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TB Terminology

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Basic TB Terminology

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TB Terminology

  1. 1. TB Terminology and the Transmission of Tuberculosis Alisha Blair Nurse Consultant Heartland National TB Center
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Provide Overview of Basic Terms used in TB Prevention and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Brief Overview of the Pathogenesis and Transmission of Tuberculosis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tuberculosis <ul><li>TB or Tuberculosis is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M. tuberculosis, M.bovis, M. Africanum, M.Microtti, </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How to Determine if You are Infected with TB Bacteria? <ul><li>TB Skin Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid called to tuberculin is injected underneath the skin on the lower area of arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PPD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TST </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TB Blood Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Test that measures the response to TB proteins when mixed with Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QuantiFERON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T-SPOT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Interpreting Test Results <ul><li>Positive TB skin test reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TB Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TB Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOTT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive TB Blood Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TB Infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TB Disease </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Active TB Disease vs. Latent TB Infection <ul><li>Active TB Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TB Bacteria are multiplying and attacking a part of the body( usually the lungs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent TB Infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TB Bacteria are alive but inactive in the body </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Active TB Disease <ul><li>Active TB Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TB Bacteria are multiplying and attacking a part of the body( usually the lungs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cough >3weeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Night Sweats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoptysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Chest X- Ray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Chest x-ray is made by exposing film to x-rays that pass through the chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be abnormal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sputum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phlegm coughed up from deep inside the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smear- Test to detect bacteria that resemble TB bacteria in Phlegm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture- Test that confirms TB bacteria in a sample of Phlegm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Latent TB Infection <ul><li>TB Bacteria are alive but inactive in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Positive PPD </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal Chest X-ray ( Usually) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Transmission of TB <ul><li>Spread by airborne route via inhaled droplet nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted when an Infectious person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talks </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pathogenesis of TB <ul><li>Droplet nuclei are inhaled and travel to the alveoli in the lungs where infection begins </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar Macrophages ingest the majority of the TB bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of the TB bacteria at this time are destroyed of inhibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small amounts of bacteria multiply intracelluarly and are released when the marcophages die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TB bacteria travels through the lymphatic system and then through the bloodstream </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Potential Sites of TB Disease
  13. 13. Immune Response <ul><li>Immune system response kills most of the TB bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Granulomas Form ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TB Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually takes 2-10 weeks for +TST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune System responds to kill TB Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>TB Bacteria Multiplication is halted preventing further spread </li></ul>
  14. 14. Latent TB Infection (LTBI) <ul><ul><li>TB Bacteria are alive but inactive in the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isoniazid (INH) Daily 9 Months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>10% of TB Infected (LTBI) persons with normal immune systems will develop TB at some point in life </li></ul>

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