: Fairness Q&A skills—open & closed questions Giving good answers What about you? What training qualities do YOU possess. 1. Which ones would you keep? 2. Which need improvement?
  • Training Needs Analysis 350

    1. 1. Training Need Analysis By ARRIFFIN MANSOR Atul©Mathur 2009
    2. 2. Training Need Analysis A corporate approach Arriffin Mansor 2
    3. 3. Challenges for the Industry• 1. What are the Training Needs ?• 2.What are the Training Objectives ?• 3. What are the Instructional Principles ?• 4.What should the Course Content be ?• 5.How should the Content be delivered ?• 6.How should the outcomes be Evaluated ?• 7.What makes a good Trainer ? 3
    4. 4. Training Development Process 4
    5. 5. Training Development Process Performance gaps Competency gaps Training needs ROI training 5
    6. 6. Steps in TNA 6
    7. 7. Training Need Analysis Competency IdentifyPerformance TrainingGap Analysis gaps Training Analysis Delivery Needsover the Cluster and On the jobfinancial Person combine or off theStatements competency competency job trainingcomparing Profiling gaps into optionsagainst against beststandards core and practices other competencies
    8. 8. Model of Training Needs Analysis Stage One Establish organisation’s commitment and direction Stage Two Organisational Performance Analysis Stage Three Gap Analysis on weak performance areas Stage Four Identify Competency Gaps of individuals Stage Five Design training approach and evaluation 8
    9. 9. TNA for performance gaps TNA VG 9
    10. 10. Person Analysis• Who in the organisation needs training – Performance gaps• How to measure the performance gaps – KPI• What kind of competencies lacking – Competency gaps - KSA deficits• Comparing competencies with standard profile – Interviews, observation and documentation
    11. 11. What is KPI in graphic?Input KPI KPI2AfterBefore Before After Output 11 11
    12. 12. Sale per ringgit AdvertisingAdvertising Sales/advertising KPI2 After Before Before After Sales 12 12
    13. 13. Pulangan terhadap Ekuiti 13
    14. 14. Steps in performance based TNA• Identify weak performance areas through Du Pont ratio format.• Conduct job analysis to identify incompetencies• Group incompetencies into core business, management skills, technical skills, functional skills• Rank them in order of importance – KRA – Using pareto principle – Using ROE as sensitivity analysis
    15. 15. Zero to critical competency gaps 15
    16. 16. The Total Performance Model Sales Gross Margin Net Profit Net Profit Margin ÷ Cost Of Return On Financial Goods Sold Return on Net Worth Leverage Assets Sales Total Expenses = x x Inventory Total Assets Net Profit Net Worth x Total Assets Sales Asset Turnover Current Assets Accts Rec. ÷ Total Assets Fixed Other Current16 Assets Assets
    17. 17. PERFORMANCE GAPSAnalysis AssessAnalysis Vision Key Result Areas Key Result Measures Mission 17
    18. 18. Vision and StrategyFinancial Customer Process L and G Objectives Measures Strategy- Translation Process Targets Initiatives
    19. 19. Komponen Balanced Scorecard: Strategy Map TO BECOME MALAYSIA’S LEADING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Alignment to PIPV2.0 PROVIDER F1. Increase Shareholder Value Key Initiatives Perspectives 1 Profitable Revenue Growth 2 Effective Cost Management Commercial Financial Excellence F2. Higher Operational F3. Healthy F4. Cost TM Cash Flow Excellence Profitability Efficiency HSBB/NGN Implementation 3 Delight The Customers And Create Synergy With Partners Customers: Consumer & Business, Enterprise & Government, Partners: (Reseller,Vendor,Govt Agency) Relevant Customer SME/Corp.Govt, OLOS, Global Players Subsidiaries Rationalisation C1. Innovative C3. Effective C2. Reliable Supply Chain and C4. Good Products and High Corporate Create One Valued Solutions Services Partner Relationship Management Citizen Company Mindset 4 Innovation & Service Excellence Cut Across All PIP IBP1. Drive IBP2. Achieve IBP3. Successfully IBP4. Accelerate Commercial Operational Implement Relevant Subsidiaries Internal Business Excellence Excellence HSBB Rationalisation IBP5. Effective risk IBP6. Optimise Process and regulatory Manpower & management Productivity 5 Create One Company Mindset Growth Org. Learning & OLG1. Develop Strategic Skills OLG2. Ensure Org. and Competencies Effectiveness
    20. 20. What is a critical skill?• A critical skill is one that, if not present, results in a task not being completed satisfactorily, if at all.• The lack of a critical skill causes problems, but the possession of it allows work to continue.• Recognize it by pareto principles or sensitivity analysis 20
    21. 21. Analysis and data collection on key roles• Develop job profiles and identify critical skills needed for the job role• Conduct an inventory of current skills• Evaluate employees’ competencies and skill levels 21
    22. 22. Training? Training helps toExisting bridge the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes 22
    23. 23. Training Need Analysis (TNA) TNA is a tool toExisting identify the gap Required• Skills • Skills• Knowledge • Knowledge• Attitudes • Attitudes 23
    24. 24. TNA (Step 1): Future performance What are the goals for the future performance of our organisation? • profit • growth • customer base • new products •? •?Existing Futureperformance performance 24
    25. 25. TNA (Step 2): Challenges What are we concerned about? What’re the challenges today? What challenges we are likely to face in the future?Existing Futurechallenges challenges 25
    26. 26. Develop job profiles and identify critical skills needed for the job role• Review current position descriptions for future needs• Consider the impact of upcoming statutory or regulatory changes on the work• Take the time to develop a list of competencies that most clearly and accurately describe what is needed to do the work 26
    27. 27. Performance based TNA MORE EFFICIENT 27
    28. 28. How to obtain the needed competencies 28
    29. 29. Evaluate the relevant job holders• Review Position descriptions• Job class specifications• Detailed Performance evaluations and employee assessments• Interviews/focus group meetings with supervisors, managers, and employees 29
    30. 30. Example of database Critical Skills for existing jobs Critical critical criticalIdentified job critical skill 4 current employee skill 1 skill 2 skill 3 customer Responding use of ALDER service by to mailadmin clerk I filing/now database Telephone Requests /future /now /now Current Employee Skills Use of answering SpreadJane Doe type 35 wpm filing use of cash register telephone Sheet programs type 35 Answering copy machine knowledge of WordBill Smith cook wpm telephone repair program knowledge of type 40 furnitureBobby Joe filing AKSAS and use of cash register wpm moving Akpay 30
    31. 31. The required training 31
    32. 32. Types of competencies 32
    33. 33. Level of competencies 33
    34. 34. The benefits of Gap Analysis• Helps you refine and define skills the organisation needs, now and in the future• Helps your employees know what critical skills they’ll need to grow• Helps you in recruiting efforts when current employees don’t have the skills or the interest 34
    35. 35. By performance and competency gap analysis• We should obtain the following knowledge and skill gaps – The types and – The level• Training is to bridge the gaps with the right competencies 35
    36. 36. Types and depths of competencies 36
    37. 37. Steps in training needs 37
    38. 38. Evaluating Performance 38
    39. 39. Critical Performance Gaps• Obtain ROE du pont Chart• Convert figures into KPIs• Compare with industry best and standards• Observe trends and variances• Is the root cause performance or other factors?• Prioritise 4 to 5 performance gaps 39
    40. 40. Steps in critical competency gaps• Compare with best practices – Conduct and identify task and sub-task gaps – Is the gap caused by lack of competencies – Identify the knowledge skills and attitude required through Key Result Areas and BSC perspectives 40
    41. 41. Examples of KPIs Education• % Of graduates who can find work within 6 months• % Of graduates who have received job offers from multi-national corporations• Publications in international journals ÷ staffs• Publications in international journals ÷ research projects• % Of laboratory equipment in use• % Of texts in elective courses that have been published in the past 10 years• % Of courses that have adapted the use of multi- media software• % Of incoming students from top-tier high schools 41
    42. 42. Linking with Analysis/ evaluation1. Internal analysis/ evaluation (comparison with past performance in terms of trend and variation, and with the internally- established targets, expectation, and anticipation)2. External analysis/ evaluation (comparison with standards, benchmarks, industrial averages with respect to the industries/ clusters, benchmarking partners, and competitors) Performance Management 42
    43. 43. Define the problem – the gaps Describe Discrepancy DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimal)- ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actual) = POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED 43
    44. 44. Competency Analysis• What are competencies? – Enduring characteristics of a person that result in superior on-the-job performance – Areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks 44
    45. 45. What is a competency model?• Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency. 45
    46. 46. ROI• ROI measures the contribution of a program/solution designed in relation to the costs or capital involved• ROI = Value of Benefits – Cost of Training Cost of Training 46
    47. 47. More popular Types of Evaluation • Balanced Scorecard (Drs Kaplan and Norton), • Kirkpatrick Four-Level Framework (Kirkpatrick, 1975), • Jack Phillips’s Five Levels of Evaluation 47
    48. 48. Donald Kirkpatrick’s Model of Evaluation (1979)• Level 1 Reaction Evaluation• Level 2 Learning Evaluation• Level 3 Transfer of Learning Evaluation• Level 4 Results Evaluation This model is also adopted by Singapore Skills Development Fund (SDF) for companies’ Training Effectiveness Reports to SDF for funding purposes. 48
    49. 49. What Companies Do With ROI Data?• Improve program/Process• Discontinue/Expand Programs• Approve projects (If Pilot)• Rank projects• Like a front end analysis – to decide whether worthwhile to proceed on the training project.• Develop Data Base of Program Results• Inform/Educate Management• Inform/Educate target Groups• Build Skills with Staff 49
    50. 50. Tabulating Cost of the Program • Cost components that should be includedTabulating are :cost of the • Travel, lodging, and meal costs for the program participants • Salaries, plus employee benefits of the participants who attend the training • Administrative and overhead costs of the training function, allocated in some convenient way
    52. 52. ROI Process Inputs Tabulating Before Training training Costs Isolating the Obtain true CalculatingCollecting Other outcome the Return on KPI data Effects Investment After CalculateTraining IRR Outputs 52
    53. 53. Trend Lines Analysis Actual sales performance At the beginning of The May, a Sales training differenceVolume of Sales Program session was represents held the estimate impact of training. Trend Projection Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug
    54. 54. ROI of Training Model Isolate the Convert Data Collect Data Effects of to Monetary Training Values Identify Intangible Calculate ROI Benefits of Training Tabulate Program Costs
    55. 55. Instructional ObjectivesWhy are they important?• A basis for planning the training• A roadmap for the learner• A basis for evaluating effectiveness of the training Will objectives ever change during the delivery of training? 55
    56. 56. Examples of Business Results• Coca Cola – 8 half-day on supervisory skills workshops – 1447% ROI, Benefit/Cost Ratio 15:1• Yellow Freight System – Performance Appraisal Course – 1115% ROI, Benefit/Coast ratio 12:1• Litton Industries (Avionics) – Self Directed Work Team course – Productivity increased 30%, Scrap rate reduction 50%, 700% ROI• Multi-Marques, Inc (Bakery) – 15 hr Supervisory Skills Training – 215% ROI, Benefit/Cost Ratio 3.2:1 56
    57. 57. How do we measure performance output as a result of training?• Isolate the effects by getting before and after training performance data.• Performance data of with and without training groups - Jack Phillips• Input output graphic model 57
    58. 58. Input Output Analysis• Identify key output for the job to be analyzed• Identify the input variable for the output with cause effect relationship• Compute the KPI by dividing output with the input. It is a ratio.• Obtain before and targeted KPIs and insert the actual KPIs in the diagram.• Separate the value of the output based on volume and efficiency. 58
    59. 59. Example of input output dimension for Sales• Output is net profits in a week RM20,000• Input is weekly sales figure RM100,000• The KPI is 0.20 profit per ringgit sales or return on sales• Insert the previous performance KPI which may be 0.15 profit per ringgit sales• The performance gap between the old and the new position. 59
    60. 60. Performance levels 60
    61. 61. Measuring the Output• After Profit 0.20 x 100,000 = 20,000• Before Profit 0.15 x 100,000 = 15,000• Performance Improvement = 5,000• Efficiency improvement• Volume improvement 61
    62. 62. Input Output Analysis• Calculate the total cost of training or intervention• Identify the input and output variable that determine performance.• The relationship must be meaningful which has high cause effect relationship• Isolate the impact of training with the following test, with and without, before and after. 62
    63. 63. ROI trainingROI =(Value of benefits –cost of training)/Cost of trainingBenefit Cost Ratio 71,760 = 2.2:1 32,984ROI (%) = 38,776 = 118% 32,984 63
    64. 64. Objective driven Contents Section 1 …….. …….. …….. ……..Objectives Section 2 …….. •…….. …….. …….. •…….. …….. Section 3 •…….. …….. •…….. …….. …….. …….. Section 4 …….. …….. …….. …….. 64
    65. 65. DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, involve me and I learn” - Benjamin Franklin 65
    66. 66. “Cone of Experience” People generally remember: Read10% of what they read Verbal20% of what they hear Hear Words Watch still picture30% of what they see Watch moving picture Visual50% of what they hear Watch demonstrationand see70% of what they Do a site visitsay or write Do a dramatic presentation Kinesthetic90% of whatthey say as Simulate a real experience (Experiential)they do a thing Do the real thing Adapted from Wiman & Meirhenry, .Educational Media, 1960 on Edgar Dale
    67. 67. If training is the answer….• Formal training• Self study• Technology based• Job related/workplace approaches 67
    68. 68. Exercises and ActivitiesGet learners to do something whenever possible…• Hands-on• Written or oral exercise• Small and whole group interactions• Role-playing, simulations What should the type of activity be determined by? 68
    69. 69. What training activities are available? Activity Pros Cons Opportunity to Does not involve Demonstration provide feedback everyone Good practice for May be dominated Role Play participants and by a few involvement participants Good for high Passive and not Lecture content if stimulating presenter is good Good focus and May be dominated Case Study high involvement by a few participants High content and Low learner Panel Discussion variety of involvement perspectives 69
    70. 70. Available Training Activities (continued) Activities Pros Cons Provide high Not veryReading content stimulating Mechanisms must Allow for sensory be in place toField Trips perception if well ensure learning structured happens Highly May be dominatedSmall Group Tasks participatory and by a few task oriented participants Good focus and Little participantVideo or Film pre-designed interaction Highly energizing May be dominatedLarge Group and high by a fewDiscussion participation participants` 70
    71. 71. Evaluations• Evaluate based on objectives• Did the participants: – learn what you had planned? – implement what they learned? – improve their job performance ? 71
    72. 72. After the Class KIRKPATRICK• Learner evaluations – How did they feel about the class?• Evaluate your delivery – How could you improve it?• Evaluate your materials design – How could they be improved? 72
    73. 73. Purpose of Training is to Produce Change In…• Skills – how to – steps• Knowledge – critical thinking – decision making• Attitudes – ethics/values – behaviour 73
    74. 74. Skills Required to be a Trainer • Subject matter expertise • Design – instructional design – apply learning principles • Material production – graphics, layout, media creation – computer experience • Presentation – voice, personality, technical expertise 74
    75. 75. Personal Qualities to Look For in a Trainer• Self-confidence • Ability to listen • Sense of humour• Awareness of • Communication & environment theatrical skills• Ability to build • Flexibility bridges—relate old • Patience to new • Cool head & warm• Organisational skills heart• Desire to learn 75
    76. 76. TNA steps• Using KPI identify Critical Performance gaps ( ROE format )• Critical Competency gaps of key persons• Best practices shall determine key competencies• Effective Delivery strategies• ROI / IRR training (justifying) 76
    77. 77. Steps in TNA1. Determine target performance and measure gaps with current.2. With performance gaps asses employee competency gaps.3. Determine strategies to deliver competencies4. Justifying training 77
    78. 78. The bigger picture Organisational performance Employee performance Employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes Employee education, experience and training 78
    79. 79. Cause Solution• If skill or knowledge……….training• If lack feedback……………, standards• If not motivated…………….rewards, consequences• If unclear expectations…..std, measure, discuss• If job environment…………change environment• If potential……………………change personnel
    80. 80. TNA (Step 4): New Skills, knowledge and Attitudes In order for our employees to perform differently, what kind of new Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes they need to have?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes 80
    81. 81. TNA (Step 5): Training needs Now that we know what kind of new Skills, knowledge and Attitudes are required for our employees, how can we bridge the gap?Existing Required•Skills • Skills•Knowledge • Knowledge•Attitudes • Attitudes 81
    82. 82. TNA in essence…1 Start with future organisational goals and challenges Assess required employee performance to meet the 2 goals and challenges Assess required employee Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes to deliver the performance 3 Identify employee training needs to bridge the gap 4 82
    83. 83. TNA steps - to recap• Establish future goals• Measure past and future performance gaps – identify critical gaps• Perform competency gap analysis on relevant staff• Is training the necessary intervention?• Alternative delivery strategies• Justifying training strategies 83
    84. 84. INTERNAL PROCESSINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Averageturnover lead time Waste Reduction 84
    85. 85. HRM KPIsINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEIncentives variances Turnover ratioHours Efficiency No Profit per ratios produced employeeTraining Productivity Value ROI ratios producedSalary Average Turnover Revenue per lead time employeeSkill Waste Reduction Employee Value added percompetency productivity employee 85
    86. 86. FINANCIAL KPIsINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Average RETURNturnover lead time ON EQUITY Waste Reduction 86
    87. 87. INTERNAL PROCESSINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial variancesLabourOverhead Efficiency No Average ratios produced cost per transactionResearch Productivity Value ROIdev ratios producedexpenseInventory Averageturnover lead time Waste Reduction 87
    88. 88. MARKETINGINPUT PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOMEMaterial Response rate No of customersLabour Marketing costs % Sales volumeOverhead Efficiency ratios Customers ProfitabilityResearch Productivity Product ROAdev ratios profitability marketingexpense Average cost per Customer acquisition Return on transaction SalesInventory Average lead time Customer retentionturnoverPrice rel to Waste Reduction Revenue growth 88comp
    89. 89. Analysis and Improvement BasicsInternal Analysis:• Trends: Individuals, Cross-examination, and Overall (withMCPMT)• Target ComparisonExternal Analysis:• Benchmarking• Standard Comparisons 89
    90. 90. Ratio-format Measures Private Firm Upstream Input Process Outputs Downstrea s es mSuppliers Staffs Planning Products Revenue and ProfitSubcontracto Instrument Procurement Servicesrs s and after Quality of Approval Equipment Sales Services Production (Replacement, Facility Reports Repairs, Return, Inspection and Capital Recall, etc.) Document Warehousin Utilities s Customer g Satisfaction Raw Delivery Materials Regulatory 90 Compliance
    91. 91. Ratio-format Measures University Upstream Inputs Processes Outputs DownstreamHigh Schools Staffs Teaching Graduates Qualifications for WorkplaceSuppliers Students Approval Research Suitable SkillsSubcontractorsInstrumentsExperiments Reports and EmploymentBudget BureauFacility Review Documents Continuous Budget Planning Seminars Education Utilities Procurement Intellectual Publications Properties Revenue 91
    92. 92. Ongoing Research in the Area of PerformanceMeasurement:• Verification of Sink’s HypotheticalInterrelationships among 7 PerformanceCriteria with MCPMT• Guidelines for Selecting and Utilizing KPIsfor Monitoring and Evaluation• White-collar Productivity Measurement withinthe Context of Performance-based Contracts(or Performance Agreements) 92
    93. 93. The EndQuestions please