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Database Management System


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An overview of the Database Management System, various uses and applications of database, internal architecture of popular RDBMS servers and thier features

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Database Management System

  1. 1. Database Management System
  2. 2. Hello! Abishek DBA Practice Oracle DB SME Email :
  3. 3. More about me12 years of Oracle DBA experience Various Industry verticals Retail, Insurance, Freight and Logistics Interests: Linux, Perl, Python, C Likes: Music, Food, Travel, …
  4. 4. Database Systems
  5. 5. CONCEPTS
  6. 6. Database Fundamentals + What is a Database Management System + Database Concepts + Popular Database Softwares + Database Applications + Working with Databases + Job roles and duties of Database Professionals
  7. 7. What is a Database A Database Management System Or just a database is a collection of software programmes for managing data, It helps to STORE, RETRIEVE, and MANIPULATE data in an efficient manner.
  8. 8. Database Concepts Database Model A database model is a type of data model that defines the logical structure of a database and determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated. By Marcel Douwe Dekker - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
  9. 9. Database Concepts The Relational model Proposed by Edgar F. Codd in 1970 broke of from the tradition of hierarchical model and insisted that applications should search for data by content, rather than following links. The relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. By mid-1980s relational systems (DBMSs plus applications) became popular owing to the advent of better computer hardware. (Source : Wikipedia) By U.S. Department of Transportationvectorization: Own work - Data Integration Glossary., Public Domain,
  10. 10. Database Concepts Tables / Relations A table is an accepted visual representation of a relation; a tuple is similar to the concept of a row. It is a set of column definitions along with the data appearing in that structure. Columns /Attributes Attribute is the term used in the theory for what is commonly referred to as a column. Rows / Tuples A row is a collection of column values in a specific order which has a one to one mapping with the attribute name.
  11. 11. Database Concepts Constraints Constraints enforce consistency of data in a relational database. Rules that govern data stored in tables. Rules to define relationships between two tables. Primary Key, Foreign Key, Not Null, Check, Unique. Transaction A transaction can be defined as a group of tasks. A single task is the minimum processing unit which cannot be divided further. Transaction is completed with a Commit/Rollback ACID Properties of Transactions Atomicity − This property states that a transaction must be treated as an atomic unit, that is, either all of its operations are executed or none. Consistency − The database must remain in a consistent state after any transaction. Durability − The database should be durable enough to hold all its latest updates even if the system fails or restarts. Isolation − In a multi transactional database system, No transaction will affect the existence of any other transaction.
  12. 12. Popular Databases
  13. 13. Database Applications Various Industry Verticals + Manufacturing + Banking + Transportation + Defence + Academia + E-Commerce + Social Media
  14. 14. Database Applications Different Types of Applications OLTP ERP Systems Datawarehouse Systems Data Mining Applications Database Application Platform
  15. 15. Working with databases SQL (Structured Query Language) Declarative, Non- Programming Language used to Interact with the database. Allows to CREATE, ALTER and DROP Data objects i.e. Tables and one can SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE data from tables using SQL. SQL Users + Database Application Developers + Database Administrators + Data Analysts
  16. 16. Working with databases SQL Basics SQL Statements fall under the following categories + DDL (Data Definition Language) + DML (Data Manipulation Language) + SELECT (query data from one or more tables) + DCL (Data Control Language) + TCL (Transaction Control Language) SQL Examples create table emp( empno number(4,0), ename varchar2(10), job varchar2(9), mgr number(4,0), hiredate date, sal number(7,2), comm number(7,2), deptno number(2,0), constraint pk_emp primary key (empno), constraint fk_deptno foreign key (deptno) references dept (deptno) ); insert into emp values( 7839, 'KING', 'PRESIDENT', null, to_date('17-11-1981','dd-mm-yyyy'), 5000, null, 10); SELECT EMP.*,DNAME,LOC FROM Emp, Dept WHERE Dname IN ('ACCOUNTING','RESEARCH') AND EMP.DEPTNO = DEPT.DEPTNO ORDER BY EMP.DEPTNO
  17. 17. Working with databases Programmability Most popular databases have a feature called STORED PROCEDURES which are program units that can be created and stored within the database Helps to store business specific logic within the database which improves performance
  18. 18. Job roles and duties of Database Professionals Developers • Responsible for creating and managing application, Write code for creating and managing frontent UI • Write code for creating and managing backend or business logic • Design relational and logical design of database and Perform Normalization of tables DBA • Responsible for creating and managing databases • Take care of data security • Support DB users when there is a database problem • Responsible for Managing DR and HA Data Analysts • Work on BI tools • Create Business reports • Perform trend analysis
  19. 19. Architectural Components
  20. 20. Generic Database Architecture RDBMS System
  21. 21. Database Client Components Database Client Drivers + Programmable APIs written in a 3GL + Enables client applications to connect and Interact with RDBMS systems independent of the RDBMS implementation. + Eg : ODBC, JDBC, etc Database Native Tools + Tools provided by the RDBMS vendor to connect and interact with the RDBMS System + Vendor Specific implementation/APIs + Provides more features
  22. 22. Database Server Components DBMS Engine + Manage user connections/sessions + Manage File I/O + Ensure data recoverability and Consistency Query Processor + Parse and Execute SQL + Ensure Read Consistency of SELECT queries + Return Rows to users in the case of SELECTs + Invoke transaction processor for DMLsTransaction Processor + Begin and End Transactions + Manage ACID properties for the transaction + Assist query processor to maintain read consistency
  23. 23. Database Server Components Data Dictionary + Metadata repository + Set of tables which store data about the DB objects Job Scheduler + Manage database jobs + Monitor Job execution + Log job execution status Query Optimizer + Prepare Execution plans for SQL + Optimizes Execution plan for better performance.
  24. 24. Database Server Internal Architecture SQL Server Internal Architecture
  25. 25. Database Server Internal Architecture Oracle Server Internal Architecture
  26. 26. Database Server Internal Architecture Database Storage Logical Architecture
  27. 27. Database Server Infrastructure Server (Hardware) + CPU + Memory Storage + SAN + NAS Network + Ethernet switch + Firewall Peripheral Devices + Backup devices (Tapes) + Printers
  28. 28. Database in the Cloud : DBaaS Infrastructure + Server, OS, Storage Platform + Database, Web Server, Middle Tier Software (SaaS) + Web services, ERP, Productivity Tools
  29. 29. Database in the Cloud : DBaaS
  30. 30. Advantages + Cost Savings (Pay per use model) + Need Based Provisioning + Reduce Investments, Increase Returns + Lower operating costs + Standardization Database in the Cloud : DBaaS Technical Features + Consolidation Platform + Virtualization + Multi Tenancy + Provider Managed High Availability and Disaster Recovery
  31. 31. Database Features
  32. 32. + Table and Index Partitions + Geo Spatial Data + Full Text Search + Database Replication + Database High Availability + Disaster Recovery Database Features
  33. 33. Database Features Table and Index Partitions
  34. 34. Database Features Geo Spatial Data
  35. 35. Database Features Full Text Search
  36. 36. Database Features Database Replication
  37. 37. Database Features Database High Availability
  38. 38. Database Features Disaster Recovery
  39. 39. Thanks! Any questions?
  40. 40. Credits Special thanks to all the people who made and released these awesome resources for free: + Presentation template by SlidesCarnival + Photographs by Unsplash