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59582162 dpr

  1. 1. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................8 PROJECT AT A GLANCE .................................................................................. 13 1 NEED AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT ....................................15 1.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 15 1.2 POWER SCENARIO IN INDIA .......................................................................................................... 16 1.3 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT .................................................................................................. 22 2 DETAILS ABOUT THE PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT ............................................................................................ 25 2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 25 2.2 AREA AND POPULATION IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT ................................................................... 25 2.3 RAINFALL AND CLIMATE ............................................................................................................. 26 2.4 TEMPERATURE.............................................................................................................................. 26 2.5 PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION.................................................................................................. 27 2.6 LAND REQUIREMENT AND LAYOUT OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT .............................................. 29 2.7 LAND AVAILABILITY AND ACQUISITION FOR THE PROJECT ....................................................... 30 3 RADIATION DATA AND PROJECTED POWER GENERATION FROM THE PROJECT ACTIVITY .............................................................................31 3.1 SIMULATION REPORT OF THE POWER PLANT ............................................................................. 33 4 SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY ..............................................................37 4.1 EXISTING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................. 37 4.2 THIN FILM MODULES ................................................................................................................... 38 4.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN CRYSTALLINE, THIN FILM AND CPV.................................................. 38 TECHNOLOGIES ........................................................................................................................... 38 4.4 CONCLUSION ON SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY ......................................................................... 39 5 POWER PLANT DESIGN CRITERIA .......................................................40 5.1 DESIGN AND SIMULATION PROJECTIONS BY PVSYST ............................................................ 40 5.2 PV POWER PLANT ENERGY PRODUCTION ................................................................................. 41 5.3 PV POWER PLANT CAPACITY FACTOR ......................................................................................... 41 5.4 SELECTION OF INVERTER AND COMPONENTS ........................................................................... 42 5.5 SELECTION OF MONITORING SYSTEM ....................................................................................... 42 5.6 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR CABLES AND JUNCTION BOXES AND ................................................... 43 6 DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR COMPONETS OF THE POWER PLANT ............44 6.1 SOLAR PV MODULES ................................................................................................................... 45 6.2 CENTRAL INVERTORS .................................................................................................................. 45 6.1 MODULE MOUNTING SYSTEM ...................................................................................................... 47 6.1 GRID CONNECTED EQUIPMENTS ................................................................................................. 48 6.2 MONITORING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................ 48 6.3 CABLES AND CONNECTORS......................................................................................................... 49 6.4 BUILDINGS HOUSING FOR ELECTRONICS (POWER HOUSE) ..................................................... 50 6.5 OTHER FACILITIES INCLUDING WATER ...................................................................................... 51 7 SPECIFICATION OF MAIN PLANT AND EQUIPMENT .............................52 8 POWER EVACUATION AND INTERFACING WITH GRID ........................58 8.1 POWER EVACUATION SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 58
  2. 2. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 8.2 TRANSFORMERS........................................................................................................................... 59 8.3 HT, LV & 11KV METERING PANEL .......................................................................................... 60 8.4 CABLES ........................................................................................................................................ 61 8.5 LT POWER CABLES ..................................................................................................................... 61 8.6 CONTROL CABLES ........................................................................................................................ 61 8.7 POWER EVACUATION CABLE ...................................................................................................... 62 8.8 GRID SYNCHRONIZATION SCHEME............................................................................................ 62 9 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS ...............................63 9.1 DC SIDE OF THE POWER PLANT ................................................................................................. 63 9.2 AC SIDE OF THE POWER PLANT .................................................................................................. 63 9.3 MODE OF OPERATION ................................................................................................................. 64 9.4 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................. 65 9.5 SPARE PARTS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ......................................................................................... 65 9.6 MAINTENANCE OF O & M MANUALS.......................................................................................... 66 9.7 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION OF THE PLANT ................................................. 66 9.8 TRAINING ..................................................................................................................................... 67 10 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT ...............68 11 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION OF THE POWER PLANT… 70 11.1 TRAINING ..................................................................................................................................... 71 11.2 PLANT OPERATION ORGANIZATION CHART .............................................................................. 72 11.3 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ...................................................................................... 73 11.4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................. 73 11.5 FINALIZATION OF THE EQUIPMENTS AND CONTRACTS ............................................................ 73 11.6 PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTION......................................................................................... 74 11.7 ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING PHASE .................................................................................. 75 12 PROJECT COST ESTIMATE AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS ........................76 12.1 PLANT OPERATION ...................................................................................................................... 77 12.2 SALABLE ELECTRICITY ................................................................................................................ 78 12.3 SALE PRICE OF ELECTRICITY...................................................................................................... 78 12.4 SALE PRICE OF CARBON CREDITS .............................................................................................. 78 LIST OF TABLES: Table 1-1: Installed Capacity in MW in India at the End of 10th Plan ___________________17 Table 1-2: Installed Capacity in MW in India as of 31 Mar 2010 _______________________17 Table 1-3: Actual Power Supply Position _______________________________________________18 Table 1-4: Capacity Addition during 11th Plan (As Per Planning Commission) __________18 Table 1-5: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 ________________________18 Table 1-6: Installed capacity of all states as on 31.03.2010 (in MW) __________________19 Table 1-7: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh at the End of 10th Plan ________19 Table 1-8: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh as of 31 Mar 2010 ____________20 Table 1-9: Actual Power Supply Position _______________________________________________20 Table 1-10: Projects planned for 11th Plan _____________________________________________20 Table 1-11: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 _______________________21 Table 1-12: Likely Capacity Addition During 11th Plan __________________________________21 Table 1-13: Peak & Energy Table ______________________________________________________21 Table 3-1: Temperature details considered for design: ________________________________32 Table 7-1: Bill of materials _____________________________________________________________52 Table 7-2: Technical specification of proposed solar modules at STC __________________53 Table 7-3: Specifications of module mounting structure _______________________________53 Table 7-4: Cables speficification _______________________________________________________54 Table 7-5: Invertors specification ______________________________________________________54 Table 7-6: Transformer specification at 33 kV side ____________________________________55
  3. 3. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 7-7: Transformer specification for grid interfacing at 33/132 kV _________________56 Table 7-8: Monitoring system specification ____________________________________________57 Table 12-1: Project Cost Estimate _____________________________________________________76 Table 12-2: Assumptions supporting financial projections _____________________________80 Table 12-3: Estimation of Depreciation ________________________________________________82 Table 12-4: Projected Profitability,Balance Sheet,CF, IRR ands WC ____________________84 Table 12-5: Project Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) ______________________________88 List of Figures: Figure 1: Location map of Anatapur district in India: ............................................................. 28 Figure 2: Map showing proposed project site within Anantapur ......................................... 28 Figure 3: Typical module mounting structure: .......................................................................... 47 Figure 4: Grid-Connect equipments ............................................................................................... 48 Annexure 1 Project site Photographs 2 Land ownership details of the proposed project 3 Contour map of the project site 4 Schematic diagram showing 5MWp Solar PV Plant Layout 5 Schematic of Control Room Layout 6 Schematic of earthing layout 7 Power Evacuation Scheme 5MWp to 33/132 kV substation 8 Incorporation certificate of Saisudhir Energy Limited 9 Memorandum and Articles of Association of Saisudhir Energy Limited
  4. 4. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh ABBREVIATIONS General AB Air Breaker ACB Air Circuit Breaker AC Alternate current ACSR Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced BOS Balance of the System CO2 Carbon Dioxide CIS Copper Indium Selenium CT Current Transformer DAS Data Acquisition System DC Direct Current DP Double Pole DPR Detailed Project Report APTRANSCO Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation HT High Tension LT Low Tension LV Low Voltage MNRE Ministry of New and Renewable Energy kWh Kilo Watt Hour NO2 Nitrous Oxide Main Combiner Box / Miniature Circuit MCB Breaker MFM Multi Function Meters PLF Plant Load Factor PFC Power Finance Corporation PPA Power Purchase Agreement PV Photo Voltaic PT Power Transformer SEB State Electricity Board 4
  5. 5. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh SO2 Sulphur Dioxide SP Single Pole VCB Vacuum Circuit Breaker XLPE Cross Linked Polyethylene Units % Percentage ˚C Degree Centigrade H Hour Ha Hectare Kg Kilogram kV Kilo-Volt kW kilo Watt kWe kilo Watt electrical kWp kilo Watt peak Lt Liter M Meter m2 Square meter m3 Cubic meter Mg milli gram Mm milli meter MW Mega Watt MWe Mega Watt electrical Tons Tons 5
  6. 6. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh INTRODUCTION As the world broadens its portfolio of power options to meet growing energy demands and increasingly stringent environmental concerns, solar power is emerging as an attractive option. Of all the routes for conversion of solar into useful energy, direct conversion of sunlight to electricity through solar photovoltaic technology is well accepted. Solar photovoltaic has been recognized as an important route for generation of substantial quantities of grid quality power by utilizing the light energy of solar radiation. SAISUDHIR Energy Limited (SSEL) a group company of SAISUDHIR Infrastructures Limited is intent to develop solar photovoltaic power plant of (SPV) power project at Veerapuram village of Anatapur district, in the State of Andhra Pradesh. SSEL intend to setup grid interactive solar power project based on Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) modules also called as thin film modules. The project activity is to install grid connected 5 MW solar power project. The full power rating of the solar power plant shall be 5.0 +5% and -0% MW DC at standard test conditions (STC) of 1000 W/sq meter sunlight and 25 degree centigrade. The project is selected to install CIS modules which comply with IEC 61646 for quality and IEC 61730 safety standards. The project site proposed is in Veerapura village of Anatapur district in Andhra Pradesh. The total land area required for the project is about 25 acres. The company already acquired the land required for the project. 6
  7. 7. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The project envisages an investment of approx. Rs 650 million for the installation of 5 MW solar power plant which would provide quantity power with a power purchase price signed with NTPCs Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd or NVVN which is the designated Nodal Agency under Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) for procuring the solar power by entering into a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Solar Power Generation Project Developers. In addition, the Power Project would generate direct and indirect employment opportunities; create of civic facilities for establishment of ancillary industries. 7
  8. 8. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. The average per capita consumption of energy in India is around 612 kW, which is much lower than that of the developed countries like USA, Europe, Australia, Japan etc. However, this figure is expected to rise sharply due to high economic growth and rapid industrialization. Energy is a necessity and sustainable renewable energy is a vital link in industrialization and development of India. A transition from conventional energy systems to those based on renewable resources is necessary to meet the ever increasing demand for energy and to address environmental concerns. 2. Thus, the present scenario needs for addition of major renewable energy sources of energy for overall economic development of the country. 3. Solar Photovoltaic Power plant operates on the principle of the photoelectric phenomenon - direct conversion of light to electricity. The solar radiation incident upon a silicon-based semiconductor photovoltaic cell produces direct electric current. 4. Photovoltaic cells are integrated into modules with a voltage of 6 - 12 V; the electrically interconnected modules form solar systems with an output voltage of 230 V. 5. Saisudhir Energy Limited (SSEL) is an SAISUDHIR Infrastructures group company. Saisudhir Infrastructures Limited is one of the fastest growing ISO 9000 infrastructure companies having nationwide network for its 8
  9. 9. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Construction services in the field of Water, Power, Buildings Infrastructures, Solid Waste Management and Irrigation etc., 6. SAISUDHIR builds the high-voltage electric transmission system that helps to keep the lights on, business running and communities strong. The company has played a major role in the complete preparation, analysis, design, construction management and inspection of energy structures, high voltage transmission lines and distribution systems across the country. 7. SAISUDHIR has an in-house capability for designing Transmission Line Towers & Switchyard Structures. 8. SAISUDHIR energy proposed to install a 5 MW Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) power plant under phase I of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) of new grid connected projects. The generated electricity will be sold to NVVN with a long term Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). The company has already entered into a PPA agreement with NVVN. 9. This report highlights the details of the proposed power generation scheme, site facilities, solar radiation in the proposed site location and water, evacuation of generated power, features of main plant and equipment including the inverter system, electrical systems, environmental aspects, estimate of capital cost and the financial analysis and the schedule for project implementation. 10. The proposed 5 MW power plant would require about 25 acres of land. The company already acquired the land required for the project. 9
  10. 10. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 11. The plant is designed with an availability factor of 100%. The plant will generate about 9.63 million units per year at the module array terminals, after the losses in the system about 9.32 million units will be available at the grid terminals which will amount to a plant load factor of about 21.28 %. The project site was selected on the basis of: • Availability of good solar insulation • Availability of uninhabited land at a reasonable cost • Availability of stable grid near to the project site • High Power Demand in the State • Availability of good infrastructural facility including road and rail connection 12. The power generated at 11kV from the power plant will be stepped-up to 33 kV level and connected to APPCL sub-station at Raydurg, which is about 10 km from the project site. The total power produced is envisaged as 9.63 million units at the PV array. After the losses the net available energy for supplying to the grid is about 9.32 million units. Thus, the net salable electricity to the grid works out to 9.32 million units. The plant is envisaged to operate 365 days at a plant load factor (PLF) of 21.28%. The transmission line required from the SSEL 5 MW plant site to the substation will be laid by the project promoters. 13. The power plant will comprise of IEC 61646 modules of CIS thin film modules with aluminum frame of 41,600 no’s , which will work out to 5 MW +5% and -0% for accounting the DC losses (each module of 130 Wp capacity), 5200 nos of PV system mounting structures (strings) made out 10
  11. 11. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh of MS galvanized steel with 8 module structure, fixed tilt type, 80 nos of array junction boxes, Power conditioning unit (inverter) 10 nos of 500 kVA, 1.25 MVA transformer 5 nos, 6.5 MVA transformer 1 no for interfacing with grid, LT and HT Panel and protection and metering, cables and earthing system set. 14. The net energy sales from the plant workout 9.32 million units. The entire energy will be sold to NVVN through APTransco grid. The financial analysis is made with a levelised power purchase price of Rs. 12.00 / kWh. 15. The total cost of generation includes the insurance cost, repairs and maintenance, cost of administration, salaries and wages, cost of utilities. 16. The total installed project cost including civil, mechanical and electrical, preoperative expenses and the contingency works out to Rs 650 million. 17. The solar power plant reduces contribution to atmospheric carbon-di- oxide vis-à-vis fossil fuel generation. The project helps solar radiation into useful electricity, adding to the sustainability of the project and the local environment. Thus, the project meets the UNFCCC norms set to qualify for obtaining CDM benefits. The project is envisaged to register with UNFCCC for availing the CDM benefits. 18. The term loan requirement from the financial institution works out to 455.00 (70% of the project cost) million. It is assumed that the term loan will be repaid in 13 years in quarterly installments, with an initial 11
  12. 12. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh moratorium period of 1 year. The equity from SSIL will be Rs 195.00 million. The interest rate for the term loan is considered as 11.50 %. 19. The depreciation computed is on straight line basis. 20. Income tax at the rate of 32.45% % is considered in the financial analysis. The benefits available under Section 80 IA, for power projects have been taken into consideration in the financial analysis while calculating the income tax liability. The post tax Project Internal Rate of Return (IRR) works out to 13.63% and Post tax Equity IRR works out to 18.89%. 21. The project also generates Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) revenue with reduction at 1% in the subsequent years. If we consider the revenue from sale of carbon credits with a minimum price of € 12 per CER, the project generates additional revenue of about INR 7.5 million, which will add to the profitability of the project. 22. Minimum Project Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) will work out to 1.35 and average DSCR will work out to 1.65. 12
  13. 13. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh PROJECT AT A GLANCE 1 Project Authority SAISUDHIR Energy Limited 5 MW +5% and –0% Solar Photovoltaic 2 Project Installed Capacity Power Plant T.Veerapuram Village, Anantapur 3 Selected Location District. 4 Nearest Major Towns Anantapur 5 Seismic Zone Zone-4 as per IS 1893-1984. Well Connected, buses are Operated by 6 Access by Bus Andhrapradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) 7 Nearest Airport Bangalore International Airport (BIAL) Anantapur Railway Station is on the 8 Access by Rail Bangalore-Hydrabad line. Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) Thin film 9 Solar module type modules 10 Capacity of each module 130 Wp 11 No. of modules 41,600 Nos 12 PV System Mounting Structure type MS Galvanised(> 70 micron) 13 Module mounting structure type 8 Module mounting structure 14 No. of module mounting structures 5,200 Nos. 15 No. of Array junction boxes 80 Nos. Power conditioning Unit (Invertor) 16 500 kVA capacity 17 Power conditioning Unit specifications Input voltage range 450-900V 18 No. of invertors 10 Nos. 19 Invertors make AEG or equivalent 20 1.25 MVA Transformer 5 Nos 21 6.5 MVA Transformer 1 No. 13
  14. 14. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 22 LT Panel with protection & metering 5 Nos. 23 LT Panel with protection & metering 2 Nos 24 Cables and earthing systems 1 set 25 Gross Power Generation (kW) 5000 +5% and -0% Net exportable power at 33 kV to 27 9.32 million units nearest grid substation(kW) 28 Power Purchase tariff with NVVN in ` 12.00 29 Plant Load Factor 21.28% 30 Total Project cost (Rs. In millions) 650 Preliminary and pre-operative 31 30.00 expenses (Rs. In millions) Equity from Promoters 32 195.00 (Rs. In millions) Term loan from Financial Institutions 33 455.00 (Rs in millions) 34 Interest on term loan 11.50% 35 Project IRR (post tax) 13.63 % 36 Equity IRR (post tax) 18.89 % 37 Plant Commissioning Date Dec 2011 Land requirement 25 Acres 38 • Module area 51,089 m2 The entire station will be laid at a 39 Land Development uniform level. TECHNICAL FEATURES Through 33/132kV Transmission lines 40 Power Evacuation Raydurg substation located 10km from project site. OTHER FACILITIES Through EPC (Engineering, Procurement 41 Mode of Implementation and Construction) or thru split contracts. Twelve (12) months from the date of 42 Project Time Frame signing PPA with NVVN PROJECT COST Present day cost including, financing Project Cost charges and margin money. 43 Rs.650 million. 14
  15. 15. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 1 NEED AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE PROJECT 1.1 Introduction India with 17 percent of the world population and just 0.8 per cent of the world’s known oil and natural gas resources is going to face serious energy challenges in the coming decades. Besides energy independence, the devastating impact of climate change has become an issue of critical importance. Energy production using fossil fuels is the major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, transition to a low-carbon energy economy is the real solution for mitigating the impact of climate change. India has huge potential for producing electricity from renewable sources. The achievement so far is about 17,222 (as on 31.03.2010) MW, as against global installed capacity of approximately 2,00,000 MW of renewable electricity generation. While India’s achievement is commendable, it is necessary for us to keep pace with the fast growth in developed countries. There are three imperatives that necessitate a transition to a sustainable energy system in the 21st century: They are Climate change and its potentially disastrous consequences. Peaking of production, depletion and extinction of fossil fuels and Energy Autonomy and Independence. The single biggest reason for global warming is the burning of fossil fuels. So the solution lies in effecting an accelerated transition to a low carbon energy economy, which means large scale development of renewable energy. Fortunately there are several emerging technologies that will facilitate this. 15
  16. 16. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Peaking of production of all fossil fuels (viz. oil, gas and coal) in the next two decades and gradual extinction of these resources is an accepted scientific fact. Even assuming that they would be available, India, which is already dependent on their import, would become more and more import dependent. The financial implications of large scale imports would destroy our economy and necessitate strategies to move towards energy autonomy or independence. The conversion of solar energy to electricity displaces an equivalent amount of grid power, which would otherwise be produced by grid connected fossil fuel dominated power plants. Grid power is comprised of a large share of fossil fuel based generation systems. 1.2 Power Scenario in India As per Section73(a) of the Indian Electricity Act-2003, CEA has been carrying out periodic electric power survey to project state-wise and region-wise power plans together with assessment of peaking power and energy surpluses / deficits. The estimate prepared by the CEA is revised and updated from time to time taking into account the actual growth rates achieved. The Reports and National Electricity Plan prepared by CEA i.e. Report on (17th) Electric Power Survey of India published in August 2007, Draft National Electricity Plan- Transmission published in 2005 and Power Scenario at a glance published in April 2010 have been referred for carrying out demand analysis of the State of Andhra Pradesh and other regions. Load forecast/Availability of power for 2003-2012 for the State of Eastern, Northern, Western, Southern and North-Eastern region have been given below which shows that surplus amount of power will be available for the North-East 16
  17. 17. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh region while other regions i.e. Northern, Western and Southern will expect a shortage of power at the end of 11th Plan i.e. 2011-12. Actual power scenario of are as follows in terms of: • Installed Capacity • Actual Supply/Generation. • Likely capacity addition. Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in India at the End of 10th Plan INSTALLED CAPACITY (AT THE END OF 10TH PLAN) (FIGURES IN MW) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S. Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 26,005.7 41,731.6 3,729.8 604.6 46,066 0.0 975.7 73,047.4 PRIVATE 1,230.0 4,241.4 4,183.0 597.1 9,021.5 0.0 6,784.8 17,036.3 CENTRAL 7,418 25,118.3 5,809.0 0.0 30,927.3 3,900.0 0.0 42,245.3 TOTAL 34,653.7 71,091.3 13,721.8 1,201.8 86,014.8 3,900.0 7,760.5 1,32,329 Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in India as of 31 Mar 2010 INSTALLED CAPACITY AS ON 31.03.2010 (FIGURES IN MW) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 27,065.00 44,977.00 4,046.12 602.61 49,625.73 0.00 2,701.12 79,391.85 PRIVATE 1,233.00 8,056.38 6,307.50 597.14 14,961.02 0.00 12,819.99 29,014.01 CENTRAL 8,565.40 31,165.00 6,702.23 0.00 37,867.23 4,560.00 0.00 50,992.63 TOTAL 36,863.40 84,198.38 17,055.85 1,199.75 1,02,453.98 4,560.00 15,521.11 1,59,398.49 17
  18. 18. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Actual Power Supply Position ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION 9 Period Peak Peak Met Peak Peak Energy Energy Avail-Energy Energy Demand (MW) Deficit/ Deficit/ Requi- ability (MU) Deficit/ Deficit/ (MW) Surplus Surplus rment Surplus Surplus (MW) (%) (MU) (MU) (%) 9TH PLAN END 78,441 69,189 -9,252 -11.8 5,22,537 4,83,350 -39,187 -7.5 2002-03 81,492 71,547 -9,945 -12.2 5,45,983 4,97,890 -48,093 -8.8 2003-04 84,574 75,066 -9,508 -11.2 5,59,264 5,19,398 -39,866 -7.1 2004-05 87,906 77,652 -10,254 -11.7 5,91,373 5,48,115 -43,258 -7.3 2005-06 93,255 81,792 -11,463 -12.3 6,31,757 5,78,819 -52,938 -8.4 2006-07 1,00,715 86,818 -13,897 -13.8 6,90,587 6,24,495 -66,092 -9.6 2007-08 1,08,866 90,793 -18,073 -16.6 7,39,345 6,66,007 -73,338 -9.9 2008-09 1,09,809 96,685 -13,124 -12 7,74,324 6,89,021 -85,303 -11 APR,09 1,18,472 1,02,725 -15,748 -13.3 8,30,300 7,46,493 -83,807 -10.1 MAR ,2010 1,18,472 1,02,725 -15,748 -13.3 76,493 67,513 -8,980 -11.7 NOTE :- PEAK DEMAND - 121891 MW , ENERGY REQUIREMENT - 794561 MU FOR THE YEAR 2008-2009(AS PER 17TH EPS REPORT),OCCURENCE OF PEAK AS PER ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY POSITION IN THE MONTH(S) - MARCH & OCTOBER SOURCE:- DMLF DIVISION Table 1-: Capacity Addition during 11th Plan (As Per Planning Commission) CAPACITY ADDITION DURING 11TH PLAN (AS PER PLANNING COMMISSION TARGET) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear Wind Total Coal Gas Diesel Total STATE 3,482.0 19,985.0 3,316.4 0.0 23,301.4 0.0 0.0 26,783.4 PRIVATE 3,491.0 9,515.0 2,037.0 0.0 11,552.0 0.0 0.0 15,043.0 CENTRAL 8,654.0 23,350.0 1,490.0 0.0 24,840.0 3,380.0 0.0 36,874.0 TOTAL 15,627.0 52,850.0 6,843.4 0.0 59,693.4 3,380.0 0.0 78700.4* NOTE :- * AS PER ACTUAL ORDERS , THE CAPACITY COMES TO 78900.4 MW Table 1-: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 LIKELY POWER SUPPLY POSITION AT THE END OF 2011-12 (DEMAND AS PER 17TH EPS) Period Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Requi- Energy Energy Energy Demand Met Deficit/ Deficit/ rment (MU) Avail- Deficit/ Deficit/ (MW) (MW) Surplus Surplus ability Surplus Surplus (MW) (%) (MU) (MU) (%) 2011-12 1,52,746 1,42,765 -9,981 -6.5 9,68,659 9,48,836 -19,823 -2.0 18
  19. 19. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Installed capacity of all states as on 31.03.2010 (in MW) S.No STATES HYDRO THERMAL NUCLEAR R.E.S TOTAL . COAL GAS DIESEL TOTAL 1 CHANDIGARH 46.74 27.09 15.32 0.00 42.41 8.84 0.00 97.99 2 DELHI 581.62 2,602.96 808.01 0.00 3,410.97 122.08 0.00 4,114.67 3 HARYANA 1,327.68 3,017.99 535.29 3.92 3,557.20 109.16 76.50 5,070.54 4 H.P. 1,539.94 118.30 61.88 0.13 180.31 34.08 275.83 2,030.16 5 J&K 1,480.53 263.70 304.14 8.94 576.78 77.00 129.33 2,263.64 6 PUNJAB 2,962.89 3,208.19 263.92 0.00 3,472.11 208.04 278.90 6,921.94 7 RAJASTHAN 1,454.80 4,149.48 665.03 0.00 4,814.51 573.00 926.15 7,768.46 8 U.P. 1,597.42 6,912.84 549.97 0.00 7,462.81 335.72 587.70 9,983.65 9 UTTRAKHAND 1,919.18 261.26 69.35 0.00 330.61 22.28 132.92 2,404.99 10 CHATTISGARH 120.00 4,383.00 0.00 0.00 4,383.00 47.52 218.95 4,769.47 11 GUJARAT 772.00 7,008.89 3,894.49 17.48 10,920.86 559.32 1,655.91 13,908.09 12 M.P. 3,223.66 4,282.10 257.18 0.00 4,539.28 273.24 287.86 8,324.04 13 MAHARASHTRA 3,331.84 11,203.05 3,715.93 0.00 14,918.98 690.14 2,437.97 21,378.93 14 GOA 0.00 277.03 48.00 0.00 325.03 25.80 30.05 380.88 15 D&D 0.00 19.04 4.20 0.00 23.24 7.38 0.00 30.62 16 D&N HAVAILI 0.00 22.04 27.10 0.00 49.14 8.46 0.00 57.60 17 A.P. 3,617.53 6,259.88 2,580.40 36.80 8,877.08 214.28 700.51 13,409.40 18 KARNATAKA 3,599.80 3,902.67 220.00 234.42 4,357.09 195.36 2,234.09 10,386.34 19 KERALA 1,781.50 765.38 533.58 256.44 1,555.40 78.10 138.76 3,553.76 20 T.N 2,108.20 5,519.81 1,026.30 411.66 6,957.77 478.50 4,865.51 14,409.98 21 P.CHURY 0.00 207.01 32.50 0.00 239.51 16.28 0.00 255.79 22 D.V.C 193.26 3,563.10 90.00 0.00 3,653.10 0.00 0.00 3,846.36 23 BIHAR 129.43 1,661.70 0.00 0.00 1,661.70 0.00 54.60 1,845.73 24 JHARKHAND 200.93 1,737.88 0.00 0.00 1,737.88 0.00 4.05 1,942.86 25 ORISSA 2,166.93 1,828.10 0.00 0.00 1,828.10 0.00 64.30 4,059.33 26 SIKKIM 75.27 68.10 0.00 5.00 73.10 0.00 47.11 195.48 27 W.BENGAL 1,116.30 6,756.34 100.00 12.20 6,868.54 0.00 164.70 8,149.54 28 ARP.P. 97.57 0.00 21.05 15.88 36.93 0.00 67.42 201.92 29 ASSAM 429.72 60.00 441.32 20.69 522.01 0.00 27.11 978.84 30 MANIPUR 80.98 0.00 25.96 45.41 71.37 0.00 5.45 157.80 31 MEGHALYA 230.58 0.00 25.96 2.05 28.01 0.00 31.03 289.62 32 MIZORAM 34.31 0.00 16.28 51.86 68.14 0.00 28.47 130.92 33 NAGALAND 53.32 0.00 19.19 2.00 21.19 0.00 28.67 103.18 34 TRIPURA 62.37 0.00 160.84 4.85 165.69 0.00 16.01 244.07 35 A&N ISLAND 0.00 0.00 0.00 60.05 60.05 0.00 5.25 65.30 36 LAKSHDEEP 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.97 9.97 0.00 0.00 9.97 Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh at the End of 10th Plan INSTALLED CAPACITY (AT THE END OF 10th PLAN (FIGURES IN MW) Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S. Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 3,582.6 3,132.5 272.3 0.0 3,404.8 0.0 103.0 7,090.3 PRIVATE 3.8 0.0 1,603.4 36.8 1,640.2 0.0 283.4 1,927.4 CENTRAL 0.0 2,378.0 0.0 0.0 2,378.0 152.5 0.0 2,530.5 TOTAL 3,586.3 5,510.5 1,875.7 36.8 7,423.0 152.5 386.4 11,548.2 19
  20. 20. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Installed Capacity in MW in Andhra Pradesh as of 31 Mar 2010 Sector Hydro Thermal Nuclear R.E.S. Total Coal Gas Diesel Total (MNRE) STATE 3,617.53 3,882.50 0.00 0.00 3,882.50 0.00 188.43 7,688.46 PRIVATE 0.00 0.00 2,580.40 36.80 2,617.20 0.00 512.08 3,129.28 CENTRAL 0.00 2,377.38 0.00 0.00 2,377.38 214.28 0.00 2,591.66 TOTAL 3,617.53 6,259.88 2,580.40 36.80 8,877.08 214.28 700.51 13,409.40 Table 1-: Actual Power Supply Position Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Energy Energy Energy Period Demand Met deficit/ Deficit/ Requi- Avail- Deficit/ Deficit/ (MW) (MW) Surplus Surplus ( rment ability Surplus Surplus ( (MW) %) (MU) (MU) (MU) %) 9TH PLAN END 8,585 6,873 -1,712 -19.9 48,394 44,302 -4,092 -8.5 2002-03 8,491 6,858 -1,633 -19.2 47,258 44,049 -3,209 -6.8 2003-04 8,679 7,769 -910 -10.5 48,080 46,680 -1,400 -2.9 2004-05 8,093 7,903 -190 -2.3 50,416 50,061 -355 -0.7 2005-06 8,999 8,542 -457 -5.1 53,030 52,332 -698 -1.3 2006-07 10,208 8,641 -1,567 -15.4 60,964 58,280 -2,684 -4.4 2007-08 10,048 9,162 -886 -8.8 64,139 61,511 -2,628 -4.1 2008-2009 10,823 9,997 -826 -7.6 71,592 66,754 -4,838 -6.8 APR,09-MAR10 12,135 10,880 -1,255 -10.3 79,014 73,784 -5,230 -6.6 MAR 2010 12,135 10,880 -1,255 -10.3 7,929 7,040 -889 -11.2 Table 1-: Projects planned for 11th Plan PROJECTS PLANNED FOR XITH PLAN (STATE/PRIVATE/CENTRAL SECTOR) INCLUDING BEST CAPACITY LIKELY YEAR / EFFORT PROJECT AGENCY STATUS TYPE (MW) DATE OF PROJECTS COMMISSIONIN G 1 SIMHADRI-EXT U-3,4 NTPC Under Construction COAL 1,000 2010-12 2 SUB TOTAL –Central sector 1,000 3 JURALA PRIYA U1,2 APGENCO Commissioned HYDRO 78 31.08.2008 4 JURALA PRIYA U,3 APGENCO Commissioned HYDRO 39 07.06.2009 5 JURALA PRIYA U 4-6 APGENCO Under Construction HYDRO 117 2010-11 6 NAGARJUNA SAGAR TR APGENCO Under Construction HYDRO 50 2010-12 7 PULICHINTALA APID Under Construction HYDRO 120 2010-12 8 RAYALSEEMA U4 APGENCO Commissioned COAL 210 2007-08 9 RAYALSEEMA ST III U5 APGENCO Under Construction COAL 210 2010-11 10 VIJAYWADA TPP ST-IV,U1 APGENCO Commissioned COAL 500 8.10.2009 11 KOTHAGUDEM ST-V APGENCO Under Construction COAL 500 2011-12 12 KAKTIYA TPP APGENCO Under Construction COAL 500 2010-11 13 SUB TOTAL –state sector 2,324 14 KONASEEMA OAKWELL Commissioned GAS/LNG 280 3.5.2009 15 KONASEEMA OAKWELL Under Construction GAS/LNG 165 2010-11 16 GAUTAMI GAUTAMI POW Commissioned GAS/LNG 464 3.5.2009 17 KONDAPALLI PH II LANCO Commissioned GAS 233 5.12.2009 18 KONDAPALLI PH II LANCO Under Construction LNG 133 2010-11 19 SUB TOTAL -private sector 1,275 20 TOTAL (AP) 4,719 20
  21. 21. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table 1-: Likely Power Supply Position at the End of 2010-12 LIKELY POWER SUPPLY POSITION AT THE END OF 2011-12* (DEMAND AS PER 17TH EPS) Period Peak Peak Peak Peak Energy Energy Energy Energy 2011- Demand 12,357 -2,364 Deficit/ 14,721 Met eficit/ -16.1 Requi- 89,032 Avail- 80,338 Deficit/ -8,694 Deficit/ -9.8 12 Table 1-: Likely Capacity Addition During 11th Plan LIKELY CAPACITY ADDITION DURING 11TH PLAN INCLUDING BEST EFFORT PROJECTS FOR THE STATE : - Ty St Installed Capacity Benefits Commissioned Last Unit ANDHRA PRADESH CENTRAL-SECTOR pe at Capacity Addition Shares of / Commissioning *SIMHADRI ST-II T U 1,000.00 1,000.00 384.00 (2010-2012) *ENNORE JV COST T U 1,000.00 1,000.00 129.00 (20110-2012) KAIGA U-3 & 4 N U 440.00 440.00 123.00 COMM 220.00 11.04.2007 *KALPAKKAM PFBR N U 500.00 500.00 142.00 (2010-2011) CENTRAL-SECTOR TOTAL:- 778.00 STATE-SECTOR NAGAR SAGAR TR H U 50.00 50.00 50.00 (2010-2012) VIJAYWADA TPP T U 500.00 500.00 500.00 COMM 500.00 ( 8.10.2009 ) KOTHAGUDEM ST-V T U 500.00 500.00 500.00 (2011-2012) JURALA PRIYA H U 234.00 234.00 234.00 COMM 27.06.2009 RAYALSEEMA 4&5 T U 420.00 420.00 420.00 117.00 210.00 20.11.2007 COMM PULICHINTALA H U 120.00 120.00 120.00 (2011-2012) KAKTIYA TPP T U 500.00 500.00 500.00 (2010-2011) STATE - SECTOR TOTAL:- 1,824.00 PRIVATE-SECTOR KONASEEMA CCGT G U 445.00 445.00 445.00 COMM 280.00 (3.5.2009) GAUTAMI CCGT G C 464.00 464.00 464.00 COMM 464.00 (3.5.2009) KONDAPALLI CCPP G U 233.00 233..00 233.00 COMM 233.00 (5.12.2009) KONDAPALLI CCPP T U 366.00 366.00 133.00 (2010-2011) PRIVATE-SECTOR TOTAL:- 1,275.00 GRAND-TOTAL:- 3,757.00 Note: U-Under Construction Project; C-Commissioned * Share from Central Sectors Projects for which M.O.P. Orders are yet to be issued is tentative. Table 1-: Peak & Energy Table PEAK AND ENERGY TABLE YEAR (As per 17th EPS Report vs Actual achieved) PEAK ENERGY Requirment Actual Requirement Actual 2004-05 as per 17th 8,093 8,168 Demand 48,928 17th as Per Require 50,416 2005-06 8,810 8,999 54,683 53,030 2006-07 9,597 10,208 59,311 60,964 2007-08 10,454 10,048 64,331 64,139 2008-09 11,388 10,823 69,775 71,592 2009-10 12,406 75,680 2010-11 13,514 82,085 2011-12 14,721 89,032 21
  22. 22. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh From the above tables i.e. Actual power Supply position for the state of Andhra Pradesh, it clearly indicates the consistent power deficit of around 8.5 % at the end of 9th Plan continuing till 2009-10 up to 11.2%. 1.3 Justification for the project For the state of Andhra Pradesh the projected peak load is 13,514 MW (2010- 11). Table above shows Installed capacity as on 31 Mar 2010 for the state of Andhra Pradesh, actual power supply position and capacity addition during 11th Plan for the state of Andhra Pradesh. As per present power scenario for the state of Andhra Pradesh the peak deficit during 2006-07 is around 4.4 %. As per table above power deficit for the state of Andhra Pradesh during 2011-12 will be around 1,255 MW (March 2010). Thus Considering projected power demand for the state of Andhra Pradesh, power generated from the proposed power plant may be utilized for the state of Andhra Pradesh. The proposed solar photovoltaic power plant (SPV) will contribute to bridge the gap between the demand and availability of power. As per the proposed transmission evacuation plan, the proposed power station shall be connected to APTransco 33/132 kV substation at Raydurng, in Anantapur district. Therefore it is considered that the proposed power plant will be able to contribute to the power requirement of the Andhra Pradesh, hence it is justified for construction of the Proposed 5 MW Power Plant at Veerapuram village, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. 22
  23. 23. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The project activity will result in an annual average reduction of about 8000 tCO2e per year by replacing electricity generated from fossil fuel fired power plants. The project activity has been essentially conceived to generate GHG emission free electricity by making use of available Solar PV in the project area. The project - being a renewable energy project - leads to sustainable development through efficient utilization of naturally available sunlight and generation of additional employment for the local stakeholders. The Government of India in its Interim Approval Guidelines for CDM Projects has stipulated a set of indicators for describing the sustainable development of a project. According to these indicators, the sustainability of the described project is as follows: Social well being: The project activity is generating employment opportunities for professional, skilled and unskilled labour for development, engineering, procurement operation and maintenance of the project activity. The development of project specific infrastructure will result in employment and income generation activities for local personnel. In addition various kinds of maintenance work would generate employment opportunities for local contractor on regular and Economic well being: • The project activities will bring an additional permanent basis. The project activity would promote the application of solar energy based power generation investment to the tune of INR 650 million, which is a significant investment in a green field project in the region. 23
  24. 24. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh • The project activities will act as a nucleus for other economic activities such as setting up of cottage industries, shops, hotels etc. around the area, contributing to the economic development around the project area. • Proposed power plant will use solar radiation as resource for generation of power helps conserve foreign exchange by reducing the need to import fossil fuels to meet the country’s growing energy demand. Environmental well being: Solar energy based power generation system will be a robust clean technology involving latest state of the art renewable energy options to be used for the purpose of electricity generation. The project implementation will lead to reduction of SOx, NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. It therefore results in an improvement in air quality and human health. 24
  25. 25. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2 DETAILS ABOUT THE PROPOSED PROJECT LOCATION IN ANANTAPUR DISTRICT 2.1 Introduction Anantapur district is situated in 13-40 and 15’-15 Northern Latitude and 76- 50 and 78-30 Eastern Longitude. It is bounded by Bellary, Kurnool District on the North, Cuddapah and Kolar Districts of Karnataka on South East and North respectively. The District is roughly oblong in shape, the longer side running North to South with a portion of Chitradurg District of Karnataka State intruding into it from west between Kundurpi and Amarapuram Mandals.The Distance of State capital Hyderabad from the district is of ~300 Kms. The District of Anantapur has a fairly good elevation which provides the District with tolerable climate throughout the year. It has a gradual fall from the South North towards the valley of the Pennar in Peddavadugur, Peddapappur and Tadipatri Mandals. There is a gradual rise in Hindupur, Parigi, Lepakshi, Chilamathur, Agali, Rolla and Madakasira Mandals in the South to join the Karnataka Plateau where the average elevation is about 2000 feet is above the mean sea level. 2.2 Area and population in Anantapur District There are 929 inhabited villages, out of 964 total Revenue villages of the District. The number of villages in size group of 500 to 1999 forms 36.71% of the total inhabited villages . The size group of 2000 to 4999 forms 38.64% and the size group of 5000 to 9999 forms 12.81% only out of total villages, while 84 villages ( 9.04%) of total inhabited villages are having population less than 500. There are 26 villages with more than 10,000 population excluding Towns. 25
  26. 26. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.3 Rainfall and Climate Anatapur district being far from the East coast, it does not enjoy the full benefits of North East Monsoons and being cut off by the high western Ghats, the South West Monsoon are also prevented from penetrating and punching the thirst of these parched soils. It is therefore seen, the district is deprived of both the monsoons and subjected to droughts due to bad seasons. The normal rainfall of the district is 553.0 MMs. by which it secures least rainfall when compared to Rayalaseema and other parts of Andhra Pradesh. The normal rainfall for the South West Monsoon period is 338.0 MMs. which forms about 61.2% of the total rainfall for the year. The failure of the rains in this South West monsoon period of June to September will lead the District to drought by failure of crops. The rainfall for North East monsoon period is 156.0 M.Ms. only, which forms 28.3% M.Ms. of the total rainfall for the year (October to December). 2.4 Temperature March, April and May are warm months when the normal daily maximum temperature ranges between 29.1 C to 40.3 C. November, December and January are cooler months when the temperature falls about 15.7 C, Hindupur, Parigi, Lepakshi, Chilamathur, Agali, Rolla and Madakasira Mandals being at High Elevation are more cooler than the rest of the Mandals in the District. 26
  27. 27. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.5 Proposed Project location The Proposed project site T Veerapuram is located in Raydurg Taluk of Anantapur district. Below figure shows the project location. The site selection for a Solar Power Plant is pre-dominantly determined by solar insulation availability & grid connectivity for exporting power. Equally important are other essential factors/considerations such as: • Availability of adequate land for Power Plant and green belt development • Soil condition like soil bearing capacity etc. • Proximity to State Electricity Grid enabling economic evacuation of power generated • Availability of water and power during construction • Availability of local work force in the proximity • Availability of load centres (towns) within vicinity • Easy accessibility of the site The proposed project site in Veerapuram village, Anatapur district of Andhra Pradesh State is found favoring all the above factors to a reasonable extent. 27
  28. 28. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Figure : Location map of Anatapur district in India: Figure : Map showing proposed project site within Anantapur Proposed Project site for 5 MW SPV Power Project at Veerapura 28
  29. 29. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.6 Land requirement and layout of the proposed Project The Power Plant will be located in the proposed site in Veerapuram village. The total land area required for the project is about 25 acres. The Power Plant layout can be divided into two sections as: 1. Module mounting area and 2. Control room The major portion of the site will be used for module mounting. As described in the Power Plant Scheme the module will be mounted in a steel structure which will be installed facing South direction for best efficiency & optimal power output. The steel structure will be grouted using RCC foundation. The proposed structure is designed to hold 8 modules per structure and which can withstand wind speed up to 100km/hr. The structure is designed in such a way that it will occupy minimum required space without sacrificing the performance. The interconnection cables are routed within the structure and the output cables from the modules are taken through proper size conduit to the smart connect box. The output cables from the junction boxes are routed under the ground through conduits or cable trenches. Man holes for regular maintenance and inspection will be provided at equal distances as required. Earthing for all the module mounting structures will be done using copper or GI conductors. The earth pits for module area will be provided as the electrical standards. In order to protect the modules from lightning, lightning protection will be provided in the module mounting area. Sufficient number of lightning arrestor will be 29
  30. 30. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh provided in this area alone for protection of modules. The proposed power plant layout is enclosed as annexure 5. 2.7 Land availability and acquisition for the project As mentioned in the previous section, solar power plant of 5 MW capacity requires about 25 acres of land. The land required by the project is already acquired on lease basis. 30
  31. 31. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh RADIATION DATA AND PROJECTED POWER GENERATION FROM THE PROJECT ACTIVITY Actual site of installation is T. Veerapuram village, Raydurg taluka, located in Anatapur district. The latitude and longitude of this site is 14.36 0N and 76.56 0 E respectively. Solar radiation available is for Anatapur in Andhra Pradesh is considered for simulation of project parameters. Latitude : 14.70 ºN Longitude : 77.60 ºE Below is the weather data for Anatapur district. The data is taken from surface metrology and solar energy data NASA earth science enterprise programme and is based on 22 years of yield data analysis. The irradiation and temperature details considered for the design purpose are as below: 31
  32. 32. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh Table -: Temperature details considered for design: Average annual solar insulation at horizontal angle taken for Anantapur based on the above chart: 5.34 KWh/m²/day. 32
  33. 33. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 2.8 Simulation report of the power plant 33
  34. 34. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 34
  35. 35. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 35
  36. 36. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh The above simulation analysis is carried out based on the fixed structures. Saisudhir energy and NVVN has entered into a power purchase agreement for the capacity of 5 MW +5% and -0% power plant capacity. The entire generated energy will be sold to NVVN on a long term basis. With this arrangement to optimize the power generation potential, it was envisaged to install PV modules of 5.250 MW capacity to take care of the DC side energy losses in the system. 36
  37. 37. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 3 SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGY The key components of a photovoltaic power system are the photovoltaic cells (sometimes also called solar cells) interconnected and encapsulated to form a photovoltaic module (the commercial product), the mounting structure for the module or array, the inverter (essential for grid-connected systems and) and charge controller (for off-grid systems only). 3.1 Existing Solar Photovoltaic Technologies Crystalline silicon technologies currently account for most of the overall cell production in the IEA PVPS countries. Single crystal PV cells are manufactured using a single-crystal growth method and have commercial efficiencies between 15 % and 18 %. Multicrystalline cells, usually manufactured from a melting and solidification process, are less expensive to produce but are marginally less efficient, with conversion efficiencies around 14 %. PV cells made from ribbons demonstrate an average efficiency around 14 %. Thin film cells, constructed by depositing extremely thin layers of photovoltaic semi-conductor materials onto a backing material such as glass, stainless steel or plastic, show stable efficiencies in the range of 7 % to 13 %. Thin film materials commercially used are amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) Thin film modules. 37
  38. 38. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 3.2 Thin film modules Thin film modules are potentially cheaper to manufacture than crystalline cells have a wider customer appeal as design elements due to their homogeneous appearance present. Disadvantages, such as low-conversion efficiencies and requiring larger areas of PV arrays and more material (cables, support structures) to produce the same amount of electricity. 3.3 Comparison between Crystalline, Thin film and CPV Technologies S.No. Parameter Crystalline Thin Film CPV Types of Materials Mono/ Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon, CdS, Triple Junction GaAs Cell & CdTe, CIGS, CIS etc. lens , tracker 1 Handling Better protec tion against Not Guaranteed Installation would be at site. breakage Not Guaranteed 2 Power Efficiency 12-16% 6-8% 20-25% 3 Technology Well Developed Under development Under development 4 Module Weight Light weight modules Heavier modules Heaviest System 5 Area utilization Higher power generated Less power per unit area Highest power per unit area per unit area due to high efficiency 6 Temperature Effects Temperature variations Lesser impact of Temperature High variation affect output variations 7 Irradiance Used particularly for Better performance with Diffuse Works only for Normal Normal radiations radiations radiations 8 Module quantity Lesser nos required due More modules required Lowest nos. of modules to high efficienc y required 9 Output per MW High Varies as per sunlight condtion Very High(due to tracking) installed and various locations 10 Transportation Cost Lower Transportation Higher cost High cost cost 11 Mounting Structure Fewer Mounting structure More Mounting structures Sophisticated mounting required per KW power required required 12 Land Requirement Lesser space required per Largest space requirement Lowest spac e required MW 13 Inverter High inverter flexibility Limited inverter flexibility Limited inverter flexibility 14 Cost High c ost per Watt Lower cost per Watt Highest cost per Watt 14 Environment Effects Less Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive 15 Stabilization Stable power output from Stability achieved after 4-6 Unknown at initial stages months 16 Availability Easily available Limited supply Limited supply 17 Health hazards Made from non toxic Toxic materials used for thin Unknown material (Si) films (CdS, CdTe) 18 Power Degradation Less degradation Highest degradation for initial 5- High Degradation 7 years 19 Plant Maintenance Less maintenance Highest maintenanc e required, High maintenanc e required, so required after installation so highest maintenance c ost high maintenance cost so lower cost 20 Repair Relatively easy Diffic ult due to complex Difficult due to complex structure struc ture 21 Cooling Requirement Not required Not required Requires active or passive cooling which could increase cost 22 Cabling Well known, and lower Well Understood but yet difficult Complex and under cabling losses due to higher number of arrays, development. Cabling losses along with high cabling losses expected to be high 23 Suitability for Grid Good Good Good Technology 38
  39. 39. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 3.4 Conclusion on selection of technology Each of the above technologies has their own particular strengths and weaknesses which have played a role in our decision making. We have decided to use Copper Indium Selenium (CIS) Thin film modules as our preferred technology. These advantages and disadvantages in addition with their market availability and costing are the key parameters on basis of which we have taken our technological decision. In the section 4.3 we have compared various technologies, and justification of why we have chosen a particular technology. In the below section we have compared the CIS, vis a vis Crystalline, Amorphous technologies. Characteristic CIS Crystalline Amorphous Remarks Module efficiency ++ +++ - cSi still higher than CIS, but the difference is getting narrow Appearance ++ - ++ CIS modules are all black, and therefore very compatible with roof settings High Temperature - - ++ CIS and cSi do not have anneal effect Light soaking effect ++ - - CIS has light soaking effect. Higher than nominal power output is expected. Degradation ++ ++ - Degradation rate is almost same as Crystalline. Production cost ++ + ++ Unit production cost of CIS modules expected to decrease by mass production but not in the case of crystalline module. Manufacturing process + - + Simple processes allow a smooth and efficient production overall Environmental + - + Environmentally friendly - CIS modules do contribution not include toxic or pollutant elements Energy payback time ++ + ++ Manufacture of CIS modules require only a small amount of energy Issue of raw materials ++ - + CIS products do not use silicon, thus less affected by market volatility 39
  40. 40. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 4 POWER PLANT DESIGN CRITERIA The Power Plant is sized on the following major criteria: • Solar Power (average insulation available) • Power evacuation facility in the vicinity of the proposed site along with Grid availability on 24 Hours a day basis. Details of the design process and are presented in the below sections. 4.1 Design and Simulation projections by PVSYST PVSYST tool is one of the most accepted design tool for the study, sizing, simulation and data analysis of complete PV systems. We have used this tool to generate the most realistic energy yield simulation results which are detailed in this report. Main features of PVSYST: 1) Detailed computation of the used components (modules, inverters, etc) 2) Simulation on hourly basis and detailed evaluation and consideration of different loss factors. 3) Calculation of arbitrary orientated module planes (fixed and tracking systems) 4) Most accepted and used tool to generate simulation results for big PV power plants, as the results are based on systematic and refined approach. 5) Program with the most accurate results and functions at the market. 40
  41. 41. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh 4.2 PV Power Plant Energy Production The system lifetime energy production is calculated by determining the first- year energy generation as expressed in kWh (AC)/kWp (AC), then degrading output over the system life based on an annual performance degradation rate. System degradation (largely a function of PV panel type and manufacturing quality) and its predictability are important factors in lifecycle costs since they determine the probable level of future cash flows. This stream of energy produced is then discounted to derive a present value of the energy generated to make a levelized cost calculation. The first year kWh/kWp is a function of the: • The amount of sunshine the project site receives in a year. • The mounting and orientation of the system (i.e., flat, fixed-tilt, tracking, etc.). • The spacing between PV panels as expressed in terms of system ground coverage ratio (GCR). • The energy harvest of the PV panel (i.e., performance sensitivity to high temperatures, sensitivity to low or diffuse light, etc.). • System losses from soiling, transformers, inverters, and wiring inefficiencies. • System availability largely driven by inverter downtime. 4.3 PV power plant capacity factor The capacity factor, a standard methodology used in the utility industry to measure the productivity of energy generating assets, is a key driver of a solar power plant’s economics. 41
  42. 42. Detailed Project Report on 5 MW SPV based power plant at Veerapuram, Anantapur district. Andhra Pradesh A PV power plant’s capacity factor is a function of the insulation at the project location, the performance of the PV panel (primarily as it relates to high- temperature performance), and the orientation of the PV panel to the sun, the system electrical efficiencies, and the availability of the power plant to produce power. 4.4 Selection of Inverter and Components For a complete reliable system and to ensure high energy yield from the plant, innovative components with latest technology are selected. The inverter that is selected is of very high efficiency over a wide range of load. The inverter operates in excess of 95.0% efficiency in comparison with the requested of 93% efficiency. Design lifetime of the inverter is at 35,000 hours with rated power at 40°C. This is approximately 4.8 hours at full load per day to estimate the lifetime of 20 years. 4.5 Selection of Monitoring System Monitoring system requirement for a large power plant like 5 MW with state of the art technology, monitoring and analysis of is carried out. Few features are of the monitoring system are presented as follows: • Monitors the performance of the entire power plant (string wise monitoring, junction boxes, inverters, etc) • Evaluates (strings, inverter, nominal/actual value), quantity of DC Power & AC Power produced. • Measures instantaneous irradiation level and temperature at site. It also measures the module back surface temperature. 42

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